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Battle of the (1798) Nile

Female 1798 - UNKNOWN

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  • Name Battle of the (1798) Nile 
    Born Between 1 and 2 Aug 1798 
    Gender Female 
    Died UNKNOWN 
    Person ID I074441  Ancestorium

    Mother Battles,   d. UNKNOWN 
    Family ID F05415  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • Battle of the Nile
      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      Battle of the Nile
      Part of the French Revolutionary Wars

      Date August 1, 1798 - August 2, 1798
      Location Aboukir Bay, Egypt
      Result Decisive British victory

      Britain vs France
      Horatio Nelson vs François-Paul Brueys D'Aigalliers†
      14 ships of the line:
      * 13 x 74-gun,
      * 1 x 50-gun,
      1 sloop 13

      ships of the line:
      * 1 x 120-gun,
      * 3 x 80-gun,
      * 9 x 74gun,
      4 frigates,
      some smaller

      218 killed,
      677 wounded

      3 battleships burnt,
      9 battleships captured,
      2 frigates lost,
      1,700 killed, 600 wounded, 3,000 prisoners

      Naval Battles of the French Revolutionary Wars
      Ushant - Genoa - Groix - Hyères - Camperdown - Nile - Copenhagen - Algeciras
      Egypt–Syria Campaign of 1798–1801
      Shubra Khit – Pyramids – Nile – El Arish – Jaffa – Acre – Mount Tabor – 1st Aboukir – 2nd Aboukir – Alexandria

      The Battle of the Nile, known in France as the Battle of Aboukir Bay, was an important naval battle of the French Revolutionary Wars between a British fleet commanded by Rear-Admiral Horatio Nelson and a French fleet under Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys D'Aigalliers. It took place on the evening and early morning of August 1 and August 2, 1798. French losses have been estimated to have been as high as 1,700 dead (including Brueys) and 3,000 captured. British losses were 218 dead.

      1 Background
      2 Preparations
      3 Battle
      4 Aftermath
      5 British Fleet
      6 French Fleet
      7 Firsthand account
      8 Recent archaeology
      9 Memorials
      10 References

      Still on the rise but not yet the primary enemy of Britain, commanding General Napoleon Bonaparte intended to threaten the British position in India via the invasion and conquest of Egypt. The expedition was also cultural and included many scientists, educators, and technical specialists — including a surveying party, as French intellectuals had long debated the feasibility of cutting a ship-canal between the Red and Mediterranean Seas. About three weeks after his landing there, a British fleet of 14 ships under Horatio Nelson, which had been scouring the eastern Mediterranean Sea looking for the French fleet, finally came upon the 15 French ships being used to support the invasion.

      The fleets met, close to sunset on August 1. The French were at anchor in Abu Qir Bay, in shallow water near a shoal, less than 7 fathoms (14 m) deep. The shoal was being used to protect the southwestern, port side of the fleet, while the starboard side faced the northeast and the open sea. Nelson had already achieved great fame, and Admiral Brueys had studied his tactics at the Battle of Cape St Vincent and other engagements. As a consequence, Brueys had his line of battle chained together at anchor, to prevent the British from cutting the line, and defeating a part of it in detail in a night action. Brueys expected the battle to begin the next morning, as he did not believe the British would risk a night encounter in shallow, uncharted waters. Leisurely, preparations for combat began. It is possible that the French were preparing to try to escape during the night.

      Nelson brought together a team of diverse men in whom he held faith and had occasionally gathered for conference during their three-month hunt through the Mediterranean for Bonaparte's fleet. Nelson let each captain to act on initiative. As the British fleet approached, Thomas Foley of the Goliath[1] observed the gap between the first ship of the French fleet and the closest land. He assessed that the chains anchored to shore lay deep enough for the Goliath to pass over. The Goliath separated from the conventional line of attack, face to face, and slipped round to the other side of the French fleet. Other British ships followed, leaving the French attacked from both sides. One British ship, Culloden, ran aground; but the remainder were able to stay afloat, and began taking the French fleet apart, one by one, down the line. The wind from the north meant that the unengaged French ships could not come up to help their fellows.

      The French flagship, L'Orient came under fire first, from Bellerophon, which received a battering and drifted away dismasted, and then from Alexander and Swiftsure. By 21:00, L'Orient was ablaze, and the battle paused; as ships tried to distance themselves from the anticipated explosion. At about 22:00, the fire reached the magazine and the flagship exploded, hurling blazing parts of ship and crew hundreds of metres into the air. Only a hundred or so of L'Orient's crew of a thousand survived, by swimming from the burning ship.

      Only two French ships towards the end of the line, Généreux and Guillaume Tell, together with the two frigates Diane and Justice, were able to escape. The rest were burned, or captured by morning on 2 August.

      Nelson was struck with grapeshot on his forehead, exposing his skull. His heroic stature was enhanced by his insistence on waiting his turn with other wounded sailors to be treated. (The headwound was also attributed as a reason for the initiation of his affair with Emma Hamilton when the fleet recuperated in Naples.)

      Returning home with Nelson's dispatches, Leander, captained by Edward Berry, was later captured by the surviving 74-gun Généreux after a fierce battle, somewhat delaying the arrival of the triumphant news in Britain.

      The battle established British naval superiority during the remainder of the French Revolutionary Wars, and was an important contribution to the growing fame of Admiral Nelson. It is also well-known for literary reasons: Felicia D. Hemans' poem "Casabianca", often known better by its first line, "The boy stood on the burning deck", is about the son of Luc-Julien-Joseph Casabianca, who died in the explosion of the French flagship, L'Orient during this battle.

      The British victory had destroyed Napoleon's fleet. Napoleon, who had already landed with his army, finished his conquest of Egypt, and went on to conquer much of Syria. But when the political situation in Paris changed, he abandoned his troops and left for France to take charge of a coup to overthrow the constitution and secured his own election as First Consul. Napoleon then crowned himself as Emperor on 2 December 1804.

      British Fleet
      Ship Guns Commander Notes
      Vanguard 74 Capt. Edward Berry Nelson's flag-ship
      Alexander 74 Capt. Alexander Ball
      Audacious 74 Capt. Davidge Gould
      Bellerophon 74 Capt. Henry D'Esterre Darby Dismasted
      Culloden 74 Capt. Sir Thomas Troubridge Ran aground, took no part
      Defence 74 Capt. John Peyton
      Goliath 74 Capt. T. Foley
      Majestic 74 Capt. George Blagdon Westcott Captain killed
      Minotaur 74 Capt. Thomas Louis
      Orion 74 Capt. Sir James Saumarez 2nd in command
      Swiftsure 74 Capt. Benjamin Hallowell
      Theseus 74 Capt. Ralph Willet Miller
      Zealous 74 Capt. Samuel Hood
      Leander 50 Capt. Thomas Boulden Thompson
      Mutine 16 Lt. Thomas Hardy Assisted Culloden, took no part

      French Fleet
      Ship Guns Notes
      Line of Battle
      L'Orient 120 Flagship, Capt. Casabianca, Blew up 1 August
      Franklin 80 Captured 2 August
      Tonnant 80 Captured 3 August
      Aquilon 74 Captured
      Guerrier 74 Captured 2 August, scuttled (burnt) 18 August
      Heureux 74 Captured 3 August, scuttled (burnt) 16 August
      Spartiate 74 Captured
      Peuple Souverain 74 Captured
      Mercure 74 Captured 3 August, scuttled (burnt) 18 August
      Conquérant 74 Captured
      Généreux 74 Escaped
      Guillaume Tell 80 Escaped
      Timoléon 74 Run aground and scuttled (blown up) 3 August
      Artemise 36 Surrendered but run aground and scuttled (blown up) 3 August
      Justice 40 Escaped
      Diane 40 Escaped
      Serieuse 36 Sunk by Orion 1 August, later burnt
      Hercule Scuttled
      Also several Gunboats

      Firsthand account
      John Nicol, a sailor aboard HMS Goliath, writes this account:

      The Goliath led the van. There was a French frigate right in our way. Captain Foley cried, "Sink that brute, what does he there?" In a moment she went to the bottom and her crew were seen running into her rigging. The sun was just setting as we went into the bay, and a red and fiery sun it was. I would, if had I had my choice, been on the deck. There I would have seen what was passing and the time would not have hung so heavy, but every man does his duty with spirit, whether his station be in the slaughterhouse or the magazine.

      I saw as little of this action as I did of the one on 14 February off Cape St Vincent. My station was in the powder magazine with the gunner. As we entered the bay we stripped to our trousers, opened our ports, cleared, and every ship we passed gave them a broadside and three cheers. Any information we got was from the boys and women who carried the powder. The women behaved as well as the men, and got a present for their bravery from the grand signior.

      When the French Admiral's ship blew up, the Goliath got such a shake we thought the after-part of her had blown up until the boys told us what it was. They brought us every now and then the cheering news of another French ship having struck [surrendered], and we answered the cheers on deck with heartfelt joy. In the heat of the action a shot came right into the magazine but did no harm as the carpenters plugged it up and stopped the water that was rushing in.

      I was much indebted to the gunner's wife who gave her husband and me a drink of wine every now and then, which lessened our fatigue much. There were some of the women wounded, and one woman belonging to Leith died of her wounds and was buried on a small island in the bay. One woman bore a son in the heat of the action. She belonged to Edinburgh.

      When we ceased firing I went on deck to view the state of the fleets, and an awful sight it was. The whole bay was covered with dead bodies, mangled, wounded, and scorched, not a bit of clothes on them except their trousers. There were a number of French, belonging to the French Admiral's ship, the L'Orient, who had swam to the Goliath, and were cowering under her forecastle. Poor fellows! they were brought on board, and Captain Foley ordered them down to the steward's room, to get provisions and clothing. One thing I observed in these Frenchmen quite different from anything I had before observed. In the American War, when we took a French ship, the Duke de Chartres, the prisoners were as merry as if they had taken us, only saying, `Fortune de guerre - you take me today, I take you tomorrow.' Those we now had on board were thankful for our kindness, but were sullen and as downcast as if each had lost a ship of his own.

      The only incidents I heard of are two. One lad who was stationed by a salt-box, on which he sat to give out cartridges, and keep the lids closed - it is a trying berth - when asked for a cartridge, he gave none, yet he sat upright; his eyes were open. One of the men gave him a push; he fell all his length on the deck. There was not a blemish on his body, yet he was quite dead, and was thrown overboard. The other, a lad who had the match in his hand to fire his gun. In the act of applying it, a shot took off his arm; it hung by a small piece of skin. The match fell to the deck. He looked to his arm, and seeing what had happened, seized the match in his left hand, and fired off the gun before he went to the cockpit to have it dressed. They were in our mess, or I might never have heard of it. Two of the mess were killed, and I knew not of it until the day after. Thus terminated the glorious first of August, the busiest night in my life.

      Soon after the action the whole fleet set sail with the prizes, and left the Goliath as guard ship. We remained here until we were relieved by the Tigre, seventy-four, when we sailed for Naples to refit. After refitting we sailed for Malta to join the blockade, where we remained eight months without any occurrence worthy of notice.

      Recent archaeology
      In 2000 , Dr. Paolo Gallo, an Italian archaeologist discovered a burial site on Nelson's Island in Abu Qir Bay. The graves contained the remains of sailors, officers, marines, women (some of whom may have disguised their sex to serve as sailors)[citation needed], and surprisingly, three infants. Subsequent work with British historian and archaeologist Nick Slope determined that some of the graves dated to shortly after the battle, while others dated from another battle in 1801.

      On 18 April 2005, thirty of the British sailors and officers killed in the 1801 skirmish were given a military funeral in Alexandria, attended by the crew of the visiting HMS Chatham. Only one of the bodies, that of Commodore James Russell, was positively identified. One of his descendants attended the ceremony, and was presented with a flag.

      One of the most unusual memorials to any naval battle lies just a few miles from Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain, in Wiltshire. The memorial is composed of numerous clumps of beech trees, which had been planted on otherwise arable farmland. These clumps are known as the Nile Clumps, because it is believed they were shaped from a larger piece of woodland (forest) after the Battle of the Nile, to represent the positions of French and British ships. Many of the "ships" have "sunk" over the years, but several still survive, and work is underway to replant some of them.

      The story behind their construction is that Emma Hamilton, mistress of Nelson, in her declining years became friends with the Marquess of Queensbury, owner of much of the land around the town of Amesbury, including Stonehenge; and, together with Captain Thomas Hardy, Nelson's flag captain at the Battle of Trafalgar, persuaded the Marquess to create the unique memorial.

      Most of the surviving clumps now stand on land owned by the National Trust's Stonehenge Historic Landscape estate.

      Nelson's Navy
      Smith, Tannalee. "30 Members of British Fleet Reburied", Associated Press, April 18, 2005.
      Slope, Nick (February 5, 2004). Burials on Nelson's Island. Women in Nelson's Navy. London: BBC. Retrieved on August 2, 2005.
      Anderson, R. C.. Naval wars in the Levant 1559–1853. ISBN 1-57898-538-2.