Ancestorium Family Tree Collaboration

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201
Herbert Green 1894–1963
BIRTH 1894 • New South Wales
DEATH 17 JUNE 1963
From
Green Family Tree. Sharon Green
https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/172259007/person/232241710374/facts
Family
Parents
Thomas Green 1844–1906
Eleanor Margaret Ebins 1857–1932
Spouse
Nettie I Moore 1905–
Spouse and children
Nettie Isobel Moore
Ronald Robert Green 1932–1984
Trevor Herbert Green
Private
Reginald Green
++++++++++

Individual Report for Herbert Ernest Green
Sex:
Mother:
Father:
Individual Summary: Herbert Ernest Green1
Individual Facts:
Birth: 24 Jan 1894 in Lambton, Newcastle, New South Wales (NSW), Australia1-2
Death: 17 Jun 1963 in Beresfield, Newcastle City, New South Wales, Australia1
Shared Facts: Nettie Isobel Moore
Marriage: 22 Jan 1922 in Dungog, New South Wales, Australia2
Children: Ronald Robert Green
Herbert Trevor Green
Reginald Thomas Green
Laurel Verna Green
Notes:
Person Notes: The Green Family Tree on Ancestry also sources this line.

Sources:
1 Karen Visser.
2 Candace Humphreys (1) Ancestry FamilyTree.
From Alan Birtwhistle 8 March 2022 
Green, Herbert Ernest (I747)
 
202
http://www.thepeerage.com/p1936.htm#i19354
https://www.clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info/genealogy/TNGWebsite/getperson.php?personID=I3724&tree=CC
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++

John Erskine, 6th Lord, 1st or 22nd Earl of Mar, Regent
Male Abt 1509 - 1572 (~ 63 years)
https://www.clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info/genealogy/TNGWebsite/getperson.php?personID=I3724&tree=CC
Name John Erskine
Suffix 6th Lord, 1st or 22nd Earl of Mar, Regent
Born Abt 1509 [1]
Gender Male
Name John Erskine
Name John Erskine [1]
Died 28 Oct 1572 Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland [1]
Buried Alloa, Clackmannanshire, Scotland [1]
Person ID I3724 Clan current
Last Modified 11 May 2020

Father Sir John Erskine, 5th Lord Erskine, b. Abt 1473, d. 1555 (Age ~ 82 years)
Mother Margaret Campbell, b. Abt 1477, Lochow, Argyllshire, Scotland , d. Yes, date unknown
Married Y [2, 3]
Family ID F472 Group Sheet | Family Chart

Family Annabella Murray, b. Abt 1536, Tullibardine, Perthshire, Scotland , d. Feb 1603 (Age ~ 67 years)
Married Abt 29 Jan 1556-1557 Perthshire, Scotland [1]
Children
1. Mary Erskine, d. 1575, Dsp - Died Without Children.
+ 2. John Erskine, 2nd or 23rd Earl of Mar, 1st Lord Cardross, b. Abt 1562, d. 14 Dec 1634 (Age ~ 72 years)
Last Modified 24 Aug 2015 14:03:00
Family ID F2332 Group Sheet | Family Chart

Event Map
Buried - - Alloa, Clackmannanshire, Scotland Link to Google Earth
Photos
John Erskine 1st or 22nd Earl of Mar, Regent John Erskine 1st or 22nd Earl of Mar, Regent

Notes
1 - Lennox being killed in a surprise at Stirling (September 3, 1571), the Earl of Mar was chosen to the vacant regency. Under him the war (between the followers of the forcefully abdicated Queen Mary and those of her son James VI) advanced with even increased ferocity, until it came to be a rule that no quarter should be given on either side. In little more than a twelvemonth, this gentle-natured noble sunk under the burden of government; 'the maist cause of his deid was that he lovit peace, and could not have the same.'
- About the end of the parliament (September 3, 1571), there came to Striviling in the night, ere the nobility or town knew, the Earl of Huntly, the queen's lieutenant, Claud Hamilton, with the Lairds of Buccleuch and Ferniehirst. Wherever they could see any that belonged to the Regent, him they killed without mercy. The Regent being taken prisoner by the Laird of Buccleuch, and horsed behind him, ane wicked fellow lift up his jack, and shot him through the body with a pistol [On a counter-surprise, the queen's party] departed the town immediately. The Earl of Mar was declared Regent, and concluded the parliament.
- Oct 20'1572
The Earl of Mar, Regent, ended his life, about three hours in the morning. It was constantly affirmed, that about the time of his death, the trough of the water of Montrose, where it runneth through his lands, was dry, the water running nevertheless above [higher up]. At the same time, a violent wind drave a great number of sheep from the links of Montrose into the sea.'— Cal.
Some events of the kind did certainly occur about the time of the Regent's death; but, contrary to all rule in such matters, they came after that event, if we are to believe another historian, who places them under November, [4]

Sources
[S5] International Genealogical Index - submitted, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Submission Search: 570414-093099155422 LDS Medieval Famil i es Unit.

[S6] Stirnet Genealogy, Peter Barns-Graham, Campbell02: The Scots Peerage (Argyll), Burkes Peerage 19 3 4 (Argyll).

[S5] International Genealogical Index - submitted, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Submission Search: 570414-093099155422 LDS Medieval Famil i es Unit'.

[S46] www.electricscotland.com, http://www.electricscotland.com/history/domestic/vol1ch4.htm.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

John Erskine, 18th/1st Earl of Mar1
http://www.thepeerage.com/p1936.htm#i19354
M, #19354, d. 28 October 1572
Last Edited=29 Dec 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.09%
John Erskine, 18th/1st Earl of Mar was the son of John Erskine, 5th Lord Erskine and Lady Margaret Campbell.2 He married Annabel Murray, daughter of Sir William Murray, 10th of Tullibardine and Katherine Campbell, before 29 January 1556/57.1,2 He died on 28 October 1572.2
He held the office of Regent of Scotland.1 He was Commendator of Inchmaholme in 1548.2 He succeeded as the 6th Lord Erskine [S., 1438] between July 1555 and November 1555.2 He succeeded as the 18th Earl of Mar [S., c. 1115] from 11 July 1555 to November 1555.3 He was appointed Privy Counsellor (P.C.) [Scotland] in 1561.2 He was Abbot of Dryburgh.2 On 23 June 1565 he was restored by charter to the Earldom of Mar.2 He was created 1st Earl of Mar [Scotland] on 20 July 1565, established by the House of Lords Privileges Committe on 26 Feb 1875.2 He held the office of Keeper of Stirling Castle.2 In 1567 he helped to incarcerate Mary, Queen of Scots in Lochleven Castle.2 He held the office of Keeper of Edinburgh Castle before March 1566/67.2 He held the office of Regent of Scotland in 1571.2

Children of John Erskine, 18th/1st Earl of Mar and Annabel Murray
Lady Mary Erskine1 d. 3 May 1575
Hon. Sir Charles Erskine of Alva+4
John Erskine, 19th/2nd Earl of Mar+2 b. 1562, d. 14 Dec 1634

Citations
[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 158. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
[S37] BP2003 volume 2, page 2604. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume VIII, page 418.
[S37] BP2003. [S37]
 
Erskine, John 6th Lord 1st &18th Earl of Mar (I003565)
 
203
Individual Report for Annie Birtwistle
Sex:
Mother: Ellen Melling
Father: John George Birtwistle
Female3
Individual Summary: Annie Birtwistle1-6

Individual Facts:
Birth: 16 Oct 1894 in St Anne's-on-the-Sea, Lancashire, England5-8
Baptism: 11 Nov 1894 in St Anne's-on-the-Sea, Lancashire, England3
Death: 26 Aug 1995 in Blackpool and Fylde, Lancashire, England; Age: 1006, 9
Burial: St Annes on Sea, Lancashire, England; Memorial Stone in Memorial mGarden atnBed D, Kerb 1269

Shared Facts: William Henry Edge
Marriage: Jul 1917 in Fylde, Lancashire, United Kingdom; QuarterOfYear:
Jul-Aug-Sep4
Children: Harry Edge

Shared Facts: John Edward White
Marriage: 19429
Children: [no children with John Edward White]

Notes:
Person Notes: [no notes]

Sources:
1 Pat Starling.
2 Pat Starling.
3 Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Christening Index, 1530-1980 (Provo, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2008), Ancestry.com, Record for Annie Birtwistle. https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1351&h=4131735&indiv=try.
4 Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Civil Registration Marriage Index, 1916-2005 (Provo, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc, 2010), Ancestry.com, General Register Office; United Kingdom; Volume: 8e; Page: 1102. Record for Annie Birtwistle. https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=8753&h=64414942&indiv=try.
5 Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007 (Provo, UT, USA,Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2007), Ancestry.com, General Register Office; United Kingdom; Volume: 10b; Page: 450. Record for Annie Edge. https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=7579&h=28800606&indiv=try.
6 Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007 (Provo, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2007), Ancestry.com, General Register Office; United Kingdom. Record for Annie White. https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=7579&h=1279924&indiv=try.
7 Free BMD records.
8 Free BMD records, Volume 9d page 695 in Scarborough recorded in Dec. Quarter 1892. Frank Thomas Haworth married Beatrice Mary Knight.
9 Mike Coyle.
 
Birtwistle, Annie (I153875)
 
204
James Crombleholme 1892–1918
BIRTH JANUARY 1892 • Blackburn, Lancashire, England
DEATH 30 AUGUST 1918 • France & Flanders
From
Wade Family Tree. ritawade12
https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/1120102/person/-52781969/facts
Military 1914-1920
Manchester Regiment 1st/8th Battalion Rank: Private Service No: 302428 Grave/Memorial Reference: A. 28. Manchester Cemetery, Riencourt- Les- Bapaume France
Birth of Child Wilfred Adams Crombleholme(1915–) 19 Oct 1915 • Aurington

Marriage
12 Jun 1916 • St. Andrew, Blackburn, Lancashire, England
Sarah Elizabeth Adams (1890–)

Cemetary where James Crombleholme is remembered
Death
30 August 1918 • France & Flanders
Killed in action Military # 302428
Burial
Riencourt-les-Bapaume, Departement du Pas-de-Calais, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France

Family
Parents
Roger Crombleholme 1865–1924
Martha Ann Bradley 1869–1949
Spouse & Children
Sarah Elizabeth Adams 1890–
Wilfred Adams Crombleholme 1915–
19 OCT 1915 • Aurington
 
Crombleholme, James (I232)
 
205
Joan Corbet1
http://www.thepeerage.com/p56832.htm#i568315
F, #568315, d. before 1348
Last Edited=27 Nov 2016
Joan Corbet was the daughter of Sir Robert Corbet.1 She married, firstly, Owen ap Gruffydd ap Wenwynwyn, son of Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn and Hawise Lestrange.1 She married, secondly, Sir Roger Trumwyne from 18 August 1295 to 22 November 1298.1 She died before 1348, Michaelmas.1
From from 18 August 1295 to 22 November 1298, her married name became Trumwyne.1

Children of Joan Corbet and Owen ap Gruffydd ap Wenwynwyn
Hawyse ap Owen+2 b. 25 Jul 1290, d. bt Aug 1345 - 1353
Gruffydd ap Owen2 b. c 1291, d. b 25 Jun 1309

Citations
[S37] BP2003 volume 3, page 3473. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
[S37] BP2003. [S37]
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Johanna de la Pole (Corbet)
https://www.geni.com/people/Johanna-de-la-Pole/6000000003210381921?through=6000000006404959017
Gender: Female
Birth: 1263 Oswestry, Shropshire, England (United Kingdom)
Death: September 1348 (84-85) Atcham, Shropshire, England (United Kingdom)
Immediate Family:
Daughter of Sir Robert Corbet, Sheriff of Shropshire and Ida? Corbet
Wife of Owain ap Gruffydd de la Pole, Baron and Sir Roger Thromwin, of Cannock, Knt.
Mother of N.N. de la Pole; Hawise Gadarn de la Pole,"The Hardy"; Gruffudd de la Pole; Katherine Musard and Robert Trumwyn, Clerk
Half sister of Fulk Corbet, Canon of Lichfield; John Corbet; Sir Thomas Corbet, Kt. and Roger Corbet

Added by: Richard Stuart Robertson on July 13, 2007
Managed by: Ken Jon Schonberg and 39 others
Curated by: Jason Scott Wills

Abouthistory
Primary Sources
March 13. 1322 Derby.
To Robert de Sapy, keeper of the land of Powys, or to him who supplies his place. Order to deliver to Roger de Trumwyne and Joan his wife, late the wife of Owen de la Pole, all the lands that they held of her dower in Powys, which were taken into the king's hands, as Roger has found the king security that he will be faithful to him and his heirs. By K.

Source: 'Close Rolls, Edward II: March 1322', in Calendar of Close Rolls, Edward II: Volume 3, 1318-1323, ed. H C Maxwell Lyte (London, 1895), pp. 426-430. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-close-rolls/edw2/vol3/pp426-430 [accessed 15 September 2017].

See Peter Batrum, http://cadair.aber.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/handle/2160/5572/Bleddyn%... (May 6, 2017; Anne Brannen, curator)

Johanna Corbet
Birth: 1263 in Moreton Corbet, Shropshire, England
Death: Sept 1348 of the Plague
Father: Robert Corbet b: 1234 in Of Moreton Corbet, Shropshire, England
Mother: Ida (AKA Catherine) b: Abt 1239 in Shropshire, England
Also known as Joan de la Pole. Also known as Joanna.

Marriage

1280 in Powis, Montgomeryshire, Wales to Owen ap Griffith, Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn, son of Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys-Wenwynwyn and Hawyse Le Strange. Also known as Owain de la Pole b: 1257 in Montgomeryshire, Wales. Died 1293
Roger Trumwyn of Cannock, who was dead in 1333
Children

(unknown) daughter b 1281 married Gwyn ap Gronwy
Owen de la Pole b 1288 d 1309, Squire tothe King. Married Ela de Audley, who married James de Perers 2nd
Hawys "Gadarn The Hardy" de la Pole b: Jul 1291 in Montgomeryshire, Wales, heiress of Powys. Married John Cherlton
Katherine Trumwin married John Musard
Robert Tromwyne, clerk
Sources:

1. Abbrev: Lewis Family Tree
Title: Lewis Family Tree
https://archive.org/stream/collectionshisto01powy#page/54/mode/2up
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hwbradley/aqwg173...
Author: Joe Lewis
Publication: rootsweb.com WorldConnect
Date: 29 Jan 2001
2. Abbrev: Susan Cary
Title: Susan Cary
Johanna Corbet1

b. circa 1269?

Johanna Corbet|b. c 1269?|p254.htm#i28629|Sir Robert Corbet Knt., of Moreton Corbet|b. c 1239?|p254.htm#i28630|Katherine Le Strange|b. c 1249?|p254.htm#i28631|||||||Lord Strange of Knokyn|b. c 1219?|p254.htm#i28633||||

Father Sir Robert Corbet Knt., of Moreton Corbet1 b. circa 1239?
Mother Katherine Le Strange1 b. circa 1249?

Johanna Corbet was the only surviving child, by Katherine, daughter of Lord Strange of Knockyn, of Sir Robert Corbet, Knt., of Moreton Corbet, and sister of Thomas Corbet who d.s.v.p..1 She was born circa 1269?. She was the daughter of Sir Robert Corbet Knt., of Moreton Corbet and Katherine Le Strange.1 Johanna Corbet was born circa 1271?. She married Owen ap Griffith, Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn, son of Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys-Wenwynwyn and Hawyse Le Strange.1

Family
Owen ap Griffith, Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn b. circa 1230, d. circa 1282

Child
Hawys Gadarn+ b. 12911

Citations
1. [S603] C.B., LL.D., Ulster King of Arms Sir Bernard Burke, B:xP, pg. 115.
Johanna Corbet1
b. circa 1269?

Johanna Corbet|b. c 1269?|p254.htm#i28629|Sir Robert Corbet Knt., of Moreton Corbet|b. c 1239?|p254.htm#i28630|Katherine Le Strange|b. c 1249?|p254.htm#i28631|||||||Lord Strange of Knokyn|b. c 1219?|p254.htm#i28633||||

Father Sir Robert Corbet Knt., of Moreton Corbet1 b. circa 1239?
Mother Katherine Le Strange1 b. circa 1249?

Johanna Corbet was the only surviving child, by Katherine, daughter of Lord Strange of Knockyn, of Sir Robert Corbet, Knt., of Moreton Corbet, and sister of Thomas Corbet who d.s.v.p..1 She was born circa 1269?. She was the daughter of Sir Robert Corbet Knt., of Moreton Corbet and Katherine Le Strange.1 Johanna Corbet was born circa 1271?. She married Owen ap Griffith, Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn, son of Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys-Wenwynwyn and Hawyse Le Strange.1
https://archive.org/stream/collectionshisto01powy#page/54/mode/2up
 
Corbet, Johanna (I040633)
 
206
Kate Ball
in the Warwickshire, England, Church of England Baptisms, 1813-1910
Name: Kate Ball
Baptism Date: 19 Aug 1855
Baptism Place: Westwood, Warwickshire, England
Parish: Westwood
Father: Thomas Banbury Randle Ball
Mother: Elizabeth Ball
https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?dbid=2446&h=3217838&indiv=try&o_vc=Record:OtherRecord&rhSource=1904

Kate Ball
in the England, Select Marriages, 1538–1973
England, Select Marriages, 1538–1973 No Image
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DetailSource
Name: Kate Ball
Gender: Female
Age: 23
Birth Date: 1852
Marriage Date: 17 May 1875
Marriage Place: Saint Michael,Coventry,Warwick,England
Father: Thomas Randall Ball
Spouse: William Kay
FHL Film Number: 555343
https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/8346433:9852
+++++++++++

Kate Kay
in the England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995
Name: Kate Kay
Death Date: 13 Mar 1931
Death Place: Blackburn, Lancashire, England
Probate Date: 18 Jul 1931
Probate Registry: London, England
https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/5796105:1904
 
Ball, Kate (I326)
 
207
Mary* Dodd Francis Ayrault from tree Schmidt Prall Family Tree
https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/163995181/person/332152970914/facts
Birth 24 Sep 1710 Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut, USA
Marriage 12 Nov 1744
Death 1778 Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut, USA
Record information.
Father Edward* Dodd (1686-1729)
Mother Lydia Flower (1686-1750)
Spouse John Francis (1710-1738)
 
Dobb, Mary (I125190)
 
208
Robert d'Arcy 1391 – 3 September 1448 • LRNY-5XN??
https://www.familysearch.org/tree/person/details/LRNY-5XN
Life Sketch
Robert is thought to have been the grandson of Henry Darcy, a London vintner and mayor of the City in 1337, who held the manor of Great Yeldham, Essex; and the son of Thomas Darcy, a spendthrift who before 1366 had sold all the family property.3 Nevertheless, the Darcys were connected with the north of England,4 and it was there that Robert began his career as a lawyer. Described as ‘of Northumberland’, in 1396 he stood surety in the Exchequer and Chancery for men from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and over the next few years he was active as an attorney in the common pleas for litigants from that part of the country. He witnessed deeds in Newcastle in 1400, and from May that year he shared an Exchequer lease of property there together with lands in Yorkshire which had belonged to a prominent Newcastle burgess, William Bishopdale*. He was holding office as controller of customs when returned to Parliament for the borough in 1402. However, although Darcy continued to be described as ‘of Northumberland’ for some three years more, he was loosening his ties with the north. His petition to Chancery against the parish clerk of St. John in Westgate, Newcastle, who had allegedly taken over his house next to the church, implies that he was not often resident there. By November 1401 he had made contact with the men of Maldon in Essex, for in that month he acted on their behalf in a dispute with the chief lord of the town, Robert Braybrooke, bishop of London.5 Between then and October 1403, when the bishop conceded to the townspeople the moot hall, a marsh, view of frankpledge, other courts and certain tolls, Darcy assumed a position of importance in the community; indeed, he headed the list of grantees. In 1406 he was a mainpernor for one of the parliamentary burgesses-elect for Maldon. During this period he and his first wife acquired property in Maldon which extended to more than 40 messuages and many other holdings, which were estimated to be worth £20 a year. Darcy’s wife may have been a local heiress, although his introduction to the area had possibly come about through his friend Robert Manfield, keeper of the writs and rolls of the common pleas, for Manfield was warden of the hospital of St. Giles at Little Maldon. Together with Manfield, Darcy purchased premises in Sermoners Lane, London, in 1409, and in the following year when Manfield decided to retire from his post in the common pleas, Darcy obtained it for life. (Several years later Manfield was to name Darcy as an executor of his will.) Darcy’s second wife, Alice Filongley, was connected with the royal court, for her father was serjeant of the King’s scullery. She may have been the widow of a Londoner, for she held property in the City which in 1412 was valued at as much as £40 6s.8d. a year.6

Darcy’s ability as a lawyer soon attracted many clients for him in Essex, and he was much in demand as an executor, trustee and arbiter. He soon formed a useful acquaintance with a local clerk named John Wakering, who became keeper of the rolls of Chancery in 1405 and keeper of the privy seal and bishop of Norwich in 1415. At the accession of Henry V, Darcy was removed from his office as clerk of the common pleas, being replaced by John Hotoft*, though when, two years later, he petitioned to complain about this, he was granted in recompense a life annuity of £60 and an undertaking to the effect that when the post fell vacant he should have it for life as before.7 The success of this petition may have been owed to his connexion with Wakering or else to that with the King’s grandmother, Joan de Bohun, countess of Hereford. He had been a member of the countess’s circle since at least 1412, when he had acted as co-feoffee of lands in Essex with her and her brother, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury. He served on her council, became steward of her estates, stood surety for her at the Exchequer and witnessed conveyances on her behalf. This concern with the interests of the countess led to Darcy’s inclusion in 1415 as a commissioner in the inquests following the death of her nephew, Thomas Fitzalan, earl of Arundel. Darcy’s first return to Parliament for Essex in the following year was probably influenced by this connexion. In 1418, as one of Countess Joan’s nominees, he was involved in the sale to Henry V of the Fitzalan lordships of Chirk and Chirksland. During this period Darcy was occasionally active as a crown lawyer, too: for example, in April 1416 with certain royal officials he was party to a conveyance to the Crown of lands in Middlesex.8 In May 1419, a month after the death of Countess Joan, who had named him as an executor of her will, Darcy obtained confirmation of his post as steward of her estates (which had been seized by the Crown), for the same fee of 40 marks p.a. and expenses as he had received during her lifetime. Darcy’s appointment as escheator in 1420 was probably made with a view to facilitating the partition of the dower estates of the late countess between her grandchildren — the King and Anne, countess of Stafford. The work, which involved an entirely new division of all of the former de Bohun inheritance was undertaken for the King by the council of the duchy of Lancaster, which co-opted Darcy to assist, granting him livery as a councillor in January 1421 and retaining him for just over a year. Evidence was heard in Chancery in the Hilary term of 1421, and the partition was discussed and ratified in the Parliament of 1421 (May), of which Darcy was a Member. After a new partition had been made the King’s portion was annexed to the duchy, Darcy bearing witness to certain of the necessary legal transactions. Some difficulties arose over the sharing out of the muniments relating to the divided estates, and the King’s Council decided that these should be examined and reallocated by Darcy and John Leventhorpe* (the receiver-general of the duchy) acting ex parte Regis, and two nominees of the countess Anne. In December Darcy shared at the Exchequer the wardship and marriage of a tenant on the former de Bohun estates. The matter of the partition was still under debate a year later in the Parliament of 1422, in which Darcy represented Maldon.9

At the beginning of Henry VI’s reign, when Hotoft became treasurer of the Household, Darcy recovered his post as keeper of writs and rolls in the common pleas. During the Parliament of 1423 he and his fellow shire knight, Richard Baynard, were members of a deputation sent by the Commons to the Upper House to declare their gratitude to the Lords for informing them of the treaty made with the Scots for the ransom, liberation and marriage of James I.10 His standing as a successful lawyer is well attested by the way in which he was extensively employed as a feoffee and executor. Some of his connexions grew out of his early years in the circle of the countess of Hereford: for instance, he acted as a trustee of the estates inherited by Thomas Coggeshall’s* son, Thomas, and from July 1422 he shared with Bishop Beaufort of Winchester and others the wardship of the new heir. He long remained on good terms with Sir Gerard Braybrooke II*, his fellow executor of the countess’s will: he served him and his son Gerard, Lord St. Amand (d.1422), as a feoffee-to-uses, received handsome bequests in Braybrooke’s will (1428), and towards the end of his own life founded a chantry in Danbury church in his memory. Throughout the 1420s he remained friendly with Richard Baynard, appearing as a feoffee of his property in Essex and London and as overseer of his will (1433); and it may well have been through Baynard that he joined the group of legal advisors to the Lords Fitzwalter, a group which included Baynard’s brother-in-law, John Doreward*, and the husband of Doreward’s stepdaughter, Richard Fox*. From as early as 1409 Darcy had been a trustee of the landed possessions of Joan, widow of Walter, 4th Lord Fitzwalter (d.1406) and those of her second husband, Hugh, Lord Burnell, as such being party to important land settlements on Burnell’s grand daughters. Later on, he was among the attorneys appointed by Walter, 5th Lord Fitzwalter, and a feoffee of that Lord’s estates.11 From 1424 Darcy was connected with John de Vere, the young earl of Oxford. When, in 1429, the earl was fined £1,000 for marrying without royal licence, Darcy was one of the ten men who stood surety on his behalf, each in £100; and he was later asked to assist in conveyances of the earl’s property.12 By 1427 he had become involved in the affairs of Joan, widow of William Beauchamp, Lord Abergavenny, and niece of the late countess of Hereford, as such serving as a feoffee of those estates of her inheritance as were held for life by Beatrice, countess of Arundel (d.1439), and, from 1430, as trustee of the lands of her son-in-law James, 4th earl of Ormond. In her will in 1435 Lady Joan left Darcy an image of St. Mary and the very large sum of 400 marks, as well as 100 marks for his wife; and she put him and Bartholomew Brokesby* in sole charge of her belongings at Abergavenny to keep safe for her grandson James, later earl of Ormond and Wiltshire. Darcy and Brokesby were her principal executors. Darcy’s connexion with young Ormond continued for the rest of his life.13

Perhaps of more importance, Darcy was also known to John, duke of Bedford, possibly entering that lord’s service through his acquaintance with Lewis John*, one of Bedford’s councillors. http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1386-1421/member/darcy-robert-1448  
Darcy, Robert MP (I092051)
 
209
Sheila M Healey
in the England & Wales, Civil Registration Marriage Index, 1916-2005
Name: Sheila M Healey
Registration Date: Oct 1950
[Nov 1950]
[Dec 1950]
Registration Quarter: Oct-Nov-Dec
Registration District: Hemsworth
Inferred County: Yorkshire West Riding
Spouse: William G P Birtwistle
Volume Number: 10c
Page Number: 697

Source Citation
General Register Office; United Kingdom; Volume: 10c; Page: 697
Source Information
Ancestry.com. England & Wales, Civil Registration Marriage Index, 1916-2005 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc, 2010.
Original data: General Register Office. England and Wales Civil Registration Indexes. London, England: General Register Office. © Crown copyright. Published by permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Office for National Statistics. You must not copy on, transfer or reproduce records without the prior permission of ONS. Indexes created by the General Register Office, in London, England.
https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?viewrecord=1&r=an&db=ONSmarriage1984&indiv=try&h=32609545
++++++++++

Sheila Marjorie Birtwistle
in the England & Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007
England & Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007 No Image
Name: Sheila Marjorie Birtwistle
Death Age: 68
Birth Date: 29 May 1925
Registration Date: Oct 1993
Registration District: Chorley
Inferred County: Lancashire
Register Number: 54E
District and Subdistrict: 5831
Entry Number: 62

Source Citation
General Register Office; United Kingdom
Source Information
Ancestry.com. England & Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2007.
Original data: General Register Office. England and Wales Civil Registration Indexes. London, England: General Register Office. © Crown copyright. Published by permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Office for National Statistics. You must not copy on, transfer or reproduce records without the prior permission of ONS. Indexes created by the General Register Office, in London, England.
https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?dbid=7579&h=2023085&indiv=try&o_vc=Record:OtherRecord&rhSource=8753 
Healey, Shiela Marjorie (I094915)
 
210
William E McDuffey
in the California, U.S., Marriage Index, 1949-1959
Detail Source
Name: William E McDuffey
Gender: Male
Estimated Birth Year: abt 1885
Age: 72
Marriage Date: 22 Aug 1957
Marriage Place: Kern, California, USA
Spouse: Rosetta Smith
Spouse Age: 76
https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/566019:5186?tid=162869321
++++++++

William Edward McDuffey
BIRTH 13 Sep 1884 Texas, USA
DEATH 22 Jun 1969 (aged 84) Kern County, California, USA
BURIAL Greenlawn Cemetery and Mortuary, Bakersfield, Kern County, California, USA
MEMORIAL ID 130941588 ·
https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/130941588/william-edward-mcduffey
https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/109329003:60525
+++++++++++

William E McDuffey
in the California, U.S., Marriage Index, 1949-1959
Detail Source
Name: William E McDuffey
Gender: Male
Estimated Birth Year: abt 1885
Age: 72
Marriage Date: 22 Aug 1957
Marriage Place: Kern, California, USA
Spouse: Rosetta Hullett
Spouse Age: 76
https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/566018:5186
 
McDuffey, William E. (I124046)
 
211
William Kay
in the 1901 England Census
Name: William Kay
Age: 50
Estimated Birth Year: abt 1851
Relation to Head: Head
Gender: Male
Spouse: Kate Kay
Birth Place: Preston, Lancashire, England
Civil Parish: Lytham
Ecclesiastical parish: St John the Divine
Town: Lytham
County/Island: Lancashire
Country: England
Street Address:
Occupation:
Condition as to marriage:
Education:
Employment status:
View image
Registration District: Fylde
Sub-registration District: Lytham
ED, institution, or vessel: 3
Neighbors: View others on page
Piece: 3966
Folio: 58
Page Number: 32
Household Schedule Number: 189
Household Members:
Name Age
William Kay 50
Kate Kay 45
Harry R Kay 25
Ellen Melling 62
Edith Hufton 23
Martha Lythall 20
Edmund Lawrence 23
Save Cancel
Source Citation
Class: RG13; Piece: 3966; Folio: 58; Page: 32
Source Information
Ancestry.com. 1901 England Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2005.
https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=uki1901&indiv=try&h=25441113

+++++++++++++

William Kay
in the England, Select Marriages, 1538–1973
Name: William Kay
Gender: Male
Age: 26
Birth Date: 1849
Marriage Date: 17 May 1875
Marriage Place: Saint Michael,Coventry,Warwick,England
Father:
William Kay
Spouse:
Kate Ball
FHL Film Number: 555343
https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/8346263:9852
++++++++

William Kay
in the England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995
Name: William Kay
Death Date: 3 Jan 1931
Death Place: Lancashire, England
Probate Date: 4 Feb 1931
Probate Registry: Manchester, England
https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/5796130:1904 
Kay, William (I325)
 
212
Konrad V von Wernigerode, Graf von Wernigerode
https://www.geni.com/people/Konrad-V-von-Wernigerode-Graf-von-Wernigerode/6000000006727839672
Birthdate: circa 1340
Birthplace: Of Wernigerode,Sachsen,Prussia
Death: 1407 (62-72)
Immediate Family:
Son of Konrad IV, Graf von Wernigerode and Sofie Stolberg, Gräfin zu Wernigerode
Husband of Heilwig zur Lippe and Elisabeth, Countess Of Mors
Father of Carda Cordula von Lindau, Countess; Margarethe, Countess Of Wernigerode and Sofie, Countess Of Wernigerode
Half brother of Heinrich XVI (Vlll) "The Younger" von Stolberg-Wernigerode, Duke and Sofie, grevinde af Stolberg
Occupation:
Graf von Wernigerode

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated: December 8, 2014  
von Wernigerode, Konrad V Graf von Wernigerode (I155491)
 
213
The 25th dynasty

The Nubian Conquest of Egypt: 1080-650 BC

Egyptian control over Nubia lapsed after the death of Ramesses II (ca. 1224 BC), just as the pharaoh's control over Egypt itself began to wane. In the early eleventh century BC Egypt split into two semi-autonomous domains: Lower Egypt was governed by the pharaoh, and the much larger tract of Upper Egypt was governed in the name of the god Amun by his high priest at Thebes. Nubia's last imperial viceroy, Panehesy ("The Nubian") became a renegade by waging war against the Theban high priests who were themselves military commanders seeking to extend their authority southward. By early Dynasty 21, most of Lower Nubia had become a no-man's land. Upper Nubia (the northern Sudan) became independent under authorities unknown.

From the meager data available, it would appear that those who ultimately gained control in Upper Nubia were people who had been little influenced by Egyptian culture. The old centers of the New Kingdom show poor continuity of occupation, and their temples became derelict.

Not until Dynasty 22 are African products again listed among gifts dedicated to Amun of Karnak by an Egyptian king. The donor, Sheshonq I (ca. 945-924 BC), and his successor Osorkon I (ca. 924-889 BC) are also said in the Bible to have employed Kushite mercenaries and officers in their campaigns against Judah. Assyrian texts of the later ninth century further note that the pharaohs were sending African products to the Assyrian kings. Such evidence suggests that the Egyptians during this period had re-established trade relations with the far south, but they never reveal with whom they were dealing. One can only assume that from the tenth century on one or more dominant chiefdoms had emerged in Nubia - again, as in the case of Kerma centuries before, beginning a process of material, cultural, and political enrichment through commerce with Egypt.

The history of Kush begins again with the royal tombs at el-Kurru, the earliest of which were rough stone circular structures, reminiscent of C-Group graves. Rapidly, however, these round tombs became small steep-sided pyramids; the narrow burial pits became spacious chambers; and the dead were mummified and laid in coffins. Why the chiefs buried here abandoned their native customs and suddenly embraced the Egyptian - and the Egyptian Amun cult - remains unclear, but the process was sure and swift. The possibility that they were being missionized by expatriate Amun priests from Thebes - refugees from the civil war of the reign of Takelot II (ca. 850-825 BC) - seems likely.

The first of the el-Kurru chiefs known by name is Alara (ca. 785-760 BC), who seems to have been accorded special status by his descendants as the inaugurator of a new age. We may suspect that it was Alara who first united all of Upper Nubia into a single political entity. He was followed by Kashta (ca. 760-747 BC), who conquered all of Lower Nubia and first assumed the title of Pharaoh: "King of Upper and Lower Egypt. " This meant that he ranked himself an equal with the contemporary co-reigning kings of Dynasties 22 and 23 in Egypt.


Aerial view of the Great Temple
of Amun, Gebel Barkal
Kashta's death brought to the throne one of the most remarkable characters in the history of the Nile Valley. This was Piye, formerly known as "Piankhy." His reign (ca. 743-712 BC) is reconstructed primarily from two stelae set up inside the great temple of Amun (B 500) at Gebel Barkal. On one he proclaimed himself king of Egypt and "of all lands" by joint authority of Amun of Thebes and Amun of Napata. At the top of Piye's monument, however, it is the ram-headed Amun of Napata who is shown handing Piye the crowns of Egypt and Kush. The accompanying text reveals that while Piye tolerated the existence of other kings in Lower Egypt, he considered his own kingship, granted by the god of Gebel Barkal, to give him emperor status over them all. Soon after his reign began he was able to install his sister Amenirdis into the office of high priestess ("God's Wife") of Amun at Karnak, which gave his family political control of southern Egypt.

Kushite control of the Thebaid was not long to be tolerated by the ruling families of Lower Egypt. By Piye's 20th year they had formed an aggressive military alliance, led by a chief named Tefnakht. Piye's famous second stela, now in Cairo and dated to his year 21, describes in magniloquent prose his campaign northward to put an end to the "rebellion" and describes how he achieved an even more remarkable success. After receiving the surrender of Hermopolis in Middle Egypt, and taking Memphis by storm, he received oaths of fealty and tribute from all his humbled adversaries. The stela is especially interesting in revealing some unusual royal personality traits: he sought to avoid bloodshed; he forgave his enemies; and he made special devotions to the gods of the northern towns fallen to his arms. Despite his victory, Piye had no interest in consolidating his rule over the north; he was content merely to control the Thebaid and the western desert oases. He thus withdrew again to Napata to proclaim his triumphs and to memorialize them on the walls of his new temple.

There is a wonderful irony in the surviving remnants of Piye's art. Here is a native Nubian prince, whose ancestors were once depicted trodden beneath the sandals of Egyptian pharaohs, who has now become Pharaoh himself, a brother king to Thutmose III and Ramses II - whose throne names he adopted and used interchangeably throughout his reign. He employed master Egyptian sculptors to depict his conquest of Lower Egypt just as pharaohs of an earlier age might have depicted a victory over Asiatics, Libyans, Hittites, Sea Peoples, or even Kushites. The cities falling to his armies are not in Palestine or Syria but in Egypt. The kings bowing at his feet are Egyptian, as are the treasures seized from them. Yet strangely, throughout, Piye presents himself as the reincarnation of the great pharaohs and the devoted servant of Amun and all the Egyptian gods.


Temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal
One of the walls in B 500 depicts Piye's Heb-Sed, the ancient Egyptian 30-year festival by which the pharaoh was thought to renew his powers. From these scenes we may suspect that the king ruled a minimum of thirty years - or at least anticipated doing so. Upon his death, he was buried beside his ancestors, beneath a modest pyramid at el-Kurru, now with a subterranean chamber accessed by staircase. It was a tomb type that would remain in use, in one form or another, by Piye's successors for the next ten centuries. Besides tombs for his major and minor wives, he also provided tombs for four of his horses, which were buried side by side, standing up and facing east. Burying horses - sometimes up to eight at a time in neighboring individual tombs - was a custom continued by each of Piye's successors at el-Kurru.

The earliest Dynasty 25 state organization in Nubia is poorly known. Like the kingship, it was probably set up to mirror the Egyptian. Upper Nubia was apparently divided into "nomes," ruled by "nomarchs," who, like the generals of the army and the religious elite, were probably all members of the royal family. Already by the reign of Piye, the principal towns of Upper Nubia were well established - Pnubs, Kawa, Sanam, Napata, and Meroe - and each would have had its modest shrines to Amun and other Egyptian deities in their Nubian forms. However, the people, both agriculturalists and nomadic pastoralists, were only marginally Egyptianized - if Egyptianized at all. The few excavated cemeteries of this era reveal a population utilizing both Egyptian and Nubian burial customs simultaneously.

After Piye's death, his Lower Egyptian "vassals" again erupted into rebellion, and his successor, a brother named Shabaqo, reinvaded to maintain control. It is Shabaqo rather than Piye whom the classical historians remembered as the founder of the 25th Dynasty, doubtless because he was the first of his line to take up permanent residence in Egypt. At this point, the kings moved to Memphis; they became fully Egyptianized and cosmopolitanized; and, as far as we know, they returned to their homeland only for burial. If they have traditionally been portrayed by historians as "foreigners" in Egypt, they surely did not perceive themselves as such, despite their different ethnic, cultural and linguistic origin. In their minds Egypt and Kush were northern and southern halves of an ancient original domain of Amun. These two lands, they believed, had been united in mythological times; subsequently they grew apart, to be united again in historical times only by the greatest pharaohs. As "sons" of Amun, the Napatan monarchs saw themselves as heirs of those pharaohs, who thus became their "ancestors." Shabaqo (ca. 716-702 BC) and his successors Shebitqo (ca. 702-690 BC) and Taharqa (690-664 BC) believed they were the god's representatives - from his southern pole - chosen to unite and protect his ancient empire and to restore ma'at - truth, order, and propriety in the Egyptian sense - throughout the land.

In their search for religious and cultural purity, the Napatan kings developed a keen interest in all ancient Egyptian ideals, rituals and traditions, especially those that had fallen into disuse - and they tried to revive them, even reinvent them. They attempted to archaize the written - if not the spoken - language. They encouraged the state artisans to draw their inspiration from the masterworks of the Old and Middle Kingdoms. They also revived the pyramid as proper royal tomb type. They undertook extensive renovations and renewals of ancient temples the entire length and breadth of their empire, and they poured their energies into making over Egypt's decadent present into the image of her glorious past.


Head of King Taharqa
wearing the "cap crown"
It has always seemed fascinating to us that, for all their Egyptianization, the Kushites made no attempt to conceal their Nubian ethnicity in art or to hide or alter their Nubian names. Equally un-Egyptian in appearance was the king's costume. The preferred crown was a kind of tight-fitting head-cap ("cap crown") to which were affixed two uraei (cobra diadems) rather than the usual single uraeus worn by Egyptian kings. Often, this was accompanied by a distinctive cord necklace, which wound once about the neck and left the ends to fall forward over the shoulders. Ram-head pendants, representing the face of the Napatan Amun, were fastened to it at the throat and from each end. Identical pendants were sometimes worn as earrings. Also distinct from Egyptian custom was the method by which the royal successor was chosen. In Egypt he was normally the eldest surviving son of the king; in Kush he was chosen from among the previous king's living brothers, sons, cousins or nephews - officially by an oracle of the god. Just as the Egyptian kings seven centuries earlier had identified Gebel Barkal as the source of their kingship, so did the Kushites identify it as the source of theirs and so justified their own rule over Egypt as the continuity of the rule of the New Kingdom pharaohs. They could prove themselves possessors of the original - and long-lost - form of kingship, which no other dynasty of their time possessed. Their era, thus, would be conceived as a renaissance of the First Time, in which all aspects of the antique had to be revered and revived.

Taharqa's reign of twenty-six years was the most glorious of the dynasty. A son of Piye by a minor wife, he came to Egypt as a youth. After a distinguished career in the army, he succeeded to the throne of Shebitqo in 690 BC at the age of about 32. In his first decade, he won significant military victories over Libyan and Asian peoples, controlled the western oases and established an Egyptian sphere of influence over the Phoenician port cities and Philistia. He was also the most prolific and original builder of his age.

Taharqa's misfortunes came in the latter half of his reign. His two predecessors had provoked the Assyrian kings by conspiring with the petty rulers of Palestine, Phoenicia, and Judah to block their military advance to the east. The effort had been futile. By 674 BC the Assyrians had brought all of Taharqa's vassals into submission and focused their wrath on Egypt itself, invading almost annually and finally forcing Taharqa in 669, after losing his army, his capital, his treasure, his chief wife and sons to the enemy, to withdraw ignominiously to Napata, where he had probably not been since his adolescence. Within five years he was dead.

Taharqa's nephew and successor Tanwetamani (ca. 664-656 BC), a son of Shabaqo, was able to re-enact successfully the achievement of his father and uncle, reconquering Egypt one more time in 663 BC, but the Assyrians returned the following year with a vengeance to drive him and his dynasty from Egypt for the last time. The Assyrian sacking of Thebes was a disaster from which the Egyptian Amun cult never fully recovered. The subsequent seizure of Upper Egypt by the Saite rulers - Assyrian collaborators - must have been perplexing events for the Kushite theologians and galling events for the rulers, who were now exiled in Napata.


The Napatan State: Nubia as an Egyptian-style Kingdom: 660-300 BC

After the expulsion of the Kushite court from Egypt, the royal family regrouped in Nubia and consolidated its hold over all their lands south of Egypt. Although their armies were too weakened to attempt another assault on the north, the kings merely ignored their new rivals of Dynasty 26 and continued to use all the proper Egyptian royal titles, steadfastly maintaining that they were still the true kings of Egypt... By the late seventh century, the continued pretensions of the Kushites to the Egyptian throne must have become almost intolerable to the new Egyptian kings. Thus in 593 BC, with an army composed largely of Greek and Carian mercenaries, the pharaoh Psammeticus II invaded Kush, met and destroyed a Kushite army at the Third Cataract, and marched on unopposed to Napata, finally sacking and burning the city and destroying the palace and Gebel Barkal sanctuary. The Kushite king Aspelta (ca. 600-580 BC) probably fled to Meroe for safety, but after Aspelta our historical records become very scarce and our knowledge of historical events in Kush becomes very imperfect.

The 250 year period in Nubia following the Kushite occupation of Egypt has traditionally been known as the "Napatan Period," since it used to be thought that during this period the capital of the kingdom lay at Napata, beside Gebel Barkal. It is now generally assumed that Napata may never have been more than the religious center of the kingdom, while the political capital may always have been at Meroë, about 170 miles to the southeast. Throughout this period, however, all the royal burials took place in the Napata district - at Nuri, about 6 miles north-east of Gebel Barkal and within sight of it, and on the opposite side of the river. The term "Napatan", however, defines the era of Kushite culture when it looked to Egypt for all inspiration, rather slavishly followed Egyptian models in art, architecture, and burial practices, and when royal inscriptions were written only in the Egyptian language with Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. All of this, in fact, may have been religiously inspired and dictated by the powerful priesthood of Amun at Gebel Barkal. During these centuries, in fact, the entire official state culture may have been held hostage to the imagined requirements of the god Amun, dictated by the priesthood, and prevented from any change that departed from the age-old Egyptian norm. They apparently believed that by following rigidly the antique practices and rituals of Egyptian-style kingship, supposedly granted by the gods to both Kush and Egypt in the mythological past, the kingdom would continue to be favored by the gods and would one day resume its rightful hegemony over the entire Nile Valley. Although the royal inscriptions of the period are not many, and little or nothing is known of most of the kings, the surviving texts are interesting in revealing that the kings travelled to Napata for their coronations and to consult the famous oracle of Amun there on the affairs of state; they also made periodic journeys of state to visit and make offerings to all the sanctuaries in the kingdom. Additionally, the kings also waged wars against the nomad tribes of the desert and the peoples of the south. Most of the time, the kings dwelt in a god-like seclusion at Meroe and upon their deaths, they were brought to Nuri and buried in huge pyramid tombs.


Pyramids at Nuri
The most important surviving monuments of the Napatan Period are the royal pyramids at Nuri. The cemetery was founded by Taharqa, and it was used by nineteen of his successors and fifty-four queens. Only five of the rulers after Taharqa are known by any lengthy historical documents; the rest remain shadowy figures known only by the names found associated with their tombs. The pyramids were erected on a pair of parallel ridges about 1 1/2 km from the Nile, about six miles north-east of Gebel Barkal on the opposite bank. Taharqa was the first king to use the site, and the special honor in which he was held among all future generations of his dynasty is revealed by the fact that his pyramid was enlarged, almost certainly after his death, and always remained more than twice the size of any of those of his successors. It was 100 Egyptian cubits (171 ft.) on a side, had a 69 degree angle, and stood originally about 260 ft. high. Generally the other kings' pyramids were half that size at the base. Their angles varied, and stood between 65 and 130 ft. high. The queens' pyramids averaged about 30 ft. on a side, although near the end of the period the pyramids of the primary queens reached 56 ft, attesting to their increasing political importance. Small chapels were built on the eastern sides of the pyramids (facing away from the river toward sunrise); and within these chapels offerings of food and drink were made to the deceased.

The tombs were cut in the bedrock beneath the pyramids, which were of solid masonry. The kings' tombs regularly consisted of three interconnecting chambers; the queens tombs, only two. When well-finished, these rooms were completely painted and carved with Egyptian texts from the "Book of the Dead." Each was entered by a long flight of stairs cut in a descending trench in the rock ledge, far out in front of the chapel entrance. After the burials, the stairway was filled in and camouflaged from the ground. This, however, did not deter tomb robbers. Although the tombs were all thoroughly plundered in antiquity, much remained in them that revealed what the burials had been like. All but two of the tombs were excavated in 1917-18 by George A. Reisner of the Harvard University-Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, expedition. Many of the finds are presently on permanent exhibition at the Museums in Khartoum and Boston.

Typically Napatan royalty were mummified according to Egyptian fashion; their bodies were wrapped holding gold crooks and flails, and green stone heart scarabs and gold pectorals were placed over their chests. Their fingers and toes were capped with gold, and their faces were covered with gold masks (although the only existing examples were found in queens' tombs, where the masks were only gilded silver). The viscera were removed and placed in large canopic jars. The royal mummies were encased within carved wooden anthropoid coffins covered with gold foil, and inlaid with colored stones set in designs of falcons or vultures with outstretched wings. The eyes were inlaid with gilded bronze, calcite, and obsidian. These coffins were then placed within larger anthropoid coffins, covered with gold leaf. In two cases the kings' outer coffins were placed within huge fully decorated granite sarcophagi. Around the walls of the burial chambers shawabti figures of stone or faience, numbering between several hundred to over a thousand, would be arranged standing. Evidence suggests that the kings were also buried with chests of valuable jewelry, perfume and unguent vessels, and other personal possessions. The first chamber also contained large numbers of storage jars containing food and drink for the afterlife.

Nuri was abandoned as a royal cemetery in the late fourth century BC. Subsequent kings initially built their tombs at Gebel Barkal, but by the mid-third century BC the royal cemetery moved to Meroe.



Timothy Kendall




 
dynasty, The 25th (I070405)
 
214
Vol 3 Chapter 17 The Culdees; Their Origin; Their Functions; Their Diffusion
Dissolution of Columban Brotherhoods, —Rise of the Ascetic or Anchorite System, —The Culdees or Keledei, —Name signifies "the Servants of God, —Two Theories of their Origin, —First, that they are sprung from the Roman Church, —Proofs: Legend of St. Serf, —First Pope, next Abbot of Lochleven, —Another form of this Legend, —Legend of St Andrew, Patron Saint of Scotland, —Legend of founding of St Andrews, —The first Ceile De, —This Theory inconsistent with the Fact that the Culdees were persecuted by Romanists, —Inconsistent with the Fact that they were the Evangelisers of the Continent, —The Culdees a Continuation of the Columban Church, —Great historic Proofs of this, —Culdees Pioneers of the Reformation.


History Of The Scottish Nation
Vol 3, Chapter 17 - The Culdees; Their Origin; Their Functions; Their Diffusion

http://www.electricscotland.com/history/wylie/vol3ch17.htm

The period we have so rapidly traversed, that is from King Constantin to Malcolm Canmore, was a time of transition to the Columban Church. The monastic arrangement was being superseded by the order of secular clergy. We have already seen that when Columba began the Christianisation of Scotland, he proceeded on the plan of planting, at suitable sites, little colonies, or brotherhoods of trained missionaries, commonly twelve in number, with one to oversee the rest, who received the title of abbot or father. These spots were the basis of evangelistic operations on the surrounding district. That district was their parish or diocese, though as yet there was neither parish or diocese established by law in Scotland. In an unsettled and lawless state of society, as was the condition of Scotland when Columba began his labours in it, it was hardly possible to act on any other plan. Solitary missionaries or pastors were out of the question from the savage assaults to which they would be exposed. But not under a settled government, and with the nation Christanised, the necessity for this mode of operation was at an end. Accordingly the monasteries, as the Columban houses were often termed, are now seen to be in a state of dissolution: the apostolic "twelve" with their abbot, the image of the great Abbot at Iona, are disappearing: the "brotherhoods" are breaking up in many places, and their individual members are going forth to select their spheres of labour according to their own predilections, and as the necessities of the country may appear to them to demand.
Other causes acted along with this one in bringing abut a change of the old Columban arrangements. The religious houses were the first to be attacked when a Viking invasion took place. They owed this distinction, one, of course, which they did not covet, to the idea entertained by the Norsemen that such places contained store of treasure. If the brethren should disperse and live apart, they were not so likely to draw down upon themselves the northern lightnings. Besides, the tendency was growing to adopt the anchorite or solitary life as a higher form of spirituality, and one more acceptable to the Deity. Ever as the evangelic idea declined and the self-righteous principle gathered strength, asceticism asserted itself. It filled the deserts of Sinai and Egypt in early times with crowds of men whose emaciated and hideous bodies were but the picture of their souls, overrun and defiled with all manner of spiritual maladies and sores. The disease was far from having reached this acute stage in Scotland; still we hear of anchorites seeking out caves by the sea-shore, or a separate cell in some island,1 or a retreat in a landward desert, under the idea that in proportion as they were unserviceable to the world and to themselves, they were serviceable to the Church and to God. Another abuse of the times contributed, doubtless, to the dissolution of the Columban establishments. The abbeys waxed in riches till at length they became too great a temptation to be withstood by powerful laymen. They first set covetous eyes upon them, and finally they laid violent hands on the lands of the greater institutions. The powerful abbey of Dunkeld was dealt with in this manner and converted into a lay-earldom, the owner calling himself abbot, but leaving the spiritual duties to be discharged by the prior, while he himself put on a coat of mail and rode into the battlefield, and took his risks of life and limb with other mail-clad mormaers and armed knights.
It is at this period, that is, in the ninth and tenth centuries, that the Culdees prominently make their appearance. Romish writers have laboured hard to invest the rise of the Culdees with mystery, and break them off from the Columban stock, and establish for them an original and independent origin. They present us with a number of minute, curious, and legendary accounts to show how the Culdees arose, and what was their relation to the Church of Columba on the one hand and the Church of Rome on the other. They trace their first origin to the ascetics whom we have seen retiring to caves and solitary places, and there devoting themselves to the service of God in what they accounted the highest form of the religious life. These men were styled Deicoloe, that is, God worshippers. This was the name given them on the Continent, where, as we have seen in the course of this history, they proved themselves zealous and successful preachers of the Gospel. In Ireland they were styled Ceile De, which signifies Servants of God. The name given them in Scotland was Keledei, which has the same signification. These three names are applied to the same people, those even known in our common histories as the Culdees.
An interesting people were these Ceile De, and we should like to know the truth about them. Those who have a faith in the legends of the eighth and ninth centuries, speak as if the truth about the Culdees was to be learned only from these traditions. The Culdees, say they, were not the development or continuation of the Columban Church: on the contrary, their rise was the signal for the fall and extinction of that Church. They were a new body, projected through the old ecclesiastical strata of Scotland to the disruption and displacement of the old Columban system. The Culdees, they tell us, at their first appearance, lived separately as anchorites. In course of time they formed themselves into communities of anchorites or hermits. By-and-bye, that is in the ninth century, they were brought under canonical rule, and finally they were engaged as secular canons in conducting the services in the cathedrals. Such, in brief, is their history, as traced by those who regard them as a new order of clerics under the influence of the Roman Church, which superseded the Columban clergy.
The facts on which this theory is based are meagre indeed, and if they did not contain a hidden meaning, which the initiated only can perceive, they could not be accepted as warranting the conclusions drawn from them. The evidence resolves itself into three legends. The first is the legend of St Servanus or Serf. This legend traces the genealogy of the Culdees through Oleath, son of Eliud, King of Canaan, and his wife Alphia, daughter of a King of Arabia. The worthy couple, long childless, were at last blessed with tow sons, to the second of whom was given in baptism the name of Servanus. This Servanus came to Rome, carrying with him such a reputation for sanctity that he was elected pope, and reigned seven years. Vacating the holy seat, for what reason it is not said, the saint travelled through Gaul and England, and finally arrived in Scotland. Here he made the acquaintance of Adamnan Abbot of Iona, who showed him an island in Lochleven finely adapted for the foundation of a new order of monks. So rose the Culdees of Lochleven. It is one of the greatest instances of humility on record, a pope becoming abbot of a Scottish Culdee monastery, and fixing his seat in the island of Lochleven.
Some additional particulars regarding the founder of the Lochleven monastery are given us by Dr Skene. In his island monastery, we are told, Servanus remained seven years. "Thence he goes about the whole region of Fife, founding churches everywhere. The other places mentioned in his life in connection with him are the cave at Dysart, on the north shore of the Firth of Fourth, where he had his celebrated discussion with the devil, and where the memory of St Serf is still held in honour; Tuligbotuan or Tullybothy, Tuligeultrin or Tillicoultry, Alveth and Atheren, now Aithrey, all in the district on the north side of the Forth, extending from Stirling to Alloa. The only other place mentioned is his ‘Cella Dunenense.’ Or cell at Dunning, in Stratherne, where he slew a dragon with his pastoral staff, in a valley stilled called the Dragon’s Den."
"Finally, after many miracles, after divine virtues, after founding many churches, the saint, having given his peace to the brethren, yielded up his spirit in his cell at Dunning, on the first day of the Kalends of July; and his disciples and the people of the province take his body to Cuilenross, and there, with psalms and hymns and canticles, he was honourably buried."2
We have another form of this legend in an old Irish document. "In the tract on the mothers of the saints," says Dr Skene, "which is ascribed to Aengus, the Culdee, in the ninth century, we are told that Alma, the daughter of the King of the Cruithnech, or Picts, was the mother of Serb or Serf, son of Proc, King of Canaan, of Egypt; and he is the venerable old man who possesses Cuilenross, in Stratherne, in the comgells between the Ochil Hills and the Sea of Guidan. . . .The Scotch part of the legend, like that of Bonifacius, is supported by the dedications; all the churches in the places mentioned in connection with him being dedicated to St Serf. . . .There is in the chartulary of St Andrews a memorandum of some early charters in the Celtic period, and one of the is a grant by which ‘Bride, son of Dergard, who is said by old tradition to have been the last of the Kings of the Picts’—which however he was not—gives the isle of Lochlevine to the omnipotent God, and to Saint Servanus, and to the Keledei hermits dwelling there, who are serving and shall serve God in that island.3
The second legend gives us, with even more minute detail—in which we shall not follow it--the foundation of St Andrews, with its monasteries and monks. We learn from it how it came that St Peter, to whom King Nectan dedicated his dominions after driving out the Columban clergy, lost his supremacy, and St Andrew came in his room as the patron saint of Scotland. The legend begins with the crucifixion of St Andrew at Patras. There his bones rested in the grave till the age of Constantin—that is, two hundred and seventy years. An angel appeared to Regulus, Bishop of Patras, and command him to exhume the relics of the apostle, and set sail with them to a land to be afterwards shown to him. After long voyaging, first among the Greek islands, and afterwards in more northern seas, Regulus came to a place where Hungus, King of the Picts, was about to engage in battle with Athelstan and his Saxons. Before the battle St Andrew appeared to the Pictish King and promised him victory on condition of his dedicating his dominions to him. In virtue of the intercession of St Andrew, the arms of Hungus were victorious, and he and the Picts vowed to hold the apostle "in honour forever." This legend, however,, does not end here. Three days after the battle, Bishop Regulus is bidden by angels to sail northwards with the apostle’s relics, and to build a church at the spot where it should happen to his vessel to be wrecked. "After many wanderings," says Bellesheim, reciting the legend, "they are cast ashore on the eastern coast of Scotland, at a place formerly called Muckross, but not Kyrlimont. Here (where St Andrews grew up in latter times) Regulus erected a cross which he had brought from Patras; and King Hungus gave the place to God, and St Andrew, his apostle, as a gift for ever.4
It is vain to look for accuracy of date in a legend. The reference to Constantin would fix the translation of the relics of St. Andrew to Scotland not later than the fourth century, but King Hungus did not reign till four hundred years after that date, namely, from 731 to 761. In a dream, the most incongruous and impossible occurrences do not in the least disturb us, or appear at all impossible, and neither ought incongruities and discrepancies to stumble us in a legend. "Some notion of the true date," says Bellesheim, "seems to have been preserved; for we read in one chronicle that in the year 761, ‘ye relikis of Sanct Andrew ye Apostel com in Scotland,’ a date which corresponds with the last year of the reign of the King Angus (MacFergus) mentioned in the legend.5
The legend consists of four parts, or rather four legends, and no little ingenuity is required to make the four parts hang together, and form one consistent story. According to the third form of the legend, "Bishop Regulus, accompanied by holy men, direct their ships towards the north, and on the eve of St Michael arrive at the land of the Picts, at a place called Muckros, but now Kylrimont, and his vessel being wrecked, he erects a cross he had brought from Patras, and remains there seven days and nights. . . .King Hungus then went with the holy men to Chilrymont, and, making a circuit round a great part of that place, immolated it to God and St Andrew for the erection of churches and oratories. King Hungus and Bishop Regulus and the rest proceeded round it seven times, Bishop Regulus carrying on his head the relics of St Andrew, his followers chanting hymns, and King Hungus following on foot, and after him the magnates of the kingdom. . . . King Hungus gave this place, namely Chilrymont, to God and St. Andrew, his apostle, with waters, meadows, fields, pastures, moors, and woods, as a gift for ever, and granted the place with such liberty that its inhabitants should be free, and for ever relieved from the burden of hosting and building castles and bridges and all secular exactions. Bishop Regulus then chanted the Alleluia, that God might protect that place in honour of the apostle, and in token of this freedom, King Hungus took a turf in presence of the Pictish nobles, and laid it on the altar of St Andrew, and offered that same turf upon it." So far the legends relating to Lochleven and St. Andrews; but we are unable to see that they throw any light upon the point at issue, which is: were the Culdees a new order of monks in alliance with the Roman Church, and hostile to the old Columban clergy which they are held to have displaced?
This monkish generation, springing silently up in Scotland, and living as anchorites in seaside caves or landward deserts, were at length brought under canonical rule preparatory to their final end, which was, it is alleged, the subversion of a church whose clergy were neither tonsured after the Roman fashion, nor celebrated Easter according to the Roman reckoning. Of their subjection to rule, we have a highly poetical or symbolical representation. "like the Deicoloe, too, the Ceile De of Ireland were brought, early in the ninth century, under canonical rule. This important fact is found in the form of legend, in which, however, say the supporters of this theory, the historical germ is easily detected. The Irish annals record, under the year 811: ‘In this year the Ceile De came over the sea with dry feet, without a vessel; and a written roll was given him from heaven, out of which he preached to the Irish, and it was carried upon again when the sermon was finished.’" 7
The gloss of Bellesheim on this legend is as follows: "The date of the coming of this Ceile De was sixty-eight years after Chrodegang drew up his canonical rule; and it was subsequent also to the publication of the letter addressed by a certain Deicola to the Deicoloe all over the world, and only five years before the Council of Aix-la-Chapelle. The legend above quoted may therefore," says Dr. Bellesheim, "be reasonably interpreted to refer to the introduction into Ireland of the canonical, rule."8 It may be so. There is a saying that truth dwells at the bottom of a well. This legend may be one of those wells in which the truth is pleased to hide herself, and were we to descend to the bottom of it we would doubtless be rewarded with a clear sight of the mystery. But, verily, the well is deep and its water muddy!
We do not presume to gainsay these venerable authorities. They are oracular voices from out a very thick darkness, and it becomes us to hold our peace and let them speak. But were we to be allowed just a slight expression of feeling it would be to intimate a wish to have these three legends supplemented by a fourth, in order to make clear some things left dubious and even dark in the first three. On the supposition that the Culdees were friends of Rome who had taken the field against the Columban Church, the history of the four or five following centuries becomes full of enigmas. What, for instance, shall we say of King David I. He was a devoted son of the Church of Rome. No one has questioned his sincere attachment to her, which indeed he placed above suspicion by the benefactions which he showered on that Church in Scotland. One of his royal descendants complainingly remarked of him that he was a "sair sanct to the croun." But it is just as true that he was a "sair sanct" to the Culdees. History attests that he laid a heavy hand upon them, spoiling them of the few earthly goods left them, and in some instances driving them out of their abodes. How are we to explain this on the supposition that both the Culdees and King David were members of the Church of Rome and zealous supporters of her? Was King David acting a double part? Was he with one hand showering wealth upon the Church, and with the other dealing out stripes to some of her best children? If it should please the Ceile De, who came over the sea with dry feet, without a vessel, in the year 811, to come back, he may perchance bring with him another roll containing a solution of this riddle.
But this is little compared with the difficulty we encounter when we turn our eyes to the continent. There a whole army of Culdee missionaries have gone forth and are taking possession of northern Europe. It is acknowledged by Romanists that the continental Culdees were a branch of the great Culdee family of Scotland, Ireland, and Wales.9 That this great army was Scotic—Scotic in birth, Scotic in dress, and in characteristics, history permits not to be doubted. In proportion as their sphere contracted at home, they turned in increasing numbers to the vast field opened to them beyond seas. In whose name do they wage this war? In that of Rome or in that of Iona? It was their boast that they had sat at the feet of the "elders" of Iona, and they made no secret of their mission, which was to preach the doctrine they had learned in that famous school, and which its founder had drawn from the unpolluted fountain of Holy Scripture. They adhered as closely to the instructions of Columba on the continent, as they had done in England, where, as Bede informs us, they taught "those things only which are contained in the writings of the prophets, evangelists, and apostles, diligently observing the works of piety and purity."10 Selecting a suitable suite, they set themselves down as a brotherhood, and went to work on the plan of Columba, exhibiting to the natives the whole economy of civilised life at the same time that they communicated to them the doctrines of the Christian faith. Their institutions stood out in marked contrast to the Roman confraternities. We have already traced them all over northern Europe,11 and have seen them kindling the light in the midst of the immemorial darkness, planting centres of civilisation where till then had reigned an ancient and unbroken barbarism, sowing the seeds of knowledge in nations which they found shrouded in gross ignorance, and teaching the idolater to worship "Him who made the seven stars and Orion." This was the work of the Culdees. They claim to be judged by their works. The Rome of our day claims them as her allies. The Rome of their own day made no mistake regarding them. They were not born in her camp: they did not wear her livery" and she showed what she thought of them when she sent her agents with the English pervert Boniface at their head, to chase them from the continent and uproot the institutions they had founded.
What, then, is the truth about the Culdees? It is simply this, that the Church of the Culdees was a continuation of the Church of Columba. The preponderance of proof from history and from all the probabilities of the cases in favour of this proposition is overwhelming, while all attempts to establish the opposite theory are utter failures. It is to be considered that from the first the anchorite system had formed part of the Columban arrangements. It was customary for the brethren at stated seasons to retire to some solitary place, some isle or cave, for rest and meditation. The practice was analogous to the holiday of a modern clergyman. The hard-worked ministers of our cities find it good to become anchorites for a few weeks once a year and rusticate in our highlands or by the sea-shore. This was what the Columban clergy did, with this difference, that their seclusion was perhaps a little more strict than their successors of the present day deem it requisite to subject themselves to. When in process of time, and by the operation of the various agencies we have already explained, the Columban houses began to be broken up and the brethren dispersed, the number of solitaries or anchorites would be greatly increased. But though they now lived apart and had dwellings of their own, it does not follow that they would abandon the public duties of their office, which were to maintain the worship of God in the churches, and instruct their countrymen. They would rather feel it all the more imperative to keep up the practices of piety and the public acts of devotion. From amongst them little bands of missionaries were continually going forth into the foreign field, and, while caring for it, surely they would not permit the home field to sink into practical heathenism.
In the historic glimpses we obtain of them they are seen acting in this very capacity, that is, keeping up the service of God in the churches. What, then, so probable as that now they began to be known as Ceile De,12 that is, the "servants of God," all the more so that the name agreed so well with the fact. The church of Dunkeld was founded by Constantin, the son of Fergus, King of the Picts (810-820), that is, about thirty years before the union of the two nations. It is recorded by Alexander Mylne, a canon of that church in 1575, the Constantin placed there "religious men who are popularly called Keledei, otherwise Colidei, that is, God worshippers, who, according to the rite of the Oriental church, had wives." Their office was to "minister," that is, to conduct t the public worship of God; and such also was their function in the "church of St Regulus, now at St Andrew."13 Not at the seats of the principal churches only were the Culdees of Columbites—for we have not met a particle of proof to show that they were different—congregated, but throughout the country there were still small communities of these religious men who maintained Divine service in their localities. In remote parts where there was only a single Culdee living solitarily, the public worship of God would not be permitted to fall into disuse.
Were we to enumerate all the places where Culdee establishments existed the list would be long indeed. Abernethy, Aberbrothoc, Montrose, Arbirlot, Brechin, St Andrews, Dunfermline, Dull, Dunkeld, Mortlach, Blairgowrie, Ratho, Kinghorn, Lesmahagow, Applecross, Dornoch, Turriff, are a few centres of the Culdee family in Scotland. Around these were grouped smaller communities, too many to be here enumerated, with others now wholly forgotten. There were then no parishes and no tithes in Scotland; how, then, did this large staff of Culdee pastors subsist? By this time the bulk of their original endowments had been appropriated by laymen, and the chief means of subsistence left them were the voluntary offerings of the people.14
"The great religious establishments which existed in the middle of the ninth century were still kept up in the beginning of the twelfth, and with the exception of Iona, were all seats of the Culdees."15 This is a most important admission, coming, as it does, from those who maintain that the Culdees were a new order of monks, different in faith and worship from the old Columban Church. The name Culdee does not appear till the year 800: it then represented, we are led to understand, only a few anchorites. But half a century afterwards the "great religious establishments," with the exception of Iona, "were all seats of the Culdees." How came a few anchorites in so short a space of time to fill the land? How came they to render the Roman doctrine so palatable to a people who had so long sought their spiritual food in the schools of Columba? How came they to plant themselves down on the old foundations of the Columbites, and enter possession of what remained of their lands and heritages? This implies both a civil and an ecclesiastical revolution. Where is the record of such a revolution? And further, how came the Culdees to be objects of aversion and hatred to the same parties who had disliked and opposed the Church of Columba? Why did Queen Margaret adopt a policy of repression, and her son David I., a policy of extermination towards them? We do not see what rational answer can be given to these questions in accordance with the new theory of the Culdees. That theory has its birth in an earnest and, we do not question, conscientious desire to show that the line of Columba failed, that Iona after all had only a mushroom existence of two centuries, or so, and that Scottish Christianity had its rise not on the bar Rock amid the western storms, but on that imperial mount on which Caesars and Pontiffs have left their proud traces. With that view, however, one authority of no mean order refuses to concur. That authority is history. Her clear verdict is that the Culdees were no new sect of religionists, which had arisen on the soil, or had been imported from abroad; that they were the adherents of the old faith which had entered Scotland at a very early period, which after a time of decay had again shown out in greater brightness than ever in the mission of Columba, but becoming again obscured by Roman innovations had found maintainers of its ancient purity in the Culdees, the true sons of Iona, and the pioneers of the Reformation, the dawn of which they saw afar off, and which, as we shall afterwards show, some few of their number lived to welcome

FOOTNOTES
1. These cells were of stone, without mortar, the walls thick and the roofs dome-shaped. They looked very like large bee-hives. A cell of this description, the abode most probably of some anchorite in the centuries under review, is still to be seen in Inchcolm, in the Firth of Forth. Anderson, Scotland in Early Christian Times, i. 69.
2. Skene, Celtic Scotland, iii. 257.
3. Skene, Celtic Scotland, ii. 258, 259. Chron. Picts and Scots, 201. Registrum Prioratus St Andreoe, pp. 113-118.
4. Bellesheim, Catholic Church of Scotland, i. 192.
5. Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, p. 387; Bellesheim, Catholic Church of Scotland, i. 196, 197.
6. Skene, Celtic Scotland, ii. 265, 266.
7. Reeves, British Culdees, p. 79.
8. Bellesheim, Catholic Church of Scotland, i. 187, 188.
9. Bellesheim, Catholic Church of Scotland, i. 184; Skene, Celtic Scotland, ii 252.
10. Bede, Hist., iii. 4.
11. Hist. Scot. Nation, ii., cap. xxvi., xxvii., xxviii.
12. "In the Gaelic, Ceile signifies a servant, hence Ceile De, the servants of God, De being the genitive of Dia, God."—Chalmers’s Caledonia, book iii., p. 134.
13. Mylne, Vitoe Episcoporum Dunkeldensium, p. 4 ; Skene, Celtic Scotland, ii. 276.
14. The existence of Culdee establishments at all these places and at others is authenticated by the oldest existing records, viz., the Old Registry of Aberbrothoc, the Registry of the Priory of St Andrews, Chartulary of Glasgow, Charters of Holyrood, Chartulary of Aberdeen, Register of Dunfermline. See also Robertson’s Scholastic Offices of the Scottish Church; Miscellany of the Spalding Club, vol. v., 73, 74.
15. Grubb, Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, i. 241.
 
Origin, Vol 3 Ch 17 The Culdees; Their (I070453)
 
215

Highland Regiments and the Wars with France: 1789-1815


http://www.napoleonseries.org/reference/military/organization/highland.cfm

Introduction
Taking the King's Shilling
Black Watch
71st MacLeod's Highlanders
72nd Seaforth Highlanders
73rd Perthshire Highlanders
74th Highland Regiment
75th Highland Regiment
78th Highlanders
79th Cameron Highlanders
97th Inverness-shire
98th Argyll Regiment
100th Gordon Highlanders
109th (Aberdeenshire) Regiment
116th "Perthshire" Regiment
132nd Highland Regiment
133rd Highland Regiment
93rd (Sutherland) Highlanders
Bibliography



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Reference Library: Military Sources
Highland Regiments and the Wars with France: 1789-1815
A Basic Primer
By Robert Mosher

(A previous version of this article appeared in Empires, Eagles and Lions, Number 48 September 1980. and Number 49 October 1980, published by the New Jersey Association of Wargamers)


Introduction
In 1738, Lord President Forbes of Culloden proposed to Lord Milton, the Lord Justice-Clerk responsible for Scottish affairs that four or five regiments of Highlanders be raised and commanded by Scottish loyalists and officered by chiefs and chieftains from the disaffected clans. Culloden argued that such an action would provide the government with troops abroad but as the Highlanders thus served, they would also stand as hostages for the good behavior of those Highlanders still at home. Culloden believed that this would make it "absolutely impossible to raise a rebellion against England" in the Scottish Highlands.
The cabinet, however, did not accept Culloden's logic or his proposal. It was left to William Pitt (the Elder) in 1757 to persuade the Government to try the scheme. The Black Watch (or Am Freiceadan Dubh) began as six independent companies of Highlanders raised by the Government in 1725 - and owed much to the traditional anti-cattle lifting watches of the Highland chieftains. Three of these companies, 114 men each, were commanded by Simon Fraser - 12th Lord Lovat, Colonel William Grant of Ballindalloch, and Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochnell, with the rank of captain. The other companies, each of 70 men, were led by Colonel Alexander Campbell, John Campbell of Carrick, and George Munro of Culcairn, with the rank of Captain-lieutenant. Care was taken at first to enlist only Highlanders loyal to the House of Hanover, though with time this restriction was relaxed for the rank and file. The Black Watch was incorporated as a regiment of the line in 1739 when the Government ordered the raising of four additional companies that with the original six would be formed into a 1,000-man regiment of foot. In May 1740 the Black Watch was embodied as the 43rd Regiment of Foot. (For an account of the Black Watch's 1743 mutiny, see John Prebble's book Mutiny-Highland Regiments in Revolt 1743-1804.)

The Taking of King George's Shilling
From this small beginning in 1739 and up to 1815, the Highland corps would grow to include some 40 different formations (and shrink as well following each conflict or period of tension). At the time of the Revolution in France in 1789 the British Army list included six Highland regiments:
The 42nd Royal Highland Regiment
The 71st MacLeod's Highlanders
The 72nd Seaforth Highlanders
The 73rd Perthshire Highlanders
The 74th Highland Regiment
The 75th Highland Regiment
These were joined in the succeeding years as Britain raised additional regiments in 1784 - for India and more yet again in 1804 - in anticipation of a French invasion:
The 78th Highlanders - The Ross-shire Buffs
The 79th Cameronian Volunteers
The 97th Strathspey Regiment
The 98th Argyll Regiment
The 100th Gordon Highlanders
The 109th (Aberdeenshire) Regiment
The 116th "Perthshire" Regiment
The 132nd Regiment
The 133rd Highland Regiment
The 93rd Sutherland Highlanders

The Black Watch
On October 25, 1739 letters of service were addressed to John Lindsay, 20th Earl of Crawford, appointing him to command the new regiment about to be formed from the ten independent Highland companies of the Black Watch. In May 1740 these ten companies assembled and were mustered into service, on a field lying between the Tay Bridge and Aberfeldy in Perthshire, as the 43rd Regiment of Foot. It was renumbered as the 42nd Highland Regiment in 1749 when the previous regiment of that number was disbanded. In 1758 it became the 42nd (The Royal Highland) Regiment of Foot. Its service during the wars with Revolutionary and Napoleonic France was as follows:
October, 1789 - May, 1790Returns to England after being in Canada (Cape Breton, Nova Scotia) since 1783
May, 1790 - May, 1793Scotland
May - October 1793On service in the Low Countries (Flanders), about 400 men strong.
1793 EngagementsNieuport
October, 1793 - June, 1794England
June 1794 - June 1795Service in the Low Countries (Flanders), evacuated with the army to England.
1794 EngagementsNimeguen
September 1795Recruited up to 1,000 men with drafts from the 97th, 116th, 132nd, and 133rd Highlanders
February 1796Five companies dispatched to Gibraltar,
Five companies to the West Indies.
August 1797 - March 1801Battalion reunited at Gibraltar and is now 1,100 men strong. Participates in several operations in the western Mediterranean.
1798 EngagementsMinorca
March - October, 1801Egypt
October, 1801 - May, 1802England
May - November 1804Scotland.
9 July 18042nd Battalion raised at Perth
1805 - 18081st battalion to Gibraltar, 850 men strong
1805 - April 18092nd battalion in Ireland.
August 1808 - January 18091st battalion in Portugal.
1808- 1809 EngagementsRolica, Vimiera, Corunna
January - December 18091st battalion returns to England.
Joins the Walcheren expedition.
April, 1809 - May, 18122nd battalion leaves Ireland and joins the expedition to Portugal arriving in July 1809, joins the main army in September 1809
1810-1811
2nd Battalion EngagementsBussaco, Fuentes d'Onoro
December 1809 - July 18101st battalion in England.
July 1810 - August 1811lst battalion in Scotland.
August 1811- March 18121st battalion in England.
April 1812 - April 18141st battalion in Portugal.
The 1st and 2nd battalions are amalgamated,
the 1st battalion (now 1,160 strong) remains in Portugal but the excess personnel return to England
1812-1813 EngagementsSalamanca, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, Toulouse
April, 1814 - May, 1815He excess personnel arrive in Ireland as the 2nd battalion, which is finally disbanded
May - June 18151st/42nd joins Wellington's Army in the Low Countries (Flanders)
1815 EngagementsQuatres Bras, Waterloo

The 71st MacLeod's Highlanders
The 71st MacLeod's Highlanders was formed by John Mackenzie, Lord MacLeod, eldest son of the Earl of Cromartie. Although pardoned for his role in the 1745 Rising of 1745, Lord MacLeod was still stripped of his wealth and lands. Therefore, he sought his fortune abroad. He served 27 years in the armies of the King of Sweden, rising to Lieutenant-General. Upon his retirement from the service of the King of Sweden, he returned to England and was graciously received by King George III.
Though still landless, his was still a recognized and important name to reckon with in his former family lands in the Highlands. Lord MacLeod offered to stake that name to raise a Highland regiment in the territory of his clan in 1777. The offer was accepted and the regiment was raised on 19 December 1777 and marched to Elgin. There the corps was embodied in April 1778 as the 73rd Regiment McLeod's Highlanders, now 1,100 men strong. The regiment sailed for India in 1779. In 1786, while on service in India, the regiment was renumbered and became the 71st (Highland) Regiment of Foot.
1789India, 800 men strong
1790-1793 engagementsBangalore, Seringapatam, Pondicherry
1795 - 1796Ceylon
1795-1796 engagementTrincomalee
October 1797All effectives join the 73rd and 74th regiments remaining in India,
Others and officers return to England
August 1798 - June 1800Officers and NCOs begin recruitment in Scotland
June 1800 - August 1805Ireland, now 800 strong (including 600 real Highlanders)
October 18042nd battalion raised at Dumbarton, successful recruitment in Glasgow earns it the nickname "The Glasgow Highland Light Infantry"
August 1805 - June 18061st battalion to Cape of Good Hope
1805-1806 engagementsLanding at Cape of Good Hope, Blauberg
June 1806 - December 18071st battalion joins expedition to Buenos Aires
January - June 18081st battalion in Ireland, reinforced to 920 men
George III confirms the title "Glasgow" for the regiment - it is now The 71st (Glasgow Highland) Regiment of Foot
June 1808 - January 18091st battalion to Portugal
1808 - 1809
1st battalion engagementsRolica, Vimiera, Corunna
March 1809Re-designated as a light infantry regiment, it no longer wears the quilt but takes on the light infantry uniform (but retaining a pipe band and Highland designation) - becoming The 71st (Highland) Light Infantry Regiment
July - December 1809Walcheren Island
1809 engagementsVere, Flushing
1810 - 1814Portugal
1810 - 1814 engagementsSobral, Fuentes d'Onoro, Arroyo des Molinos, Almaraz, Vittoria, Maya, Pyrenees, Nive, Orthes, Aire
18141st battalion to Ireland with orders for America,
2nd battalion disbanded 24 December 1815 at Glasgow
1815The Low Countries (Flanders)
1815 engagementsQuatres Bras, Waterloo
1815 - 1817France

The 72nd Seaforth Highlanders
Kenneth MacKenzie, having successfully bought back from the Government the lands lost by his grandfather for participating in the 1715 Rising - and having also declined to participate himself in the 1745 Rising - was named Baron Ardelve, in the Irish Peerage, in 1764. Two years later he became Viscount Fortrose, and in 1771 he finally regained the family title Earl of Seaforth from King George III. In thanks, the new Earl offered to raise a Highland regiment in the family lands. The offer was accepted and a letter of warrant issued on 29 December 1777. In May 1778, some 1,130 men were embodied at Elgin as the 78th Seaforth Highlanders. In 1781, the regiment was sent to India, a journey that cost the regiment 150 men who died of fever en route - including the Earl of Seaforth.
In 1786, while on service in India, the regiment was renumbered the 72nd (Highland) Regiment of Foot.
1782 - 1797Madras, India - 1,000 strong
1791-1793 engagementsCuddalore, Seringapatam, Pondicherry
1795 - 1796Ceylon
1795-1796 engagementTrincomalee
December 1797Majority of regiment's effectives drafted into other regiments remaining in India, officers and others return to England
August 1798 - 1802Recruiting in Scotland
1802 - August 1805Ireland, 900 strong
25 December 18042nd battalion raised in Aberdeenshire, its service would be confined to the British Isles of the United Kingdom
August 18051st battalion to Cape of Good Hope - remaining there until 1821 except for participation in the occupation of Mauritius, arriving too late to take part in the seizure
March 1809Regiment deprived of Highland designation and kilt
1810 - 1814Occupation of Mauritius
1814Return to Cape of Good Hope
3 January 18162nd battalion disbanded at Londonderry

The 73rd Perthshire Highlanders
In 1780, the Government decided to again raise a second battalion of the Black Watch and named Norman MacLeod, 23rd Chief of MacLeod, then captain of a company he had raised for the 71st, to command the new battalion. The 2nd Battalion/42nd (The Royal Highland) Regiment of Foot was embodied at Perth on March 21, 1780 and it in December it embarked for India.
In 1786, while in India, the battalion was threatened with disbandment and saved only by the exertions of its commander. In fact it was embodied on April 18, 1786 at Dinapoor in Bengal as a new and independent regiment - the 73rd Highland Regiment of Foot. The new regiment remained in India until 1805, at which time all fit men who volunteered to transfer for other regiments remaining in India received a bounty and the others returned home. A new recruiting effort brought the regiment up to 800 men by 1809 and a second battalion was added. Nevertheless, in March of 1809, the regiment was among those ordered to stop wearing the kilt and it was deprived of its Highland designation becoming the 73rd Regiment of Foot.
1786 - 1805Madras, India, Bengal
1805Regiment ordered home but most accept a bounty for joining another regiment that remains in India
1792 -1799 engagementsConjeveram, Porto Novo, Sholinghur, Cuddalore, Seringapatam, Pondicherry, Ceylon, Mysore
April 1809 - 18161st battalion lands in New South Wales colony, (now Australia) on 1 January 1810
April 18092nd battalion/73rd Regiment raised at Nottingham
1813 - 18142nd battalion in Germany and the Low Countries
1813 2nd battalion engagementsGarrison at Stralsund, Gohrde
18141st battalion to Ceylon
1815-1817 1st battalion engagementsKandyan War in Ceylon
18152nd battalion at Waterloo
4 May 18172nd battalion disbanded at Chelmsford

The 74th Highland Regiment
In 1787, the Government ordered four new regiments raised for service in India. Two of these - the 74th and 75th - were to be 750-man Highland regiments. Major-General Sir Archibald Campbell, then on half-pay with Fraser's Highlanders, was named Colonel of the 74th (Highland) Regiment of Foot which was raised on 12 October 1787. However, in the face of the continuing demand for reinforcements in India, the various contingents of the 74th (750 men in total) were only united at Poonamalee, India. While on service in India, the 74th was forbidden to wear the kilt because command considered the garment unhealthy in that climate. The 74th left India in 1805, arriving in England in 1806, moving on to Scotland to recruit itself back up to strength. In 1809 it was sent to Ireland. In May of that year the regiment was ordered to stop wearing Highland regalia, although it retained its designation as a Highland regiment until 1816.
1789 - 1805Madras, India
1789 - 1805 engagementsBangalore, Seringapatam, Pondicherry, Seringapatam, Ahmednaggar, Assaye, Argaum, Gwalighur
February 1806Arrives in England and then moves to Scotland
1809Ireland
1809Walcheren
1810 - 1814Peninsula
1810 - 1814 engagementsBussaco, Fuentes d'Onoro, Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, San Christobal, Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Orthes, Toulouse
1814 - 1818Ireland

The 75th Highland Regiment
The 75th (Highland) Regiment of Foot, like the 74th, was one of the four regiments raised for service in India, being raised on 12 October 1787. It was embodied at Stirling in June 1788 with Robert Abercromby of Tullibody as Colonel (younger brother of Sir Ralph Abercromby), and left for India soon afterward. In 1806 it was ordered home, leaving behind those men volunteering to remain in India with other regiments. It was ordered to stop wearing the kilt in 1809 and became the 75th Regiment of Foot.
1790 - 1806India
1791 - 1799 engagementsMalabar Coast Operations, Seringapatam, Mysore, Seringapatam
1806England
1809Ordered to cease wearing the kilt
1812To garrison duty in Sicily

The 78th Highlanders - The Ross-shire Buffs
When war with France broke out in 1793, Francis Humberstone MacKenzie of Seaforth, lineal descendant of the old earls and a cousin of the newly restored Earl of Seaforth, offered for the third time to raise a Highland regiment on his estates in Ross-shire and the Hebrides. This offer was accepted by a letter of warrant on 8 March 1793. Recruits poured in rapidly and on July 10, 1793 the 78th (Highland) Regiment of Foot was embodied at Fort George. In July 1794 King George III authorized the regimental title the 78th (Highland) Regiment of Foot or The Ross-shire Buffs.
September, 1793 - September, 1794 Guernsey

10 February, 17942nd battalion authorized, embodied in June at Fort George
August, 1794 - April, 17952nd battalion in England
September, 1794 - April, 17951st battalion in the Low Countries (Flanders)
1794 engagementNijmegen
April, 1795 - January, 17961st battalion returns to England and then joins the abortive expedition to La Vendee region of France
April, 1795 - June, 17962nd battalion sends six companies to Cape of Good Hope
June, 1796 - February, 17971st battalion to Cape of Good Hope. There the two battalions are eventually amalgamated, the 2nd battalion disbanded, and the excess personnel return to England with 1st battalion now 1,113 men (970 Highlanders, 129 Lowlanders, 14 English and Irish
February, 1797 - April, 18111st battalion to India
1803 engagementsAssaye, Ahmednaggar, Argaum (1st battalion)
December, 1804New 2nd battalion authorized (17 May 1804) and 850 men are recruited and trained for six months at Hythe under Sir John Moore
September, 1805 - March, 18072nd battalion to the Mediterranean, Gibraltar
June, 18062nd battalion to Sicily and southern Italy
1806 engagementMaida (2nd battalion)
March - September, 18072nd battalion in Egypt
September, 1807 - 18082nd battalion in Sicily
Spring, 1808 - December, 18132nd battalion in England, 370 men drafted for the 1st battalion in India are sent to join the Walcheren expedition
April - September, 18111st battalion in Java with 1,027 men (835 Highlanders, 184 Lowlanders, 8 English, 9 Irish)
September, 18111st battalion in India
1811 - 18161st battalion in Java
1811 - 1816 engagementsWeltervreeden, Samarang
December, 1813 - 18142nd battalion in Holland, 400 strong
1814 engagementMerxem
1814-18162nd battalion remains in Holland and Belgium, remains in reserve at Nieuport during the battle of Waterloo
18162nd battalion disbanded, men sent to the 1st battalion in India

The 79th Cameron Highlanders
A letter of warrant approved on 17 August 1793 (finally after repeated offers) authorized Major Alan Cameron of Erracht to raise a regiment of Highlanders in Lochaber. In America during the American War for Independence (and eluding the vengeance of the fellow clansmen of a dueling victim - the brother-in-law of his married lover - killed in 1772), Cameron held a commission in the Queen's Royal Regiment of Rangers. He was taken prisoner by the Americans and held for two years. By 1793 he was a half-pay lieutenant of dragoons in Banastre Tarleton's British Legion. In an exception to the common practice of the times, no government bounty was offered and Cameron had to rely upon his own purse and influence, as well as those of the family of his newly wedded bride - and those of friends.
The regiment was formally embodied at Stirling in January 1794 as the 79th Regiment of Foot (Cameronian Volunteers). Later, it was recruited up to a newly authorized strength of 1,000 men by the extreme measure of going to Ireland. Cameron was so determined to have a "real" Highland corps that he enlisted only Gaelic speakers, and the 79th was long known as the "Cia mar thas" - from the Gaelic greeting used by Erracht with his troops. The regiment was almost immediately sent to the Low Countries.
When the regiment returned to England in 1795 to make up its heavy losses in the recent campaign, Erracht narrowly held off an attempt to draft his men to fill out other depleted regiments. Citing assurances in his Letter of Service that specified that the 79th would not be drafted, he finally told the Duke of York, then commander-in-chief, "To draft the 79th is more than you or your royal father dare do." When told that the regiment was certain thereby to be sent to the West Indies, Cameron angrily replied, "You may tell the King, your father, from me, that he may send us to Hell if he likes, and I'll go at the head of them, but he daurna draft us!"
The 79th was saved - and went to Martinique in the West Indies, suffering greatly in that climate until 1797. In July of that year an offer was made to those men fit for duty to volunteer for other corps, with those wanting to return to England joining the Black Watch, which was returning to Europe. Some 200 did so while another dozen joined other regiments. Cameron and his officers returned to Scotland and had soon recruited 780 new men, who assembled at Stirling, in June 1799. Later, in the Low Countries, after the engagement at Ergmont-op-Zee - the Duke of York addressed the commander of the 79th, saying, "Major MacLean, nothing could do the Regiment more credit than its conduct yesterday," thus bringing peace between the Duke and the regiment.
January - July 1794Ireland
August 1794 - 1795The Low Countries (Flanders)
1794 engagementNijmegen
1795England, and recruitment back up to strength
1795 - 1797Martinique, West Indies
September, 1798 - 1799Guernsey
August - October, 1799Expedition to the Helder, Holland
1799 engagementErgmont-op-Zee
August 1800Expedition against Cadiz and Ferrol, Spain
March, 1801Egypt
1801 engagementsAboukir Bay, Mandora, Alexandria, Cairo
1802Dundee, Scotland
1803 -1805Ireland
18042nd Battalion is formed and embodied for service after inspection at Stirling on April 3, 1805
1804King George authorizes re-titling the regiment as the 79th Regiment of Foot (Cameronian Highlanders)
1806Regiment re-titled the 79th Regiment of Foot or Cameron Highlanders
1807Expedition to Copenhagen and Sweden
August, 1808 - January 18091st Battalion to Portugal
1809 engagementCorunna
September - December, 18091st Battalion to Walcheren Island
1809 engagementFlushing
18101st Battalion to the Peninsula
1810 - 1814 engagementsCadiz, Bussaco, Fuentes d'Onoro, Salamanca, Burgos. Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Toulouse
1814 - 18151st Battalion to Cork, Ireland awaiting transport to North America
May, 18151st Battalion to Belgium
1815 engagementsQuatres Bras, Waterloo
25 December 18152nd battalion disbanded at Dundee Barracks
1815 - 18181st Battalion in Paris

The 97th Inverness-shire aka Strathspey Regiment
Sir James Grant, who had previously raised the Grant Strathspey Fencibles (who mutinied at least twice during their brief existence), was authorized in 1794 to raise a 1,000 man Highland regiment of the line. Raised on 8 February 1794 and embodied at Elgin, the regiment has been identified by different sources as the Strathspey and as the Inverness-shire Regiment, possibly a confusion arising from Grant's other recruiting activities in the same area. The new regiment went to England that same year and then briefly to Guernsey. While stationed on Guernsey, it served as marines on board the ships of the Channel Fleet for a few more months. On 24 December 1795, the regiment was disbanded as the officers and men were drafted into other regiments (many into other regiments serving as marines) and the flank companies were transferred to the Black Watch, which was then embarking for the West Indies.

The 98th Argyll Regiment
In 1794, King George III asked John, Fifth Duke of Argyll, a General and Colonel of the Scots Guards, to raise an Argyll regiment with an establishment of 1,102 officers and men. Recruits were to be engaged for unlimited service and "levy-money" was granted for 1,064 men at the rate of five guineas per man. Authorized on 10 February 1794 the new regiment - the 98th (Argyll Highlanders) Regiment of Foot - was assembled and inspected at Stirling on May 26, 1794 with strength of 738 all ranks. In June the regiment was dispatched to Netley and in July the King at last approved the list of officers, which reportedly had been misplaced.
5 May 1795 - 1802Cape of Good Hope
1798Renumbered as the 91st (Argyll Highlanders) Regiment of Foot
1802 - 18071st battalion in England
1 August 18042nd battalion raised in the area of Perth, Argyll, and Bute
1805Hanover
1807 - June, 18081st Battalion in Ireland
June, 1808 - January, 1809Peninsula
1808 - 1809 engagementsRolica (in reserve), Vimiera, Corunna, Talavera
1809The 91st is ordered to cease wearing the kilt and is deprived of its Highland titles - retitled the 91st Regiment of Foot
September - December, 1809Walcheren (wearing tartan trews or trousers)
1812 - 1814Peninsula
1812 - 1814 engagementsPyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, Toulouse
18142nd battalion to Germany, Holland
1814 engagementBergen op zoom
1815The Low Countries and France
1815 engagementsWaterloo (but on the extreme right wing and did not see action)
25 December 18152nd battalion is disbanded at Perth
In 1809 the regiment was deprived of its Highland and Argyll designations as well as the right to wear the kilt. During the 1809 Walcheren campaign, the regiment wore its newly issued tartan made-up as trews (trousers) and a low flat bonnet with a feather on one side. In 1810, the regiment was ordered into the standard line infantry uniform. However, it kept its kilted pipe band, at the officers' expense, at least until the Battle of Toulouse in 1814.

The 100th Gordon Highlanders
By a letter of warrant dated 10 February 1794, the Government accepted an offer from George Gordon, Marquis of Huntly and eldest son of the 4th Duke of Gordon, and authorized him to raise a Highland regiment. The Duke and Duchess and the Marquis all actively recruited for the regiment and filled all positions in the regiment from their estates and the surrounding area north and west of Aberdeen. It is widely recounted that the irresistible inducements offered by the Duchess, accompanied by six pipers, included a guinea bounty and a kiss. On June 24, 1794 the regiment was embodied as the 100th (Gordon Highlanders) Regiment of Foot and embarked for England in July.
September, 1795 - June, 1795Gibraltar
June, 1795 - September 1796Corsica and Elba
September, 1796 - 1799Gibraltar
1798Re-titled the 92nd (Highland) Regiment of Foot
1798 - 1799England, briefly in Ireland, and Holland
1799 engagementErgmont-op-Zee
May 1800 - March 1801Minorca - after participating in the aborted La Vendèe expedition.
1801 engagementMandora
March, 1801 - January, 1802Egypt
January, 1802 - 1803Ireland
1803 - 1807England.
2nd Battalion raised on 24 November 1803 and sent to Ireland.
18071st Battalion - Copenhagen
1808 - January 1809Part of the abortive expedition to Sweden, then Portugal
1809 engagementCorunna
September - December, 1809Walcheren expedition
1810 - 1814Portugal
1810 - 1813 engagementsFuentes d'Onoro, Almaraz, Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nive, Orthes
1814Belgium
2nd Battalion disbanded in Edinburgh on October 24
18151st Battalion in Low Countries
1815 engagementQuatres Bras, Waterloo
The 92nd served with utmost gallantry during the Waterloo campaign, when it lost its distinguished Colonel, John Cameron-Younger of Fassifern. Among the many stories of its exploits, the most famous is of its charge with the Scots Greys. The Gordons opened ranks to allow the Greys to pass through, but then charged with them - the Gordons traditionally reported to be have been clinging to the stirrups of the former, shouting "Scotland Forever!"

The 109th (Aberdeenshire) Regiment
Alexander Leith-Hay, a half-pay officer, offered again and was finally authorized on April 12, 1794 to raise a new Highland regiment from the lowlands of eastern Aberdeenshire. Sent to the Channel Islands, the regiment was allocated for service in the West Indies but in August 1795 it was instead drafted into the 53rd Regiment, which did go to the West Indies in 1796.

The 116th "Perthshire" Regiment
On 10 February 1794 a regiment under the designation of the 116th (Perthshire Highlanders) Regiment was raised by Major General Alexander Campbell of Monzie. After being briefly stationed in Ireland, the men were drafted into the 42nd (Black Watch) Regiment and the regiment was disbanded in 1795. Some officers who could not be immediately accommodated with new posts remained on the regiment's roll at full pay until provided for in other regiments.

The 132nd Highland Regiment
The 132nd Regiment was raised on 11 September 1794 by Colonel Duncan Cameron of Cullart, but was soon broken up and its members drafted into the 42nd (Black Watch) Regiment.

The 133rd Highland Regiment
The 133rd Highland Regiment (Inverness Volunteers) was raised by Colonel Simon Fraser on 22 August 1794. Like the 132nd, it was soon reduced and its members drafted into other regiments in August 1795 - probably before it had been fully raised.

The 93rd (Sutherland) Highlanders
Raised under a May 1800 letter of service granted to General Wemyss, former commander of the 2nd and 3rd Sutherland Fencibles, this was briefly known as Wemyss' Regiment. Its initial strength was 630, subsequently augmented to 800 and to 1,000 men and the regiment was taken into service in September as the 93rd Highlanders.
The Regiment's raising was clearly different from the normal practice of the time. A census had been taken on the estates of the Countess of Sutherland, her agents requested that a certain proportion of the able-bodied men of the tenants enlist, as a test of their duty to the Countess and their loyalty to the Sovereign. The ranks were quickly filled, mostly with veterans of the 3rd Sutherland Fencibles, which had been disbanded two years earlier. Many were sons of highly respectable farmers, while the officers were mostly gentlemen well connected with Sutherland and adjacent counties. Upon enlistment the recruits were allowed to return home until such time as they were summoned to report. In August 1800, these 600 men were assembled and marched to Inverness for inspection, without a single absentee.
Upon completion of its service in 1802, the regiment returned to Scotland and was originally to be disbanded there, but the resumption of the war with France resulted in the withdrawal of that order. In 1813, a 2nd Battalion was formed at Inverness, destined for the Duke of Wellington's army in France. However, it was instead sent to Newfoundland after the Peace of 1814. It remained there for 16 months before returning to Scotland and being disbanded in December 1815.
September, 1800 - September, 1802Guernsey
September, 1802 - February, 1803Aberdeen, Scotland
February, 1803 - August, 1805Ireland
August, 1805 - August, 1814Sailed from Cork, Ireland for the Cape of Good Hope
27 May 18132nd battalion raised at Inverness for Wellington's Army in France
September 1814 - January 18152nd battalion sent to Newfoundland
1814 - 1815 engagement1st battalion at New Orleans
18151st battalion in Ireland
December, 18152nd battalion disbanded in Scotland
NB: Some sources have reported that the 94th (Scots Brigade) Regiment of Foot, taken into British service in 1803 after approximately two centuries in the service of Holland, was a Highland regiment. I have found no first hand sources to confirm this and many secondary sources that contradict it. One source specifically stated that the regiment was recruited in the Lowlands and never wore a kilt in either Dutch or British service. In 1881 it was in fact paired with the Irish 88th (Connaught Rangers) Regiment of Foot to form The Connaught Rangers - disbanded in 1922.

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Mutiny - Highland Regiments in Revolt, 1743 - 1804. John Prebble. © 1975 John Prebble. Penguin Books, New York
18th Century Highlanders, Osprey Men at Arms Series No 261. Stuart Reid, Bryan Foster. Ed. Martin Windrow. © 1993 Osprey Publishing, Ltd. Osprey Publishing Ltd, London.
Wellington's Highlanders, Osprey Men at Arms Series No 253. Stuart Reid, Bryan Foster. Ed. Martin Windrow. © 1992 Reed International Books, Ltd. London.
A Register of the Regiments and Corps of the British Army, The ancestry of the regiments and corps of the Regular Establishment of the Army. Edited by Arthur Swinson. © Archive Press Ltd 1972. The Archive Press, London.
The Regiments and Uniforms of the British, Portuguese, Spanish, Brunswick, and Netherlandish Armies 1802-1815; R.L. Yaple; © 1975 R.L. Yaple; Der Kriegspielers, Dayton, Ohio
Additional Sources:
A History of the Regiments and Uniforms of the British Army. Major R. Money Barnes. © 1972 Sphere Books Limited, London.
The Uniforms and History of the Scottish Regiments. Major R. Money Barnes. © 1972 Sphere Books Limited, London.
The Records and Badges of the British Army. Henry Manners Chichester and George Burges-Short. © 1970 Frederick Muller Ltd., London.
Lineage Book of the British Army. J. M. B. Frederick, © 1968 Hope Farm Press, Cornwallville NY.
The History of the British Army. John Fortescue. 1910-1912 Macmillan & Co. London.
War Office, Army Lists, 1792-1815. Great Britain.
The Battle Honours of the British and Indian Armies 1695-1914. N. B Leslie. © 1970 Leo Cooper, London.
Scots Kith And Kin, revised 2nd Edition, Neill & Company Ltd. Edinburgh N.D.

Placed on NapoleonSeries.org November 2003

 
Regiments, Highland and the Wars with France (I070450)
 
216
Wortley Hall was the ancestral home of the Earls of Wharncliffe – the Lords of the Manor of Wortley. The earliest recording being Alnus de Wortley, mentioned in the Pipe Rolls for 1165. Sir Thomas Wortley, born in 1440 lived in the manor Wortley, believed to be Wortley Hall. His grandson Sir Richard Wortley rebuilt Wortley Hall in 1586.

During the English civil war Sir Francis Wortley commanded a loyalist garrison at nearby Tankersley, and led the battle on Tankersley moor where he was captured by the Roundheads and taken to the Tower of London.

Wortley Hall fell into decay until the mid 18th century. When Edward Wortley commissioned the rebuilding of the hall. In 1800, James Archibold Stuart Wortley and his wife Caroline Creighton should have taken up residence, but were unable to do so because for some reason the architect had omitted to include a staircase. The planning, landscaping, ornamental planting, and the ultimate beauty of the current grounds are attributed to Lady Caroline.

http://www.wortleyhall.com/history.php 
Wortley, Francis (Sir) 1st Bt of Wortley (I036691)
 
217
My McDowell Family |

Mhic Dhu Ghaill ...the dark stranger
the surname Mhic Dhu Ghaill
(MacDougall/McDowell) sounds like in the ancient tongue (Scots Gaelic


Once upon a time, a member of our family was asked… “Where do the MacDowalls come from?" His quick response was… “We've always been here. The MacDowalls are older than the sun”. This explanation of the McDowell origins is reminiscent of that of our Irish cousins, the O'Neills (Ui Niell), of whom it is said “…cannot be traced back to Noah, because The O'Neill' had his own boat”. Exaggerations notwithstanding, both families are indeed ancient.


The MacDowall/McDowell family name is from the Gaelic “mhic dhu ghaill”. It is derived from the personal name Dougall (or its variants Duegald, Dhugal, Dugall, Douwal, and Dowall) from the Gaelic “dhu ghaill”, meaning `dark (or swarthy) stranger'. It was used as a descriptive name for an individual or to refer to the Danes, (as opposed to “fion ghaill” meaning `fair stranger' used to describe Norsemen). Mac, M', Mc, or Mhic, also from Gaelic, mean “son of”. The “dhu” is pronounced “khoo” as in “who”, sometimes with a very soft “K” sound in front. The “gh” (as in “ghaill”, from Gaelic,) is pronounced as a very soft “v” or is silent altogether. The mutation to a “w” was an anglicization introduced under our fifth cousin King Edward I “Longshanks” of England (1272-1307) because of the difficulty incurred by the English in pronouncing the Gaelic version. The “e” (in the “ell” at the end of the name) is the Irish spelling. In present day Scotland, the predominant pronunciation of the name is MACK DOOL. The surname McDowell is the 626th most common surname in the United States, and is most often pronounced MAC DAH-WELL.


The patronymic namesake ancestor of the MacDowalls is thought to have been Duegald de Galloway, who was killed in our family's ancient homeland of Galloway Scotland in 1185. Duegald was a younger son of Uchtred, the 2nd Lord of Galloway and the grandson of Prince Fergus de Galloway, 1st Lord of Galloway and his wife Princess Elizabeth, the natural daughter of King Henry I (Henry Beauclerc) of England (1068-1135) and thereby, the granddaughter of King William I (William the Conqueror) of England (1027-1087) - who descended from the Dukes of Normandy and Rolf the Dane (d. 927). However, the name could be related to a much earlier historical personage by name of Douval (Dowal or Dovallus), who according to historians also lived in Galloway, in southwest Scotland, as early as 232 B.C (but probably a more realistic date for this is around 730 A.D.). Douvall was recorded by Roman historians for the act of having killed the despotic King Northathus. However, the family line itself can be traced at least as far back as about 200 B.C. as descending from Prince Fiacha Firmara of Eire, according to the ancient Irish chroniclers in the Book of Ballymote.


The first recorded written instance of the McDowell-like surname was by one Fergus McDhuile who was a juror at an inquest at Berwick in 1296. Before that, the territorial name de Galloway was used. Additional variations in the spelling of the name include a recording in 1306 by Fergus MacDowile (a witness to a charter by William, Lord of Douglas); a Duncan McDuel in 1307; and in 1312 by Sir Dougal M'Douwille (sheriff of Dumfries and Constable of the Castle) and his brother Fergus M'Douwille; in 1416, by a Gilbert Macduyl; in 1515, by Uhtred Mcduwell; and by another Uhtred McDow-gall in 1617. Successive changes to the name include: In 1547, the name was spelled M'Douell; in 1615 M'dule, and in 1684 spelled McDoul. By the year 1700, it had become McDowell or McDowal in Ulster (Northern Ireland), McDowell in America, and MacDowall, MacDougall, or McDouall in Scotland. Other variations and spellings include McDowyl, McDougal, McDougald, MacDougall, McDugald, Dole, Dow (or Dowl), Doyle, Madole, and McDool (using either the Mc or Mac, or dropping it entirely), in addition to the original Gaelic sounds retained in the names variants of MacCool and MacKown. Also, one branch of the family uses the original territorial designation based on “de Galloway” - Galloway.


One of the things not established is why the change of surname occurred from the territorial designation of de Galloway to the patronymic MacDowall. The latter was apparently adopted by the descendants of Duegald (or Dougal) de Galloway, the younger brother of Roland de Galloway and thereby the uncle to both Alan de Galloway, last Lord of Galloway of that line, and Thomas de Galloway, jure uxoris Earl of Atholl. Perhaps it was because the lordship had passed into the hands of the de Balliol family on the marriage of Alan's ultimate heiress, Devorguilla de Galloway to John de Balliol of Barnard Castle, county Durham and the territorial name was considered to have become inappropriate to earlier stirps (descendant lines). It is probable that from Duegald, if not from Alan's natural son Thomas, the three main families descend. Macdowall of Garthland, the McDoualls of Logan and Freugh, as well as the Macdougalls of Makerston and MacDowalls of Stodrig, not to mention the numerous other cadet branches, all landed, and possibly armigerous, such as the MacDowalls of Machrimore, Knockglass, Dalreagle, Lefnall, Corochtrie, Crookuncrush, Myroch, Mindork, and the McDoualls of Crichton, Ardwell, Culgroat, Hackburn and Stratford Hall. Truly a numerous progeny, some eighteen separate “houses” in all.


While the MacDowalls, MacDoualls and MacDougalls flourished in Galloway as landed families and holders of such important offices as feudal barons, Sheriff Deputes and recipients of knighthoods, the line of Deugald's nephew Alan de Galloway ended without male heir and that of his nephew Thomas, Earl of Atholl, sunk into obscurity in the environs of Cupar-Angus Abbey. Yet, on the face of it the Earl of Atholl's descendants should have been the ones who flourished. By his marriage to Isabella, Countess of Atholl, Thomas de Galloway became jure uxoris one of the Seven Earls of Scotland, one of the Righ, the “kings” who governed Scotland under the Ard-Righ or “high-king” - the King of Scots.


Unfortunately, Thomas had one legitimate son only, Patrick de Galloway, who succeeded his mother as Earl of Atholl, but was killed in 1242 during a feud with his kinsmen the Bissets. He died at age 31, unmarried, without issue and the earldom reverted to the blood relations of his mother. Thus what might have been the most promising of Fergus' line ended abruptly. Meantime, this illegitimate side of the family retained their territorial surname, reasoning possibly, that it was all they had to commemorate their forebears' illustrious past. Some generations later, however, a peerage was conferred on a Cupar-Angus Galloway when Sir James Galloway was created Lord Dunkeld by King Charles I. In its third holder this peerage was attained because that Lord Dunkeld had adhered to the cause of King James II (of England) and VII (of Scotland) and had fought under Dundee at the Battle of Killiecrankie. His line is considered extinct.


Past generations of our forefathers have maintained, in the oral tradition of ancient cultures, the legend that our ancestors the Lords (or Princes) of ancient Galloway were descended from Dovallus (Dowall), a Prince of Galloway who in 230 B.C. killed the tyrant No(r)thatus, King of Scotland, and set up Reutherus in his place. In remembrance of this, in the words of Sir George Mackenzie (ca. 1680), this family used to bear as Arms, “a Lyon collared with an open Crown about his Neck”. Mackenzie, who was Lord Advocate to two successive Scottish kings, also noted that this family name “is known to be among the ancientest Sirnames of Scotland” and Dovallus is mentioned as the father of the 14th King of the Scots. The Dovallus of the legend must be the latinized version of our eponym Douall, Dougall or Dubh Gail (the dark stranger) and it undoubtedly refers to a traditional leader of Galloway, or Gail Gaedhil (the Stranger Gaels), in a native, dynastic and governing family. By definition, a legend is a history that is not verifiable, but which unlike a myth, may contain more truth than fiction. The survival, support and independence of that petty sovereignty was maintained under a succession of conquering races, basically through collaboration. This nature of ancient Galloway is well documented. Historians should not be shocked by the old family contention that our name was a Gaelic patronymic applicable to the Lords of ancient Galloway down to Devorguilla (d. 1290) mother of King John I (Balliol) of Scotland. Their Norman, feudal, territorial designation “de Galloway” is all that has survived on record. Nevertheless, Somerled the King of the Isles and his descendants (the Highland MacDougalls and Clan Donald) are accepted as MacGodfreys. Their eponym Godfrey (d. 853) son of Fergus, was ruler of the Western Isles (Innsi Gall) and Lord of Oriel (ie. of the people Airgialla just west of Irish Dal Riata). He went to Scotland to reinforce Kenneth MacAlpin, who married Godfrey's daughter.5 Thomas de Galloway, Earl of Atholl, brother of the last “ancient Lord” Alan, was sometimes cited as Thomas MacUchtry after his grandfather Uchtred, the son of Prince Fergus.3 Is it possible that Douall is an allegory of Gallowegian leadership?


Considering that the Iron Age people invaded Britain ca. 250 B.C., how credible is the year 230 B.C. in the legend? It is not as extreme an invocation as are a number of claimed descents from Adam! But, it is immodest in relation to the apparently authentic pedigree of Somerled (d. 1164) to before the 5th century Dalriadic colonization of Scotland5 . Nevertheless, the first Roman historian was active in 230 B.C. and Celtiberian cultures had reached North America before that, well ahead of the Vikings and Columbus. In fact, Columbus himself traveled to Eire in 1472 to view records of the journey made by St. Brendan the Navigator, before setting sail for the “new world” in 1492.


Author's note: St. Brendan and a group of 14 fellow Irish monks sailed from Eire around 570 A.D. to America via Alban (Scotland), the Shetland-Faroes, Iceland, and Greenland, and remaining in America as long as seven years before returning home to Eire as documented in the Navigatio Brendani. Recent archealogical evidence found in America supports these early chronicles of the St. Brendan expedition. Not the least of this evidence are the Celtic stone structures and the ancient petrogliphs of Celtic Olm (Ogam) or “tree script” found at sites at Tazewell, Virginia and Wyoming County, West Virginia. These sites are scattered from the coastal area of New England (Groton, CT), leading inland and along the ancient Indian “highways” - the ridge roads of the Appalachian mountains. These American sites often display the distinctive “Chi Rho” inscriptions (symbolizing the name of Christ), found at numerous other known St. Brendan-related sites in Eire (Ireland) and Britain.


There is a clue in the last name of the legend - Riata. Fordun lists Rether among early Scottish kings. In his History the venerable St. Bede (a monk, 673-735 A.D.) called the “Father of English History”, wrote as translated, “...the Scots migrated from Ireland under their chieftain Reuda and by a combination of force and treaty obtained from the Picts the settlements that they still hold. From the name of this Chieftain they are still known as Dalreudians, for in their tongue dal means: a division.” In St. Bede's History this information appears in the context of pre-Julius Caesar Britain (60 B.C.), but in relation to preceding events Bede did state that the Scots “later migrated”. It is usually thought that Bede was referring to the establishment of Scottish Dal Riada (ca. 500 A.D.). However, we know exactly that this kingdom was founded by Fergus and his two brothers Loarn and Angus, sons of King Erc of Irish (North Antrim - Ulster) Dal Riada. Erc was descended from the Ulidian royal house through the semi-legendary Conaire Mor, who was a high king of Ireland at the time of Christ, according to the sennachies5 (storytellers - oral historians). The name Reuther (th and d are identical in Gaelic) may be an older eponym of Dal Riada, perhaps a legendary, allegorical name for Dalriadic leadership. This supposition is historically supported a century after Bede's death by an event that would have reinforced our own legend, if it did not in fact initiate it.


After the Romans evacuated Britain, the invading Saxons displaced from Galloway (ca. 552 A.D.) the tribe of Dalriadic Scots (probably of Cowall) and also the Picts who had settled there. These people fled across to the over-kingdom of Ulaid (Ulidia in Ulster) in Ireland, where they were known as Cruithne, pronounced “Creenie” and meaning Picts. Later, in 741 A.D., the Dalriadic Scots of Argyll under Alpin were also driven away by the Northern Picts to Ireland and to Galloway, in which later place Alpin's son Kenneth MacAlpin, who had grown up in Galloway, mustered his kinsmen, Dalriadic levies and some allies and swept back into Dal Riada and the Pictish vacuum. To this end the Cruithne came over from Ireland under their leader named Reuda or Redda, and with a host of Galwegians assisted Kenneth to ascend the Pictish throne as King of Albany. (Alban being the ancient name of Scotland.) Were the Galwegians led by Dovallus? Was Northatus the current Norse or Pictish leader in the North, or an allegory of him?


This event was of legendary significance to Galwegians because Kenneth, the first monarch of a now almost united Scotland, rewarded the people of Galloway with what became a centuries-held right, namely to march in the van (at the front) of Scotland's armies. This privilege was successfully asserted before King David I, who in 1138 gave the men of Galloway, under our de Galloway/MacDowall family, the honor of leading the attack against the English at the Battle of the Standard near Northallerton in Yorkshire, England. In response, the charging Galwegians used the war cry “Albanach! Albanach!”. Perhaps this was the origin of the cri-de-guerre “Scotland Forever!”, heard on many a foreign field for centuries to come. Lord Kames, the 18th Century Scottish historian, stated that, “In all the great battles the Scots had with the English the Galwegians led the van...they were a race of warriors, had no fear either of hunger or death, and were called the Wild Scots of Galloway”. An ancient ballad gives an even more colorful account of their fighting style:


“Tame were the ither Scots to them;
the Southron loons they loved to claw,
So patriots ever will revere
The Wild Scots o'Gallawa.”


If this crucial part of Scottish, British and even World history was in fact the basis of our family legend, then the legend's setting was in the middle of the 3rd century before the millennium (around 730 A.D.) rather than 230 B.C. (the middle of the 3rd century before the beginning of the millennium), which is a reasonable slip of the tongue when history is passed by word of mouth. The Dovallus legend makes a long reach back into history, to legendary names in a recurring theme, and thus seems to be a faithful benchmark of the origins or our family in some of the proudest moments Scotland, and certainly Galloway, ever knew. A number of historians have repeated this legend, and some have also ascribed another legend to our name. To quote Nisbet2: “Afterwards, another Dowall, Captain of Galloway, with the Captain of Lorn, went into England against the Romans in support of the Britons, and put a stop to the Roman armies in defence of their country.”


There were many occasions when the Romans were balked in their battles with the Brigantes (the indigenous Britons) even after the annexation of the Southern part of Britain to the Roman Empire in 50 A.D. It was not until about 69 A.D., however, that Caledonian Britons first came into contact with the Romans. This happened when Britons from all quarters came in support of the Northern faction of the Brigantes under King Venusius. In the major contest that followed, Venusius at the head of a powerful army fought a series of battles against another ruler of the Brigantes, his former Queen and Roman collaborator Cartismandua, who had the support of the Roman army under the government of Vettius Bolanus. Venusius was victorious and won back sovereignty of the whole nation of the Brigantes. It was only ten years later, however, that Agricola penetrated the North shore of the Solway into Galloway, in his second campaign, where he “surrounded the subjugated tribes with forts and garrisons the remains of which are still seen in Dumfries, Kirkcudbright and Wigtown.”10 This completed the Roman assimilation of the great and extensive nation of the Brigantes.


It is therefore fitting to note that Dovallus (Dowal), this legendary eponymic predecessor of our family, was allied to, if not one of, the Britons of the Novantes sept in pre-Galloway; and further, that after the fall of the Roman Empire these people became part of the Strathclyde kingdom of the Britons, which later evolved into the Norse province of Galgeddil (pre-Galloway) and the Scottish sub-kingdom of Cumbria, the last native ruler of which was Owen Galvus `Mac Dowall'.


Author's Note: Portions of the articles “The Legend” and “The Origins of Prince Fergus, Lord of Galloway” are contained herein and were most graciously provided to this author by Dr. Fergus Day Hort Macdowall, Baron of Garthland and Castlesemple, (27th Chief of the Name and Arms) from the limited publication: The MacDowalls of Galloway. A Journal for Historical Research. Vol. I, No. 1, May 1987 and Vol. 1 No. 2, Dec 1987.



Sources:
Agnew, Sir Andrew. A History of the Hereditary Sheriffs of Galloway. 646 pp. Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1864.
Nisbet, Alexander. Heraldry, Vols. I and II, Edinburgh, 1722.
M'Kerlie, P.H. History of the Lands and their Owners in Galloway, Vol. II 508 pp. Wm. Patterson, Edinburgh, 1877.
M'Kerlie, P.H. History of the Lands and their Owners in Galloway, Vol. I 530 pp. Wm. Patterson, Edinburgh, 1870.
Sellar, W.D.H. The Origins and Ancestry of Somerled (Scottish Historical Review, 45: 123-142), 1966.
Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History. 676 pp. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1982.
Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History. 676 pp. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1982.
Fell, Barry. America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World. 312 pp. Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co., NY, 1976.
Bede. A History of the English Church and People. Tr. by Leo Sherley-Price. 347 pp. Penguin Books. Cox & Wymand Ltd. , London, 1968
McDowell, Wm. History of Dumfries. 916 pp. Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1867
Skene, Wm. F. The Roman Province in Scotland. Chapt. II In: A History of Ancient Alban. Vol. I. 509 pp. 2nd Ed. David Douglas, Edinburgh 1886.
http://members.tripod.com/leomcdowell/id18.htm 
Macdowall, Donald (Macdouggall) (I038663)
 
218
Nicholas FitzGilbert de Tailbois of Radcliffe (b by 1100)
m. heiress of The Booths
1. Matthew de Radeclive
A. Matthew de Radcyffe (a 1124 ?)
i. William de Radcyffe (dsp)
2. Henry de Radeclive (a 1124)
A. Richard de Radcyffe (d unm)
B. William de Radcyffe, Sheriff of Lancashire (d 1220)
m1. Cecilia de Montbegon, 'Lady of Kirkland'
i. Adam de Radcyffe (a 1248)
m. ?? Curwen (dau of Alan de Curwen or Culwen)
a. Robert de Radcyffe of Oswaldtwisle, Hartshead and Toltington (d 1290)
m. Amabil de Trafford (dau of Sir Richard de Trafford)
(1) Richard de Radcyffe (d 1326)
m. Joan le Boteler (dau of William le Boteler, baron of Warrington)
(A) Richard de Radcyffe (d 1324, rector)
(B) William de Radcyffe of Radclyffe Tower, 'the Great William' (b c1280, d 1333)
m. (1303) Margaret de Peasfurlong (dau of Adam de Peasfurlong)
(C) Robert de Radcyffe of Pilsworth
m1. Mary de Bury (dau of Adam de Bury)
(i) Ralph de Radcyffe (dsp)
m2. Margaret (dau of Robert de Shoresworth)
(ii) William de Radcyffe of Smithills
m. Katherine de Norlegh (dau of Thurstan de Norleigh of Pemberton)
(a) Sir Ralph de Radcyffe (d 12.05.1406)
m. Margery (d 1417)
((1)) Sir Ralph de Radcyffe (d 1432)
m1. ??
((A)) Sir Ralph de Radcyffe (b 1403)
m1. Elene Massey (d before 1436, dau of Sir John Massey of Talton)
m2. Janet 
de Tailbois, Nicholas FitzGilbert of Radcliffe (I055585)
 
219
There is mystery surrounding the identities of the early holders of the Earldom of Fife and it is by no means certain that (for example) Gillemichael (shown below as the 3rd Earl) was in fact descended from Dufagan (shown below as the 1st Earl). Some web sites report the old suggestion that Dufagan was son of MacDuff, ie. grandson of King Duff (or Dubh), but this is rejected by most serious genealogists simply because MacDuff is thought to have never existed.
Dufagan (or Beth), 1st Earl of Fife (a 1107, 1114) succeeded by ...
1. Constantine, 2nd Earl of Fife (d 1129) succeeded by ...
A. Gillemichael, 3rd Earl of Fife (d by 07.1136)

From Stirnet Genealog at http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/british/ff/fife1.htm 
Duff, Edelrad Earl of Fife Abbott of Dunkeld (I026237)
 
220
Archambald de Flanders of Bratton (a 1087)
1. Stephen FitzArchembald of Bratton (a 1145)
A. Archembald le Fleming, 1st of Slane (a 1165, to Ireland)
BE1883 numbers the Barons of Slane from this Archbembald. Of the barony, TCP reports "This was one of the Irish Peerages which were recognized by Henry VII in 1489, but of the origin of which nothing is known, the probability being that the holders developed from barons by tenure into peers of the realm without any formal creation."
i. Stephen le Fleming, 2nd of Slane (d 1213/4)

From http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/british/ff/fleming03.htm#link3 
le Fleming, Archembald 1st of Slane (I066816)
 
221
Different sources give different stories about the origins of this family whilst, for the first few generations, there also appears to be some confusion between different members of the family with different names sometimes being used for the same person and generations being mixed up. As with various other families, we take TCP as the lead source but with input from BE1883 and then, provided it is consistent with what we already have (including cross-references from other families), take further input from other sources. A common theme is that this family came to England from Brittany, possibly (but by no means certainly) being descended from a younger son of a Duke of Brittany. The first named by TCP was Roald but, given that a Guy is the first to be mentioned by BE1883, we start with Guy who (according to RootsWeb) may have been Raold's father.
Guy Lestrange (d 1105) may have been father of ...
1. Roald Lestrange (d before 1158)
m. Maud (dau of Ralph de Hunstanton)
From Stirnet Genealogy at http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/british/ss4tz/strange01.htm

https://www.geni.com/people/Roland-Duke-of-Brittany/6000000006404999090
About Roland, Duke of Brittany
Roald Le Strange1
d. before 1158
"Roald" is a Breton name, and as he was a tenant of Alan FitzFlaad, the family evidently came to England from Brittany; but the surname suggests the possibility that it was not of Breton origin.2 Roald Le Strange was a Breton follower of Alan fitz Flaad with whom he settled in England. He was possibly a relative of Alan.3 Also called Rivallon Extraneus.3 Also called Rivallon Lestrange.3 He witnessed, with others of the tenants of Alan FitzFlaad in Mileham, Norfolk, a charter of his lord (Alan FitzFlaad) in favor of Castleacre Priory in 1122.4 He held Hunstanton, where he made a grant of land, at Norfolk, England.2 He married Maud de Hunstanton, daughter of Ralph de Hunstanton and Helewise de Plaiz.2 Roald Le Strange died before 1158.2
Family
Maud de Hunstanton b. say 1116
Child
* John Le Strange I+ b. b 1136, d. 11781
Citations
1. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, XII/1:347.
2. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, XII/1:348.
3. [S1278] K.S.B. Keats-Rohan, Domesday Descendants, pg. 842.
4. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, XII/1:347-348.

The PEDIGREE of
Roland le STRANGE (of Hunstanton)
aka Rolald (Roald) EXTRANEUS
Born: Shrops. abt. 1096 Died: by 1158
HRH Charles's 23-Great Grandfather. Lady Diana's 24-Great Grandfather. PM Churchill's 23-Great Grandfather. Geo Washington's 18-Great Grandfather. Poss. my 25-Great Grandfather.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wife/Partner: Matilda (Maud) le Brun de HUNSTANTON
Children: John (I) le STRANGE (of Knockyn) ; Guy le STRANGE ; Mary le STRANGE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
________ ________ _______ _______ _______ ____ ____ ___
/ -- Hoel le STRANGE (1022? - ?)
/ -- poss. Guy le STRANGE
| \ | OR: poss. Riwal Extraneus' + ====> [ 180 ,,p,&]
/ \ -- Hawise
- Roland le STRANGE (of Hunstanton)
\
\ -- (missing)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
His (poss.) Great Grandchildren: Ralph le STRANGE ; John (III) le STRANGE ; Margery le STRANGE ; Alice NOEL ; Jane NOEL

"Roald" is a Breton name, and as he was a tenant of Alan FitzFlaad, the family evidently came to England from Brittany; but the surname suggests the possibility that it was not of Breton origin. He held Hunstanton, where he made a grant of land, in Norfolk, England [George Edward Cokayne CP, XII/1:348].
Roald Le Strange witnessed, with others of the tenants of Alan FitzFlaad in Mileham, Norfolk, a charter of his lord (Alan FitzFlaad) in favor of Castleacre Priory in 1122 [George Edward Cokayne CP, XII/1:347-348].

Roald Le STRANGE

Born: ABT 1096
Died: 1158
Married: Maud De HUNSTANTON (b. ABT 1100)
Children:
1. John Le STRANGE

The first recorded Le Strange was ROLAND LE STRANGE - who was born about 1096, lived in Cheswardine, Shropshire, England and died before 1158. Roland married MATILDA LE BRUN about 1141 while living in Cheswardine, Shropshire, England. Matilda was born about 1100, lived in Cheswardine, Shropshire, England. She was the daughter of Ralph Fitzherlewin Hunstanton Brun and Helewisa de Plaiz.

Roland le Strange, who witnessed the St. Florent Charter circa 1122, left four sons, viz. (1) John, who succeeded him; (2) Hamon; (3) Guy, and (4) Ralph. As far as is known Roland possessed no property elsewhere than in Norfolk; yet, early in the reign of Henry II, all of his sons were enfeoffed in lands in Shropshire in the middle of the twelfth century. It does not, of course, follow that, because no daughters are recorded, none existed. In feudal times women, unless they were heiresses, were of small account. If they were heiresses they were married while still of tender years, and when their husbands died were often remarried three or even four times, and may have sometimes then got a chance of pleasing themselves—e.g. Alice de Lacy, of whom further on.[55] But when they were not heiresses little is recorded of them, even if their existence is mentioned; filial piety sometimes has preserved the Christian name of a mother in cases where, not being an heiress, no mention of her father’s name has come down to us. 
Lestrange, Roald duc de Bretagne (I061266)
 
222
Mainus or Metellanus (b 33BC, d 29AD) father or uncle of ...
1. Mensuteus or Mansuteus (d c89)
A. Medanus (d c150)
i. Medani (d c234) succeeded by ...
a. Meaniuss (d 300)
(1) Menna (d c16.10.361)
(A) Meinaus (d c369)
(i) Menrus or Manrus (d c400)
(a) Menacus or Menalchus (d 463)
((1)) Meinus (d 480)
((A)) Mianus (d c538)
((i)) Menaus or Medanus (d c586)
((a)) Meinus (d c590) - continued below





Meinus (d c590) - continued above
1. Meanus or Maveanus (d c664)
A. Meinus or Maninus or Naninus (d c700)
i. Mennis or Molanus or Mononis or Mono (d 738)
a. Manerrus or Menerrus (d 829)
(1) Menrus or Manrus, Arbishop of Mayence (Mayenne?) (b 788, d 856)
(2) Menanus or Monanus
(A) Mennanus or Minnanus, Archdeacon (b c800, d 878) possibly father of ...
(i) Mainus or Maurinus (d c930) succeeded by ...
(a) Menyne or Crynyne, Abthane of Dull (d c960)
m. Beatrice (dau of Malcolm, King of Scots)
((1)) Meneus or Mundus (d c982, Abbot)
((A)) Meanus or Medanus or Modani (d c1037)
((i)) Menyeis, 1st of Menzies (d c1132) --
The Red and White Book identifies Menyeis as "the 38th Menzies" and "1st Baron of Menzies".

Main sources: 'The "Red and White" Book of Menzies', 2nd edition, by D.P. Menzies of Mengieston,
http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/ancient/ms/scots3.htm 
Mansuteus, Mensuteus or (I071280)
 
223
Patrick de Chaources or Chaurces or Cadurcis or Carducis ("vulgarly called Chaworth') (a c1086) succeeded by ..
The family name was probably de Chaurces or de Carducis for some generations. We use Chaworth throughout.
1. Patrick de Chaworth
BE1883 shows just one intermediary generation between the above Patrick and the Pain or Patrick who married Gundred de la Ferte. We follow Visitation.
A. Patrick de Chaworth (a 1186 ?)
m. Werburga
From Stirnet Genealogy at http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/british/cc4aq/chaworth1.htm 
de Chaworth, Patrick (I061087)
 
224
William Avelyn or Evelyn of Harow (d 1476)
1. Roger Evelyn of Stanmore
m. Alice Aylard
A. John Evelyn of Kingston
m. _ Vincent (dau of David Vincent)
i. George Evelyn of Long Ditton and Wotton (b 1530, d 30.05.1603)
m1. Rose Williams (bur 21.06.1571, dau of Thomas Williams)
a. Thomas Evelyn of Long Ditton
m1. Francisca Moore (dau of Sir _ Moore)
(1) Sir Thomas Evelyn of Long Ditton (bpt 20.08.1587, d 04.08.165
m. Anne Gold (dau of Hugh Gold of London)
(A) Sir Edward Evelyn, Bart of Long Ditton (b 25.01.1625-6, d 03.05.1692)
m. (15.09.1659) Mary Balam (bur 10.07.1696, dau of Charles Balam of Sawston)
(i) Ann Evelyn (b 1661)
m. (1682) William Hill of Teddington
(ii) Mary Evelyn (b 1662)
m1. (sp) Robert Napier of Punknoll (d 1686)
m2. (1688) William Glynn
(iii) Penelope Evelyn of Long Dillon (b 1672)
m. (1690) Sir Joseph Alston, 3rd Bart of Chelsea (bur 29.01.1715-
(2) Jane Evelyn
m. (1604-5) John Bodley
(3) Elizabeth Evelyn
m. Henry Constantine
(4) Dorothy Evelyn
m. James Dockerie
(5) Francis Evelyn
m. Edward Ventris
(6) Rosa Evelyn
m. Thomas Keitley of London
m2. Frances Hervey (dau of _ Hervey of Chessington, sister of Lord Hervey)
b. Sir John Evelyn of Kingston, Godstone and Marden (b 1555, d 162
m1. Elizabeth Stevens (dau of William Stevens of Kingston)

From Stirnet Genealogy at http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/british/ee/evelyn1.htm 
Evelyn, John (Sir) of Lee Place Godstone &Marden (I061797)
 
225
William Sinclair of Longformacus (d temp King David who r. 1329-1371)
1. Sir James Sinclair of Longformacus (d before 01.1418)
A. James Sinclair of Longformacus (d after 1436)
i. David Sinclair of Longformacus (d before 1461)
a. David Sinclair of Longformacus (a 1477)
m. Elizabeth Murray
(1) James Sinclair of Longformacus (d 1498)
m. Isabel Howieson
(A) Alexander Sinclair of Longformacus
m. Marion Foreman
(i) James Sinclair of Longformacus (d before 1543)
(a) Matthew Sinclair of Longformacus (d 1603)
m. Elizabeth Swinton (dau of Sir John Swinton of Swinton)

From Stirnet Genealogy at http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/british/ss4as/sinclair08.htm 
Sinclair, Many generations of Longformacus (I064317)
 
226  Stewart, Agnes (I007)
 
227  Littlejohn, David (I006)
 
228  Littlejohn, Edward Arthur (I010)
 
229  Littlejohn, David Stewart (I013)
 
230  Scott, Agnes Russell (I014)
 
231  Wallace, Catherine (I364565)
 
232  Gilbert, Susannah Ann (I057)
 
233  Marr, Elsia (I059)
 
234  Henderson, Humphrey (I102)
 
235  Fenton, Christane (I103)
 
236 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I123)
 
237  Harrower, James Scott (I126)
 
238  Bishop, James (I128)
 
239  Head, Clara (I130)
 
240  Burton, Frederick George (I132)
 
241  Flynn, Johanna Susan (I134)
 
242  Magor, Elizabeth (I135)
 
243  Harrower, Henry Robert Dr (I136)
 
244  Lake, Annie Mary (I138)
 
245  UNK, Elizabeth Maud (I139)
 
246  Owen, Ivy (I140)
 
247  Marr, Lindsay (Robina) (I196)
 
248  Macfarlane, Elizabeth (I248)
 
249  Gray, Barbara Runciman (I250)
 
250  Marr, Robert (I364771)
 

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