Ancestorium Family Tree Collaboration

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Matches 151 to 200 of 34,708

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151
Margaret "Peggy" Livingston and Peter S. Stuyvesant
Gilbert Livingston and Cornelia Beekman
http://www.henrylivingston.com/bios/gilbertlivingstoncornelia.htm#peggy

Margaret Livingston, baptized, June 23, 1738, at Kingston; buried January 10, 1818; married, October 17, 1764, Peter Stuyvesant, great-grandson of Governor Stuyvesant (1602-82), born October 13, 1727; died October 7, 1805. Issue, six children.
Livingston, by Ruth Lawrence

Margaret Stuyvesant to Pierre. ALS
SHR
Bowery house January 8th 1808.

Dear Uncle
It affords me sincere pleasure in expressing to you, the Gratification Mama received from your Affectionate letter, it was more than usually welcome, as it convinced her of the Continuance of the love & regard of persons. so dear to her, as yourself & Aunt. -- Separated by some distance & so little communication between us, there was reason to suppose that an indifference might take place (from circumstances being misrepresented) through the kind interference of Cousin Beekman this supposition has been removed and the Amiable part she has acted has increased my love & respect towards her.-- Our religion as well as what we owe to our own Comfort & happiness lead us to live in love and goodwill towards each-other, with us, this duty & pleasure is strengthened by the ties of relationship. -- My mother is much inclined to testify her regard personally, by making you a visit, this however will not be practicable during the winter, should her health be spared until the spring & the traveling becomes Good she anticipates the happiness of again meeting you -- be pleased dear Sir to present our love and regards to Aunt & Cousin Vanwick - with great respect I remain your Affectionate Neice M. Stuyvesant

The author of this letter was most likely Margaret Stuyvesant, daughter of Petrus and Margaret (Livingston) Stuyvesant. Reynolds, III, 1015.
Papers of Van Cortlandt, p. 235


Petrus Stuyvesant built this house at 21 Stuyvesant Street in 1803. It was a wedding gift to his daughter Elizabeth, who married Nicholas Fish, a close friend and political ally of Alexander Hamilton. Son Hamilton Fish became New York State governor, senator, and secretary of state. It is now known as the Stuyvesant-Fish House.
 
Livingstone, Margaret (I091452)
 
152
Marriage: JUL 1895
Wahpeton, Richland, North Dakota, USA
Ann Spragg Hoskin 
Coppin, Edwin Thomas (I323560)
 
153
Mary Ann HARROWER 3 4 5 6
http://hainings.org/hainings-net/11165.htm
Born: 14 December 1824, Leith South Parish, Midlothian, Scotland 6 7 8 9
Christened: 4 June 1825, Kinghorn, Fifeshire, Scotland 4 5 6
Marriage (1): David Stewart LITTLEJOHN on 23 April 1850 in South Leith, Midlothian, Scotland 1 2
Died: 23 December 1903, Monifieth, Forfarshire, Scotland at age 79 10
Buried: 26 December 1903, Monifieth, Forfarshire, Scotland
Other names for Mary were Mary HARROWER,8 Mary Anne HARROWER,2 Mary A. LITTLEJOHN 9 and Mary Ann LITTLEJOHN.

Family Links
Spouses & Children
1. David Stewart LITTLEJOHN
David Harrower LITTLEJOHN+
Edward Arthur LITTLEJOHN

picture
Christening Notes
as recorded in the parish register at Leith South, Midlothian, Scotland in 1835

Burial Notes
Barnhill Cemetery (E/198), Dundee

picture
Recorded Events in Her Life
picture
She appeared on the 1841 Census of Scotland on 6 June 1841 in Leith South Parish, Midlothian, Scotland. 8 11 12

1841 Census ? 6 Records found
Piece: SCT1841/692 Place: Leith-Midlothian Enumeration District: 1
Civil Parish: Leith South Ecclesiastical Parish, Village or Island: --
Folio: 1 Page: 10
Address: Claremont Cottage
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Surname First name(s) Sex Age Occupation Where Born Remarks
HUTCHINSON John M 45 Independent Midlothian
HUTCHINSON Susannah F 40 -- England
HARROWER Elizabeth F 17 -- Midlothian
HARROWER Mary F 15 -- Midlothian
HARROWER George M 12 -- Midlothian
KNOX Christian F 25 Female Servant Midlothian

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

She appeared on the 1851 Census of Scotland on 30 March 1851 in Broughty Ferry, Monifieth Parish, Forfarshire, Scotland.
Littlejohn 28
Mary Ann Littlejohn 25
Infant Notnamed 1 Mo
Littlejohn 64
Agnes Littlejohn 63
Agnes Milne 46
Christina Know 35
Ann Ransey 26

picture
She appeared on the 1861 England Census on 7 April 1861 in Islington East, Islington, Middlesex, England. 9

Thos Littlejohn 35
David S Littlejohn 39
Mary A Littlejohn 35
Elizh S Harrower 37
Susan Davis 35
She appeared on the 1891 Census of Scotland on 5 April 1891 in Broughty Ferry, Monifieth Parish, Forfarshire, Scotland.

David S Littlejohn Head M 69 Forfar, Forfarshire Solicitor & Notary Public
Mary Ann Littlejohn Wife F 67 Edinburgh House Wife
Edward Littlejohn Nephew M 23 Sydney, New South Wales Medical Student
Susan Greig Servant F 27 Monikie, Forfarshire Cook (Dom Serv)
Mary Middleton Servant F 19 Kennoway, Fife Shire House Maid

She appeared on the 1901 Census of Scotland on 31 March 1901 in Broughty Ferry, Monifieth Parish, Forfarshire, Scotland.
David S Littlejohn 78
Mary A Littlejohn 72
Margaret W Penmen 29
Margaret F Smart 28

picture
Mary married David Stewart LITTLEJOHN, son of David LITTLEJOHN and Agnes STEWART, on 23 April 1850 in South Leith, Midlothian, Scotland.1 2 (David Stewart LITTLEJOHN was born on 5 April 1822 in Forfar, Forfarshire, Scotland 9 13, christened on 14 April 1822 in Forfar, Forfarshire, Scotland,13 died on 4 December 1903 in Broughty Ferry, Monifieth Parish, Forfarshire, Scotland 14 and was buried on 7 December 1903 in Monifieth, Forfarshire, Scotland.)

Recorded Events about their Marriage
They have conflicting marriage information of 14 April 1850 and Monifieth, Forfarshire, Scotland. 15

Marriage Notes
St. James' Episcopal Church, Leith, by the Rev. John A. White

picture
Sources
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, International Genealogical Index (R) [database on-line] (Copyright ? 1980, 2002), Batch No.: M195048.
FamilySearch Historical Record Collections, Scotland Marriages, 1561?1910.
Kirsty M. Haining.
Old Parish Registers of the Church of Scotland, Index of Births & Christenings, 1553??1854 (Edinburgh, United Kingdom: General Register Office for Scotland), Mary Ann Harrower christening, 4 June 1825, Leith South Parish, GROS Data 692/02 0021. The Old Parish Registers are church records of births, baptisms, banns, marriages, deaths, and burials that were kept by individual parishes within the Church of Scotland ("the Established Church") from 1553 until 1855 when civil registration began. All original registers are now held by the General Register Office for Scotland at New Register House in Edinburgh, Scotland.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, International Genealogical Index (R) [database on-line] (Copyright ? 1980, 2002), Parish Records, Batch No. C195047 (South Leith, Midlothian, Scotland), 1829??1844.
FamilySearch Historical Record Collections, Scotland Births and Baptisms, 1564??1950.
Birth Certificate (digital or paper copy of official birth record privately held by Kirsty M. Haining).
National Records of Scotland and brightsolid Online Publishing Ltd., ScotlandsPeople (https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/), 1841 Census of Scotland; digital images (Edinburgh, Scotland: General Register Office for Scotland. Reels 1?151. ? Crown copyright), John Hutchinson household, Claremont Cottage, Parish of South Leith (692/02), Midlothian, Scotland, enumeration district (ED) 1, page 10.
Ancestry.com, 1861 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2005. Original data: Census Returns of England and Wales, 1861. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1861. Data imaged from the National Archives, London, England), Thos. Littlejohn household, 12 Willow Cottages, Islington, Middlesex, England; Class RG 9, piece 143, folio 105, page 33, GSU roll 542581.
Death Certificate (digital or paper copy of official death record privately held by Kirsty M. Haining).
Ancestry.com, 1841 Scotland Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: 1841 Scotland Census. Edinburgh, Scotland: General Register Office for Scotland. Reels 1?151), John Hutchinson household, Claremont Cottage, South Leith Parish, Midlothian, Scotland; Parish: South Leith; ED: 1; Page: 10; Line: 340; Year: 1841.
FreeCEN (https://www.freecen.org.uk/), 1841 Census of Scotland (FreeCEN search engine, layout and database Copyright ? 2003-2012 The Trustees of FreeCEN. Scottish Census Data - Crown Copyright ? General Register Office for Scotland. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen's Printer for Scotland), John Hutchinson household; Piece: SCT1841/692; Place: Leith-Midlothian; Enumeration District: 1; Civil Parish: Leith South; Ecclesiastical Parish, Village or Island: --; Folio: 1; Page: 10; Address: Claremont Cottage.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, International Genealogical Index (R) [database on-line] (Copyright ? 1980, 2002).
Statutory Registers of Scotland, Index of Deaths, 1855???2012 (Edinburgh, United Kingdom: General Register Office for Scotland).
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, International Genealogical Index (R) [database on-line] (Copyright ? 1980, 2002), Batch No.: M113104. 
Harrower, Mary Ann (I364567)
 
154
Mary USHER 2
http://hainings.org/hainings-net/11220.htm
Born: Abt 1776, prob India 3
Marriage (1): Captain George HARROWER HEICS on 5 February 1794 in Bombay, East Indies 1
Died: 9 January 1826, Bombay, East Indies about age 50 4
Another name for Mary was Mary HARROWER.4

recorded Events in Her Life

She has conflicting birth information of Abt 1780 and prob India. 4

picture
Mary married Captain George HARROWER HEICS, son of Robert HARROWER and Betty MILLAR, on 5 February 1794 in Bombay, East Indies.1 (Captain George HARROWER HEICS was born in 1762 in Coalsnaughton, Tillicoultry Parish, Clackmannanshire, Scotland 5, christened on 8 December 1762 in Tillicoultry, Clackmannanshire, Scotland,5 6 died on 9 August 1829 in Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland 7 8 and was buried on 14 August 1829 in Leith South Parish, Midlothian, Scotland 7.)

Sources

The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, Ref: t18160214-54.
Kirsty M. Haining.
Kirsty M. Haining, Estimated date. Estimates are based off of known event dates (birth dates, christening dates, marriage dates, graduation dates, retirement events, death dates, etc.) from the lives of the individual's immediate ancestors or descendants. Women are estimated to be roughly 20 years older than the birth of the first child; men are about 5 years older than their wives; siblings are estimated at 2 years apart.
The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British India and its Dependencies, XXII (London: Kingsbury, Parbury, & Allen, 1826.), July to December, 1826: p. 90.
Tillicoultry Parish Church (Tillicoultry, Clackmannanshire, Scotland), Baptisms, 1640?1665, 1675?1855; Marriages, 1640?1663, 1752?1854; and Deaths, 1639?1663, 1753?1841. Digital images. (General Register Office for Scotland, the National Archives of Scotland and the Court of the Lord Lyon, enabled by brightsolid. ScotlandsPeople. https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/ : ? Crown copyright and copyright brightsolid ltd, 2010.), "Register of Baptisms," christening record of George Harrouer, 08 December 1762; accessed 02 November 2010.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, International Genealogical Index (R) [database on-line] (Copyright ? 1980, 2002), Batch #: C114684, Sheet #: 00, Source Call #: 1040209, Prin tout Call #: 6902154, Dates: 1640 - 1819.
Ancestry.com, Midlothian (Edinburgh), Scotland: Parish and Probate Records, Captain George Harrower death and burial, 1829.
The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British India and its Dependencies, XXVIII (London: Parbury, Allen, & Co., 1829.), July to December, 1829: p. 382.
 
Usher, Mary (I364536)
 
155
Max Peter, Jürgen Thormählen
https://www.myheritage.com/research/record-1-78257363-1-81/max-peter-jurgen-thormahlen-in-myheritage-family-trees
1874 - ?
Birth: Mar 14 1874 Hamburg, Altona, Deutschland

Family members

Parents:
Hermann Matthias, Wilhelm Thormählen 1850 - 1922
Regine Thormählen 1852 - 1918

Wife: Catharina Maria, Margaretha Thormählen (geb. Gäthje) 1874 - ?

Children:
Hermann Heinrich Max Thormählen
1902 - 1971
Werner Thormählen
Carmen Thormählen
Theo Thormählen
Tita Thormählen
Herta Thormählen

Source
Family site: Thormählen
Updated on July 11 2017 (1 month ago)|161 profiles in one family tree|26 photos
View full profile in this site

Site manager:


Volker Thormählen
Contact Volker 
Thormählen, Max Peter Jürgen (I071939)
 
156
McDouall, Noel Edward. 11 Dec 1911 - 2014
Source: http://www.thepeerage.com/p19298.htm#i192979

Noel Edward McDouall
b. 1911 d. 2004

Noel Edward McDouall was born in 1911. He is the son of William Edward McDouall and May Edna Scoles. He married Amy Patricia Hawke in 1942.
He lived in 2003 at Per, Caroda, New South Wales, Australia.

Children of Noel Edward McDouall and Amy Patricia Hawke
• Malcolm Noel McDouall b. 1943
• Jillian May McDouall b. 29 Jul 1946

Amy Patricia Hawke
F, #192979, d. 1996

Amy Patricia Hawke married Noel Edward McDouall, son of William Edward McDouall and May Edna Scoles, in 1942. She died in 1996.
From 1942, her married name became McDouall.

Children of Amy Patricia Hawke and Noel Edward McDouall
• Malcolm Noel McDouall b. 1943
• Jillian May McDouall b. 29 Jul 1946

http://www.thepeerage.com/p19298.htm#i192979
McDouall, Noel Edward. 11 Dec 1911 - 2014

Regards, Peter R. Wickham.
http://www.thepeerage.com/p19298.htm#i192978

McDouall, Noel Edward. 11 Dec 1911 - 2014
Source: http://www.thepeerage.com/p19298.htm#i192979

Noel Edward McDouall
b. 1911 d. 2004

Noel Edward McDouall was born in 1911. He is the son of William Edward McDouall and May Edna Scoles. He married Amy Patricia Hawke in 1942.
He lived in 2003 at Per, Caroda, New South Wales, Australia.

Children of Noel Edward McDouall and Amy Patricia Hawke
ØMalcolm Noel McDouall b. 1943
ØJillian May McDouall b. 29 Jul 1946

Amy Patricia Hawke
F, #192979, d. 1996

Amy Patricia Hawke married Noel Edward McDouall, son of William Edward McDouall and May Edna Scoles, in 1942. She died in 1996.
From 1942, her married name became McDouall.

Children of Amy Patricia Hawke and Noel Edward McDouall
ØMalcolm Noel McDouall b. 1943
ØJillian May McDouall b. 29 Jul 1946

http://www.thepeerage.com/p19298.htm#i192979
McDouall, Noel Edward. 11 Dec 1911 - 2014

Regards, Peter R. Wickham.

Noel Edward McDouall
https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/169501405
BIRTH1911
DEATH2014 (aged 102103)
BURIAL
Barraba General Cemetery
Barraba, Tamworth Regional Council, New South Wales, Australia
MEMORIAL ID169501405 ·

A message from peter_wickham43:
Also, Noel's birth date is in his WW2 Military Records - Name: Noel Edward McDouall Birth Date: 11 Dec 1911 Birth Place: Barraba New South Wales Year Range: 1939 - 1948 Enlistment Place: Barraba New South Wales Service Number: N163904 Next of Kin: Patricia McDouall Series Description: B884: Army Citizen Military Forces. Regards, Peter Wickham. 
McDouall, Noel Edward (I011414)
 
157
Mikolaj Hieronim Sieniawski
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikolaj_Hieronim_Sieniawski

Noble Family Sieniawski

Parents Adam Hieronim Sieniawski
Wiktoria Elzbieta Potocka
Consorts Cecylia Maria Radziwill
Children with Cecylia Maria Radziwill
Adam Mikolaj Sieniawski
Joanna Sieniawska
Teofilia Sieniawska

Date of Birth 1645
Place of Birth ?
Date of Death December 15, 1683
Place of Death ?

Mikolaj Hieronim Sieniawski (1645-1683) was a Polish noble (szlachcic), military leader, politician.

Son of the starost of Lwów Adam Hieronim Sieniawski and Wiktoria Elzbieta Potocka, the daughter of Hetman Stanislaw "Rewera" Potocki. He married in 1662 the daughter of Court and Grand Marshal Prince Aleksander Ludwik Radziwill, Princess Cecylia Maria Radziwill.

He was Grand Guardian of the Crown since 1644, Great Chorazy of the Crown since 1668, Court Marshall of the Crown since 1676, starost of Lwów since 1679, voivode of Volhynian Voivodship since 1679, Field Crown Hetman since 1682 and starost of Radom, Rohatyn, and Piaseczno.

He became famous as a talented commander in wars against Cossacks and Tatars during the reign of King Jan II Kazimierz. In the rank of a Chorazy he companioned Jan Sobieski in the Chocim expedition.

He was Marshal of the Coronation Sejm on March 2 - March 14, 1676 in Kraków.

Like his son Adam Mikolaj, he participated in the Vienna expedition of 1683.
 
Sieniawski, Mikolaj Hieronim (I070695)
 
158
Name: joe c
Email: kcofin4@aol.com
Sent: Friday, February 24, 2006 4:46 PM

Adding a line to Rushton/Bonner via Mowbray Adams

This line comes from William MOWBRAY a Magna Charta **Surety
who lived at AXEHOLM later occupied by my Eure USSERY ancestors
(Sarah Evelyn Ussery mar William Banks Meachum my great grandparents and parents of my grandmother Ila Princess Meachum who mar Samuel Lester Bonner parents
of my mother)

(otherwise
I have lines to me of all 15 or more of the 25 Magna Charta Sureties plus of course signer DECLARATION OF ARBROATH (Scot decl of Independence) Robert the BRUCE, King of Scotland and many other signers)


This line beow is one main line but also showing 3 other lines to me that you already have
the end of the line(there are also another 4 or 5 lines to me in this Mowbray line that Im not showing)

http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=DESC&db=:3110674&id=I27587

1 WILLIAM DE MOWBRAY SURETY for Magna Charter
b: 1172 d: NOV 1266
+ AVICE DE MOWBRAY b: 1176
2 ROGER DE MOWBRAY b: 1218 d: NOV 1266
+ MAUD DE BEAUCHAMP b: 1229 d: 12 APR 1273
3 ROGER DE MOWBRAY , Lord Mobray 1st b: 1254 d: 21 NOV 1297
+ ROHESE DE CLARE b: 17 OCT 1252 d: AFT 1299
4 JOHN DE MOWBRAY , Lord Mobray 2nd
b: 4 SEP 1286 d: 23 MAR 1321/22
+ ALIVA BRAOSE b: BEF 1305 d: BEF 30 JUL 1331
5 JOHN DE MOWBRAY , Lord Mowbray 3
b: 29 NOV 1310 d: 4 OCT 1361
+ JOAN PLANTAGENET b: ABT 1312 d: 7 JUL 1349
6 JOHN DE MOWBRAY , Lord Mowbray 4
b: 25 JUN 1340 d: 9 OCT 1368
+ ELIZABETH SEGRAVE , Baroness Segra
b: 15 OCT 1338 d: BEF 1368

http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=DESC&db=:3110674&id=I25860

1 JOHN DE MOWBRAY , Lord Mowbray 4th
b: 25 JUN 1340 d: 9 OCT 1368
+ ELIZABETH SEGRAVE , Baroness Segrave
b: 15 OCT 1338 d: BEF 1368

2 Margaret DE MOWBRAY b: 1364 d: 1417
+ John DE WELLES , Baron Welles 5th


3 Anne WELLES d: AFT 1396
+ James BUTLER b: AFT 1360 d: 7 SEP 1405
4 James BUTLER b: 1392 d: 23 AUG 1452
+ Joan (Elizabeth) DE BEAUCHAMP d: 5 AUG 1430
5 Thomas BUTLER b: BEF 1430 d: 3 AUG 1515
+ Anne HANKFORD b: 1431 d: 13 NOV 1485
6 Margaret BUTLER b: 1465 d: ABT 1540
+ William BOLEYN b: 1451 d: 10 OCT 1505
7 Thomas BOLEYN b: 1477 d: 12 MAY 1538
+ Elizabeth HOWARD b: ABT 1482 d: 3 APR 1538
8 Mary BOLEYN b: ABT 1507 d: 19 JUL 1543
+ William CAREY aka Henry 8th
b: 1497 d: 22 JUN 1528
down to me

2 THOMAS DE MOWBRAY , Sir, Duke of Norfolk
b: 22 MAR 1365/66 d: 22 SEP 1399
+ ELIZABETH D'ARUNDELLE FITZALAN b: 1366 d: 8 JUL 1425

3 ISABEL DE MOWBRAY b: 1396 d: 23 SEP 1452
+ Henry FERRERS , Sir, of Groby b: 1394 d: BEF 5 DEC 1463
4 Elizabeth DE RUTHYN , Baroness Ferrers of Gro
b: BEF 1419 d: 23 JAN 1481/82
+ Edward GREY , Sir b: BEF 1415
5 Edward GREY
+ Elizabeth TALBOT
6 Elizabeth GREY , Baroness Lyle 6th
+ Edmund DUDLEY , Chancellor of the Exchequ
b: 1462 d: 28 AUG 1510
to me

3 John DE MOWBRAY , Duke of Norfolk 2nd
b: 9 AUG 1398 d: 19 OCT 1432
+ Katherine NEVILLE b: 1397 d: AFT JAN 1477/78
4 Katherine MOWBRAY b: ABT 1420
+ Reginald ADAM
5 John ADAM d: 1513
6 Charles ADAM I
+ Margaret FERGUSON
to me

http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=DESC&db=:3110674&id=I43466

1 Charles ADAM I
+ Margaret FERGUSON
2 Charles ADAM II
+ Isabel BISSET
3 Robert ADAM
+ Isabel HUNTER
4 David ADAMS
+ Jean HUNTER
5 James ADAMS
+ Catherine MAGENNIS
6 James ADAMS d: 1690

http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=DESC&db=:3110674&id=I43476

1 James ADAMS d: 1690
2 James ADAMS b: 1673 d: 1744
+ Jane ALLEN
3 Allen ADAMS b: 1700
+ Martha HIGGENBOTHAM
... ...
4 Emanuel ADAMS b: 1725
+ Maria Jacobse TRUAX b: 15 JUN 1729
5 Hannah ADAMS b: ABT 1753 d: 25 OCT 1841
+ Andrew LORANCE b: 27 AUG 1748 d: 22 AUG 1812
6 Joel LOWRANCE b: 20 DEC 1776 d: JUN 1853
+ Anne HUGHEY d: MAY 1824

http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=DESC&db=:3110674&id=I75581

1 Joel LOWRANCE b: 20 DEC 1776 d: JUN 1853
+ Anne HUGHEY d: MAY 1824
2 Martha Jane LOWRANCE b: 1805 d: AFT 1836
+ Joseph RUSHTON b: 1812 d: AFT 1836
3 Flora Anna RUSHTON b: 19 AUG 1836 d: 28 APR 1906
4 Samuel Lester BONNER b: 14 FEB 1873 d: 4 MAR 1947
5 Flora Evelyn BONNER b: 28 AUG 1908 d: 24 SEP 1984
+ L.E. COOPER b: 2 MAR 1911 d: 2 OCT 2000

tree for Adam Mowbray line above

http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=PED&db=:3110674&id=I43465&style=TEXT 
Adams, Reginald (I009445)
 
159
Nathaniel Cochran (b. February 27, 1756, d. April 19, 1808)
http://www.genealogy.com/ftm/j/o/h/Matthew-Johnson-FL/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0080.html

Nathaniel Cochran (son of William Cochran and Hannah Mitchell) was born February 27, 1756, and died April 19, 1808.He married Elizabeth Ford on February 10, 1789, daughter of Barnabus Ford.
Includes NotesNotes for Nathaniel Cochran:
Nathanial Cochran was born near Philadelphia of Irish parents.He came to Marion county, Virginia (later WV) in 1774 at the age of 18.
In 1776 he enlisted in a Virginia Company to serve as a soldier, and was attached to Captain James Booth's Company of Scouts and Rangers.
They company was stationed on Coal Run to watch and keep the Indians from killing white settlers.On 16 Jun 1778 Nathanial and Capt. Booth were hoeing corn on Booths Creek (about three miles from Monongah, WV) when Shawnee Indians killed Booth and captured Nathanial.Nathanial was wounded; one bullet passed thru the flesh of his breast, (not a serious wound) while the another passed thru the flesh of his arm below the elbow.The Shawnee him for some time, taking him to Ohio, Detroit Michigan, then back to Ohio before going on to Niagra Falls where he was sold to the English.He was held in prison at Quebec Canada until exchanged at the end of the war and returned to Marion County on 10 Feb 1783, five years after being taken captive.Harry D. Martin writes that Nathanial walked back home from Canada after his release.The Shawnee Chief told him that the Indians would never kill
him because The Great White Spirit guarded him the day he was captured
and turned the bullets away from his heart.Newspaper clippings
show that Nathanial Cochran was made a Captain of a Company of the 1st
Battalion of the 11th Regiment of the Virginia Militia in 1802. This
commission bore the signature of James Monroe, Governor of Virginia.
The sons of Revolution erected a Monument near the place where Capt.
Booth was killed and near his grave (between Monongah and Boothville).
On one side is a brief history of the Captain.On another side is a
history of Nathanial Cochhran.A plaque with Nathaniel Cochran's name
can also be found at Prickett's Fort, Fairmont, West Virginia.
Harry D. Martin also writes that in 1966 he (Martin) was the only descendant of Cochran who owned land which never changed hands for monetary consideration. The land was a grant from the Governor of Virginia to Nathanial which was handed down to Nathanial's daughter, Martha Cochran Morgan, then on to her daughter, sarah Ellen Morgan Martin.Sarah passed it on to her son, Harry Darius Martin.This
property was sold in the fall of 1968 to Mrs. P.P. Shenasky.Shenasky had rented the store and barn from Harry Martin for over 40 years.
The Shenasky's bought the entire property.(***Source: Unless otherwise noted, the above comes a newspaper article cited by Georgia Lee Morgan Downs of Haines City, FL; additional information also from Nellie Gould Hill)Nathaniel Cochran's Monument Inscription: Nathaniel Cochran1756-1808 Revolutionary SoldierEnlisted in
Virginia in 1776 and was assigned to Company of Capt. James Booth and stationed on West Fork of the Monongahela.Wounded and captured by the indians when Capt. Booth was killed.He was held captive and carried into Canada and confined at Quebec - exchanged as a prisoner of war in 1782.He returned here.Commissioned Capt. in Virginia Militia in 1802.A Pioneer leader in this community.
After Nathanial's release from English imprisonment in Quebec, he returned to Marion County, Virgina, then went to Little Cove where he married Elizabeth Ford of near Winchester, Virginia in Feb 1789.They
returned to Marion County in April to put up their tent as the first settlers of Monongah, West Virginia.They raised a family of 4 boys and 6 girls.
(***from newspaper article from Georgia Lee Morgan Downs of Haines
City, FL)
Shortly before Polly's death in early 1885, Harry Martins's family had moved from Farmington to Monongah, West Virginia.The land of the Bowmans (Polly), Glasscocks (Ann), John Cochran, and Martha Cochran all joined in what is now West Monongah, Monongah, West Virginia. Polly Bowman was grandmother of late Thomas Leeper, a historian who lived in Monongah.Several of John and Sarah Morgan Cochran's descendents migrated to Indiana.
(***from Harry D. Martin)
More About Nathaniel Cochran and Elizabeth Ford:
Marriage: February 10, 1789
Children of Nathaniel Cochran and Elizabeth Ford are:+
William Cochran, b. January 12, 1790, d. date unknown.
Hannah Cochran, b. March 26, 1792, d. date unknown.
Jacob Cochran, b. January 19, 1794, d. date unknown.
Mary Cochran, b. February 27, 1796, d. 1885.
John Cochran, b. May 05, 1798, d. date unknown.
Sarah Cochran, b. March 17, 1800, d. date unknown.
+Martha Cochran, b. April 16, 1802, d. February 12, 1858.
Ann Cochran, b. June 19, 1804, d. date unknown.
James Cochran, b. September 1806, d. date unknown.
Elizabeth Cochran, b. November 11, 1808, d. date unknown. 
Cochran, Nathaniel (I098517)
 
160
Neriya ben Shemaya, 18th Exilarch
https://www.geni.com/people/Neriyah-18th-Exilarch-Dayan/6000000008636357059
Hebrew: ???? ?? ????? ?? ?????, 18th Exilarch

Also Known As: "Neariah", "Nearya", "Nearja", "Neryah ibn Shamiah", "ben Shemaiah", "ben Shemaya"
Birthdate: circa -290 (63)
Birthplace: Jerusalem, Israel
Death: circa -227 (55-71)

Immediate Family:
Son of Shemayahu ben Shechanya 13th Exilarch and (Female) Unknown
Husband of Madre de Helioenai, Ezequías y Azricam Ezequías y Azricam
Father of Elioenai ben Neariah, 20th Exilarch; Hizkiyahu II ibn Nearya 21st Exilarch and Azrikam I, 23rd Exilarch
Brother of Khatush ben Shemaya, 15th Exilarch (Abravanel line); Shaphat ., 19th Exilarch; Yig'el ben Shemaya, 16th Exilarch; Barya ben Shemaya, 17th Exilarch and Shemidah ben Shemaya, 14th Exilarch

Occupation: 18th Exilarch, Exilarque des Juifs

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated: November 16, 2016  
Babylon, Neariah 18th Exilarch of (I112404)
 
161
Notes ?1 - Andrew died fighting against the French in the War of the Spanish Succession, at the Battle of Malplaquet on the French/Belgian border.

2 - The Battle of Malplaquet was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 11 , 1709 between France and a British–Austrian alliance (known as the Allies).
The British and Austrians were led by John_Churchill 1st Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugène of Savoy , with a contingent of Dutch troops, while the French were commanded by Marshal Villars and Marshal Louis Franois Boufflers. Each side had about 90,000 troops, and were encamped within cannon range of each other near the Belgian border. The Austrians attacked at 9 am, pushing the French back into the forest behind them. The Dutch broke off to attack the French right flank and were defeated with heavy casualties, but they distracted Boufflers enough that he could not come to Villars aid.
Villars was able to regroup his forces, but Marlborough and Eugène attacked again and forced Villars to retreat by 3 pm. The Allies had suffered so many casualties in their attack that they could not pursue him. By this time they had lost 20,000 men, twice as many as the French. It was the bloodiest battle of the war, and prevented the Allies from moving on towards Paris .
Retrieved from ""

Sources
1.[S473] History of Clan Macfarlane Vol I pub.1922, James Macfarlane, (published 1922 by David J. Clarke of Glasgow).
2.[S131] Clan MacFarlane - Mrs C M Little, Mrs C. M. Little, (1893).
3.[S5] International Genealogical Index - submitted, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Submission Search: 570414-093099155422 LDS Medieval Famil i es Unit. 
Macfarlane, Anderw Major (I123958)
 
162
Odaenathus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odaenathus

Septimius Odaenathus, or Odenatus (Greek: ?da??a??? (Hodainathos), Palmyrene ????? = little ear), the Latinized form of Odainath, was a famous prince of Palmyra, in the second half of the 3rd century AD, who succeeded in recovering the Roman East from the Persians and restoring it to the Empire.

He belonged to the leading family of Palmyra, which bore, in token of Roman citizenship, the gentilicium of Septimius; hence his full name was Septimius Odainath (Vogüé, Syrie centrale, Nos. 23, 28; Cooke, North-Semitic Inscriptions. Nos. 126, 530). It is practically certain that he was the son of Septimius Hairan the "senator and chief of Tadmor", the son of Septimius Odainath the senator (N.S.I. p. 285). The year when he became chief of Palmyra is not known, but already in an inscription dated AD. 258 he is styled "the illustrious consul our lord" (N.S.I. No. 126). He possessed the characteristic vigour and astuteness of the old Arab stock from which he sprang; and in his wife, the renowned Zenobia, he found an able supporter of his policy.

The defeat and captivity of the emperor Valerian in 260 left the eastern provinces largely at the mercy of the Persians; the prospect of Persian supremacy was not one which Palmyra or its prince had any reason to desire. At first, it seems, Odainath attempted to propitiate the Persian monarch Sapor I; but when his gifts were contemptuously rejected (Petr. Patricius, 10) he decided to throw in his lot with the cause of Rome. The neutrality which had made Palmyras fortune was abandoned for an active military policy which, while it added to Odainath's fame, in a short time brought his native city to its ruin. He fell upon the victorious Persians returning home after the sack of Antioch, and before they could cross the Euphrates inflicted upon them a considerable defeat.

Then, when two usurping emperors were proclaimed in the East (AD. 261), Odainath took the side of Gallienus the son and successor of Valerian, attacked and put to death the usurper Quietus at Emesa (Höms), and was rewarded for his loyalty by the grant of an exceptional position (A.D. 262). He may have assumed the title of king before; but he now became totius Orientis imperator, not indeed joint-ruler, nor Augustus, but independent lieutenant of the emperor for the East (Mommsen, Provinces, ii. p. 103).

In a series of rapid and successful campaigns, during which he left Palmyra under the charge of Septimius Worod his deputy (N.S.I. Nos. 127-129), he crossed the Euphrates and relieved Edessa, recovered Nisibis and Carrhae. He even took the offensive against the power of Persia, and twice invested the Persian capital Ctesiphon itself; probably also he brought back Armenia into the Empire. These successes restored the Roman rule in the East; and Gallienus did not disdain to hold a triumph with the captives and trophies which Odainath had won (A.D. 264).

While observing all due formalities towards his overlord, there can be little doubt that Odainath aimed at forging an independent empire; but during his lifetime no breach with Rome occurred. He was about to start for Cappadocia against the Goths when he was assassinated, together with Herodes his eldest son, by his nephew Maconius; there is no reason to suppose that this deed of violence was instigated from Rome. After his death (A.D. 266-267) Zenobia succeeded to his position, and practically governed Palmyra on behalf of her young son Vabalathus (Wahab-allath) or Athenodorus.

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odaenathus" 
Palmyra, Septimius Odenathus King of (I062913)
 
163
Old Palace
High Street, St Asaph, St Asaph, Denbighshire, LL17 0RD, Wales. UK


DELAMAIN Susan Sarah Christina, the Palace, St. Asaph, Flint, formerly Southsea, Hants, widow. Dec 17, Farrer & Co. sols.66 Lincoln's inn fields.
The Law Journal, Volume 23
Gasette Nov 9 1888

MARRIAGES.
April 22. Major C. H. Delamain, c.B., 3rd Bombay cavalry, to Susan Sarah Christina, daughter of the late Capt. W. Gun, at St. Peter's Church, Dublin.
Allen's Indian Mail, and Register of Intelligence for British and ..., Volume 4
https://books.google.com/books?id=0BwYAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA352&lpg=PA352&dq=Susan+Sarah+Christina+hughes+Delamain&source=bl&ots=B3X-z4eIXo&sig=ISF-4G71iYfqCH3i5cO3zqWDzu4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwix_pjzvI7SAhUN92MKHfORASMQ6AEINDAE#v=onepage&q=Susan%20Sarah%20Christina%20hughes%20Delamain&f=false 
Gun, Susan Sarah Christina (I105146)
 
164
PAPERS OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF DELAWARE.
XLI.
The Clayton Family.
BY
HENRY K. HEPBURN, ESQ., L.L. B.
OF PHILADEIvPHlA, PA.
Read before the Historical Society of Delaware, Feb. 15, 1904.

THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF DELAWARE,
WII^MINGTON,
1904.
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2008 with funding from
IVIicrosoft Corporation
http://www.archive.org/details/claytonfamilyOOhepb

https://archive.org/stream/claytonfamily00hepb/claytonfamily00hepb_djvu.txt
THE CLAYTON FAMILY.
https://archive.org/stream/claytonfamily00hepb/claytonfamily00hepb_djvu.txt
...
John de Clayton, who married Mar}^ Mainwaring of Cheshire, had by her two sons, first: Thomas, who was afterwards disinherited for disobeying his parents, (2) William and also three daughters. His first wife died in 1445 and he married secondly Jane Clifton, by whom he had two sons Robert and Richard. Robert the eldest son, by the second wife, died in Paris in 1471 without issue, and Richard Clayton, the 3'oungest son by the second wife succeeded to the estate, but dying without issue, he was succeeded by William de Clayton, a son of Thomas de Clayton and he dying without issue was succeeded by Robert Clayton, third son of Thomas who was disinherited. Robert Clayton as above, married Jane Farrington, by whom he had four sons: — Thomas, born in 1498; John born in 1499; Edward born in 1505; and Richard born in 1506, and

three daughters. He died 15 lo and was buried at Leyland and was succeeded by his eldest son Thomas Clayton who married, in 1561-3, Anne Jackson, of Bocking in Essex, and had two sons, Robert and WiUiam, and died in 1580. Robert, the eldest son, was of St. John's College and Vice- Chancellor of Cambridge. He married and had one son, John Clayton. This John Clayton had a son, Richard, and two daughters, Dorothy and Elizabet

He died December 20, 1623, aged twenty-seven years and was succeeded by Richard Clayton, his eldest and only son, who died by a fall from his horse, without issue.

The family estates of Clayton and Crook went by virtue of the settlement to Dorothy, his eldest sister, who was the wife of George Leycester, of Toft in Cheshire, Esquire. Whereupon the Lordship of Clayton, granted by William the Conqueror, went with this Dorothy Clayton, to her hus- band, and was afterward sold. This must have occurred about 1650 or 1660.

The line was continued by William Clayton, second son of Thomas Clayton and Anne Jackson. He had five sons (i) Thomas, born in 1585, (2) WiUiam, born in 1587, (3) John, born in 1588, (4) Ralph, born in 1589, (5) Richard, born in 1592 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas Clayton, who had the estates in Fulwood in Lancashire settled upon him and his issue.
https://archive.org/stream/claytonfamily00hepb/claytonfamily00hepb_djvu.txt


Richard Clayton, Cleaton or Cleayton 7GG (Quaker) 1625–1677
BIRTH 1625 • Swarthmoor, Lancashire, England
DEATH 1677 • Lancashire, England
gearries-amstutz. -jenniferrockhold6850
https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/18460494/person/1991453955/facts 
Clayton, Richard (I127521)
 
165
PART THREE

During my absence from Kentucky Col. Bowman carried on an expedition against the Shawanese, at old Chelicothe, with one hundred and sixty men, in July 1779. Here they arrived undiscovered, and a battle ensued, which lasted until ten o'clock A.M. when Col. Bowman, finding he could not succeed at this time, retreated about thirty miles. The Indians, in the mean time, collecting all their forces, pursued and overtook him, when a smart fight continued near two hours, not to the advantage of Col. Bowman's party.

Col. Harrod proposed to mount a number of horse, and furiously to rush upon the savages, who at this time fought with remarkable fury. This desperate step had a happy effect, broke their line of battle, and the savages fled on all sides. In these two battles we had nine killed, and one wounded. The enemy's loss uncertain, only two scalps being taken.

On the twenty-second day of June 1780, a large party of Indians and Canadians, about six hundred in number, commanded by Col. Bird, attacked Riddle's and Martin's stations, at the forks of Licking River, with six pieces of artillery.
They carried this expedition so secretly, that the unwary inhabitants did not discover them, until they fired upon the forts; and, not being prepared to oppose them, were obliged to surrender themselves miserable captives to barbarous savages, who immediately after tomahawked one man and two women, and loaded all the others with heavy baggage, forcing them along toward their towns, able or unable to march. Such as were weak and faint by the way, they tomahawked. The tender women, and helpless children, fell victims to their cruelty. This, and the savage treatment they received afterwards, is shocking to humanity, and too barbarous to relate.

The hostile disposition of the savages, and their allies, caused General Clark, the commandant at the Falls of the Ohio, immediately to begin an expedition with his own regiment, and the armed force of the country, against Pecaway, the principal town of the Shawanese, on a branch of Great Miami, which he finished with great success, took seventeen scalps, and burnt the town to ashes, with the loss of seventeen men.

About this time I returned to Kentucky with my family; and here, to avoid an enquiry into my conduct, the reader being before informed of my bringing my family to Kentucky, I am under the necessity of informing him that, during my captivity with the Indians, my wife, who despaired of ever seeing me again, expecting the Indians had put a period to my life, oppressed with the distresses of the country, and bereaved of me, her only happiness, had, before I returned, transported my family and goods, on horses, through the wilderness, amidst a multitude of dangers, to her father's house in North-Carolina.

Shortly after the troubles at Boonsborough, I went to them, and lived peaceably there until this time. The history of my going home, and returning with my family, forms a series of difficulties, an account of which would swell a volume, and being foreign of my purpose, I shall purposely omit them.

I settled my family in Boonsborough once more; and shortly after, on the sixth day of October 1780, I went in company with my brother to the Blue Licks; and, on our return home, we were fired upon by a party of Indians. They shot him, and pursued me, by the scent of their dog, three miles; but I killed the dog, and escaped. The winter soon came on, and was very severe, which confined the Indians to their wigwams.

The severity of this winter caused great difficulties in Kentucky. The enemy had destroyed most of the corn the summer before. This necessary article was scarce, and dear; and the inhabitants lived chiefly on the flesh of buffalo. The circumstances of many were very lamentable: however, being a hardy race of people, and accustomed to difficulties and necessities, they were wonderfully supported through all their sufferings, until the ensuing autumn, when we received abundance from the fertile soil.

Towards Spring, we were frequently harassed by Indians; and, in May 1782, a party assaulted Ashton's station, killed one man, and took a Negro prisoner. Capt. Ashton. with twenty-five men, pursued, and overtook the savages, and a smart fight ensued, which lasted two hours; but they being superior in number, obliged Captain Ashton's party to retreat, with the loss of eight killed, and four mortally wounded; their brave commander himself being numbered among the dead.

The Indians continued their hostilities; and, about the tenth of August following, two boys were taken from Major Hoy's station. This party was pursued by Capt. Holder and seventeen men, who were also defeated, with the loss of four men killed, and one wounded. Our affairs became more and more alarming. Several stations which had lately been erected in the country were continually infested with savages, stealing their horses and killing the men at every opportunity. In a field, near Lexington, an Indian shot a man, and running to scalp him, was himself shot from the fort, and fell dead upon his enemy.

Every day we experienced recent mischiefs. The barbarous savage nations of Shawanese, Cherokees, Wyandots, Tawas, Delawares, and several others near Detroit, united in a war against us, and assembled their choicest warriors at old Chelicothe, to go on the expedition, in order to destroy us, and entirely depopulate the country.

Their savage minds were inflamed to mischief by two abandoned men, Captains M'Kee and Girty. These led them to execute every diabolical scheme; and, on the fifteenth day of August, commanded a party of Indians and Canadians, of about five hundred in number, against Briant's station, five miles from Lexington. Without demanding a surrender, they furiously assaulted the garrison, which was happily prepared to oppose them; and, after they had expended much ammunition in vain, and killed the cattle round the fort, not being likely to make themselves masters of this place, they raised the siege, and departed in the morning of the third day after they came, with the loss of about thirty killed, and the number of wounded uncertain. Of the garrison four were killed, and three wounded.

On the eighteenth day Col. Todd, Col. Trigg, Major Harland, and myself, speedily collected one hundred and seventy-six men, well armed, and pursued the savages. They had marched beyond the Blue Licks to a remarkable bend of the main fork of Licking River, about forty-three miles from Lexington, where we overtook them on the nineteenth day. The savages observing us, gave way; and we, being ignorant of their numbers, passed the river. When the enemy saw our proceedings, having greatly the advantage of us in situation, they formed the line of battle, from one bend of Licking to the other, about a mile from the Blue Licks.

An exceeding fierce battle immediately began, for about fifteen minutes, when we, being overpowered by numbers, were obliged to retreat, with the loss of sixty-seven men, seven of whom were taken prisoners. The brave and much-lamented Colonels Todd and Trigg, Major Harland, and my second son, were among the dead. We were informed that the Indians, numbering their dead, found they had four killed more than we; and therefore, four of the prisoners they had taken were, by general consent, ordered to be killed, in a most barbarous manner, by the young warriors, in order to train them up to cruelty; and then they proceeded to their towns.

On our retreat we were met by Col. Logan, hastening to join us, with a number of well armed men. This powerful assistance we unfortunately wanted in the battle; for notwithstanding the enemy's superiority of numbers, they acknowledged that, if they had received one more fire from us, they should undoubtedly have given way. So valiantly did our small party fight, that, to the memory of those who unfortunately fell in the battle, enough of honour cannot be paid. Had Col. Logan and his party been with us, it is highly probable we should have given the savages a total defeat.

I cannot reflect upon this dreadful scene, but sorrow fills my heart. A zeal for the defence of their country led these heroes to the scene of action, though with a few men to attack a powerful army of experienced warriors. When we gave way, they pursued us with the utmost eagerness, and in every quarter spread destruction. The river was difficult to cross, and many were killed in the flight, some just entering the river, some in the water, others after crossing, in ascending the cliffs. Some escaped on horseback, a few on foot; and, being dispersed every where in a few hours, brought the melancholy news of this unfortunate battle to Lexington. Many widows were now made. The reader may guess what sorrow filled the hearts of the inhabitants, exceeding any thing that I am able to describe.

Being reinforced, we returned to bury the dead, and found their bodies strewed every where, cut and mangled in a dreadful manner. This mournful scene exhibited a horror almost unparalleled: Some torn and eaten by wild beasts; those in the river eaten by fishes; all in such a putrified condition, that no one could be distinguished from another.

As soon as General Clark, then at the Falls of the Ohio, who was ever our ready friend, and merits the love and gratitude of all his countrymen, understood the circumstances of this unfortunate action, he ordered an expedition, with all possible haste, to pursue the savages, which was so expeditiously effected, that we overtook them within two miles of their towns, and probably might have obtained a great victory, had not two of their number met us about two hundred poles before we came up. These returned quick as lightening to their camp with the alarming news of a mighty army in view.

The savages fled in the utmost disorder, evacuated their towns, and reluctantly left their territory to our mercy. We immediately took possession of Old Chelicothe, without opposition, being deserted by its inhabitants. We continued our pursuit through five towns on the Miami rivers, Old Chelicothe, Pecaway, New Chelicothe, Will's Towns, and Chelicothe, burnt them all to ashes, entirely destroyed their corn, and other fruits, and every where spread a scene of desolation in the country. In this expedition we took seven prisoners and five scalps, with the loss of only four men, two of whom were accidentally killed by our own army.

This campaign in some measure damped the spirits of the Indians, and made them sensible of our superiority. Their connections were dissolved, their armies scattered, and a future invasion put entirely out of their power; yet they continued to practice mischief secretly upon the inhabitants, in the exposed parts of the country.

In October following, a party made an excursion into that district called the Crab Orchard, and one of them, being advanced some distance before the others, boldly entered the house of a poor defenceless family, in which was only a Negro man, a woman and her children, terrified with the apprehensions of immediate death. The savage, perceiving their defenceless situation, without offering violence to the family, attempted to captivate the Negro, who happily proved an over-match for him, threw him on the ground, and, in the struggle, the mother of the children drew an axe from a corner of the cottage, and cut his head off, while her little daughter shut the door. The savages instantly appeared, and applied their tomahawks to the door. An old rusty gun-barrel, without a lock, lay in a corner, which the mother put through a small crevice, and the savages, perceiving it, fled. In the mean time, the alarm spread through the neighbourhood; the armed men collected immediately, and pursued the ravagers into the wilderness. Thus Providence, by the means of this Negro, saved the whole of the poor family from destruction.

From that time, until the happy return of peace between the United States and Great Britain, the Indians did us no mischief. Finding the great king beyond the water disappointed in his expectations, and conscious of the importance of the Long Knife, and their own wretchedness, some of the nations immediately desired peace; to which, at present, they seem universally disposed, and are sending ambassadors to General Clark, at the Falls of the Ohio, with the minutes of their Councils; a specimen of which, in the minutes of the Piankashaw Council, is subjoined.

To conclude, I can now say that I have verifies the saying of an old Indian who signed Col. Henderson's deed. Taking me by the hand, at the delivery thereof, "Brother," says he, "we have given you a fine land, but I believe you will have much trouble in settling it."

My footsteps have often been marked with blood, and therefore I can truly subscribe to its original name. Two darling sons, and a brother, have I lost by savage hands, which have also taken from me forty valuable horses, and abundance of cattle. Many dark and sleepless nights have I been a companion for owls, separated from the cheerful society of men, scorched by the summer's sun, and pinched by the winter's cold, an instrument ordained to settle the wilderness. But now the scene is changed: peace crowns the sylvan shade.

What thanks, what ardent and ceaseless thanks are due to that all-superintending Providence which has turned a cruel war into peace, brought order out of confusion, made the fierce savages placid, and turned away their hostile weapons from our country! May the same Almighty Goodness banish the accursed monster, war, from all lands, with her hated associates, rapine and insatiable ambition! Let peace, descending from her native heaven, bid her olives spring amidst the joyful nations; and plenty, in league with commerce, scatter blessings from her copious hand!

http://www.earlyamerica.com/lives/boone/chapt3/index.html 
Boone, Daniel Colonel. Story continued (I068568)
 
166
Peter Fitz Henry, Mayor of London
https://www.geni.com/people/Peter-Fitz-Henry-Mayor-of-London/334364732620014566
Also Known As: "Roger"
Birthdate: circa 1165 (42)
Birthplace: London, Middlesex, England
Death: October 30, 1207 (38-46)
Addington, Surrey, England, UK

Immediate Family:
Son of Henry Fitz-Ailwin, Lord Mayor of London and Margaret
Husband of Isabel de Chesney
Father of Margaret de Clere and Joan FitzHenry
Brother of Alan Fitz Henry; Thomas Fitz Henry and Richard Fitz Henry

Managed by: Tiffany Beesley Brock
Last Updated: October 18, 2016  
Henry, Peter Fitz Mayor of London (I113545)
 
167
Pictish Nation


Welcome to the world's first web site dedicated to the Picts! On the web since 1994! In here I want to make some things available to potential Pictophiles and all others who come to visit. First of all, I want to create the world's first page dedicated to that ancient race (known as the Picts) whom once inhabited present day Scotland. I will try to link all Pictish pages on the web here. If you know of one I've missed, please email me with its URL and I will add it. Furthermore, for really serious Pictophiles, I recommend joining the Pictish Arts Society, which is truly the world's finest organization dedicated to preserving and expanding interest in Pictish culture. As such I enthusiastically recommend you join them! To read some books about the Picts visit the link at the bottom of the page. Finally, those of you who saw the TBS Special on June 28, 1998 "Tattoos: Women of the Ink", Let's get those letters flowing to the National Geographic and maybe they'll take a look at them too! If you liked the TBS piece, write to them and tell them you'd like them to do a program on the Picts! Their address is: Turner Original Productions, One CNN Center, Box 105366, Atlanta, GA 30348.
I will also try to create links to artists who work in a Pictish genre and also WHERE you can find them. Since I believe that we about to see an explosion of interest in the art and history of these ancient people, I look forward to the page and its links changing all the time. Visit often!
By now you must be asking.... Who are the Picts???

17th century imagined (and completely inaccurate) rendering of a Pict by John White

The Picts
"Venit et extremis legio praetenta Britannis, Quae Scotto dat frena truci ferronque notatas Perlegit examines Picto moriente figuras"
The above words of the Roman poet Claudian perhaps give the only physical description of the race of people known as Picts who once raided Roman Britain, defeated the Angle-Saxon invaders and in one of the great mysteries of the ancient world, disappeared as a separate people by the end of the tenth century. "This legion, which curbs the savage Scot and studies the designs marked with iron on the face of the dying Pict," are the Claudian words which give some insight as to the name given by Rome to the untamed tribes north of Hadrian's Wall . The Romans called this pre-Celtic people Pictii, or "Painted," although Claudius' words are proof that (as claimed by many historians), the ancient Picts actually tattooed their bodies with designs. To the non-Roman Celtic world of Scots and Irish and the many tribes of Belgic England and Wales they were known as "Cruithni" and for many centuries they represented the unbridled fury of a people who refused to be brought under the yoke of Rome or any foreign invader.
The origins of the Picts are clouded with many fables, legends and fabrications, and there are as many theories as to who the Picts were (Celtic, Basque, Scythians, etc.), where they came from, what they ate or drank, and what language they spoke, as there once were Pictish raiders defying the mighty legions of Rome. Legend tells us, perhaps incorrectly, that Rome's mighty Ninth Legion, the famous "Hispana" legion, which had earned its battle honors in Iberia, conquering Celtic Spain for Caesar is never heard of again when faced against the Picts (they actually surfaced years later in Israel). We do know that the Picts may have spoken a non-Celtic language, (although many Celtophiles feel the Picts spoke a Brythonic-Gaulish form of Celtic language) as St. Columba's biographer clearly stated that the Irish saint needed a translator to preach to the Pictish King Brude, son of Maelchon, at Brude's court near the shores of Loch Ness. At other times the Pictish king lived at Scone, and we know there often were two separate Pictish kingdoms of Northern and Southern Picts. We know that they were mighty sailors, for the Romans feared the Pictish Navy almost as much as the wild men who came down from the Highlands to attack the villages along the wall. We also know that as far as the 9th century they wrote in stone a language which was not far in design from the Celtic "Ogham" script but was not Celtic in context, although Prof. Richard Cox thinks that it is Norse, which has really turned the carefully galvanized world of Pictish academic opinions upside down. By the legacy of their standing stones, we know that they were great artists as well. It is also well known that the Picts were one of Western culture's rare matrilinear societies; that is, bloodlines passed through the mother, and Pictish kings were not succeeded by their sons, but by their brothers or nephews or cousins as traced by the female line in (according to the scholar Dr. Anthony Jackson) a complicated series of intermarriages by seven royal houses.
It was this rare form of succession which in the year 845 A.D. gave the crown of Alba and the title Rex Pictorum to a Celtic Scot, son of a Pictish princess by the name of Kenneth, Son of Alpin. This Kenneth MacAlpin, whose father's kingship over the Scots had been earlier taken over by the Pictish king Oengus, who ruled as both king of Picts and Scots, and who possibly harbored a deep ethnic hatred for the Picts, and in the event known as "MacAlpin's Treason" murdered the members of the remaining seven royal houses thus preserving the Scottish line for kingship of Alba and the eventual erasure from history of the Pictish race, culture and history.
The true mystery in Pictish studies is the extraordinary disappearance of the culture of the tattoed nations of the North. The fact that within three generations of MacAlpin kings, the Picts were almost held in legendary status as a people of the past must be the real question to be answered, and the historian is consumed by legend, lack of facts and the nagging story of an obscure intrigue leading to genocide of a people, its customs, culture, laws and art.
It is in the sculptured stones of Scotland, left behind by the Pictish and proto-Pictish people of ancient Alba and present day Scotland that we can find some information about a mighty race of people who defied and defeated Rome and who slaughtered the invincible barbarian hordes of Angles Germans at Nechtansmere in Angus, and hammered the invading Vikings back home thus forever preserving a separate culture and race in Scotland. It is in these sometimes mighty, sometimes delicate stones that the history of ancient Scotland is now recorded. Were they descendants of the ancient Basque people of northern Spain once known to Rome as Pictones, who then migrated to northern Britain after they had helped the Empire defeat the seagoing people of Biscay? Or are they descendants of the dark tribes of ancient Stygia and the huge Eastern steepes? No one knows - only the Stones.



Introduction...
Perhaps the greatest mystery of Scottish or even European history is the people who once inhabited the lands north of Hadrian's Wall and as far north as the Shetlands. Who were these fiercely independent people? Where did the come from? Which language did they speak? What did they call themselves? We first hear of them in the third century from a Roman writer, who describes their fierceness and battle skills. The writer Eumenius, writes about them 200 years after Rome has been in Britain, and the name associated with the Pict is forever coined. To this day, we do not know if this is truly as in "pictus" (the Latin for "painted") or a Latin form of a native name. Because of the isolation of northern Scotland, history yields little, and the Roman Empire's expeditions into the north ended in little gains.
"We, the most distant dwellers upon the earth, the last of the free, have been shielded...by our remoteness and by the obscurity which has shrouded our name...Beyond us lies no nation, nothing but waves and rocks"
The above words by the Pictish chief Calgacus are recorded by the Roman enemy in the words of Tacitus and are a perfect example of the obscurity and legendary status held by the Picts almost 2,000 years ago.
Early Scotland
The earliest recorded evidence of man in Scotland is dated to 8,500 B.C. It is thus that a few thousand years before the birth of Christ, Neolithic men from Spain and France, makers of fire and herders of sheep and cattle had already made their way to Scotland. Some archeologists suggest that these people may have built and used the great chambered cairns which dot the Scottish countryside. It has also been suggested that their descendants eventually merged with the Beaker people (who probably came from northern Europe), and this ethnic union made up the pre-Celtic stock of the northern lands.
The link of these early inhabitants to their Iberian ancestors can be found in the many spiral pattern grooves cut into the rocks and boulders of this northern land and which can also be found in Spain, France and Ireland. The design of burial chambers located in the Orkney islands also provide an important link to the Iberian origin of their builders. Farming arrived in these islands around 4,000 BC (3-4,000 years after it started in Asia Minor) and as it replaced the nomadic way of life, the Orkneys became an island fortress with its many stone settlements. By the time Rome became a world empire, the Orcadians were recognized by Rome as a sea power. From recent excavations, it seems that these Orcadian people were a slim, swarthy Caucasian race, with long, narrow heads.

The great stone circles such as Sunhoney were probably being built around 3,300 BC, quite possibly around the same time as the arrival of the Beaker people from Northern and Central Europe. These newcomers were of a different ethnic group from the Iberian stock in northern Britain, as their skulls were much broader and round. Evidence of contact between these new people and their continental ancestors have been discovered in several excavations, and seem to indicate a flourishing trade between ancient Scotland and Europe. It is thought by many scholars that the union of these two peoples resulted in the creation of the pre- Celtic stock eventually loosely called Pict by the Roman and Cruithne by the Celts.
The arrival of the Celts to Britain and Ireland brings yet another culture to these northern parts. The Irish call themselves the "Milesian race," based on the myth that they are descended from Milesius, a Celtic King of Spain.

Celtic Torque from Spain
The Celts arrived in Britain around 500 B.C. A nomadic people whose culture spread from Eastern Europe to Iberia, they were sometimes described as as fair headed, tall, fierce warriors by the Greeks (Since many Celts dyed their hair with lye, some historians believe that this is what the Greeks meant by fair-headed) althought the Britannic Celts encountered by the Romans were usually described as dark haired and short. As a warrior culture, it was a Celtic army which nearly destroyed Rome in her early days and thus forever made themselves an unforgivable enemy of the Latin empire. Because the first historical reference to the Picts appears in 297 A.D., when they are mentioned as enemies of Rome in the same context as the Hiberni (Irish), Scotii (Scots) and Saxones (Saxons), many historians assume that the Picts were simply another Celtic tribe. Although is quite probable that there was much Celtic stock in some of the southern tribes in the loose federation of tribes which eventually made up the Pictish nation, it is my opinion that the vast majority of the Pictish peoples north of the Forth were made up mostly from the earlier, pre-Celtic people of northern Britain. Some historians use Ireland as an example, and Michael Lynch eloquently states that "Whatever the Picts were, they are likely, as were other peoples either in post-Roman western Europe or in contemporary Ireland, to have been an amalgalm of tribes, headed by a warrior aristocracy which was by nature mobile. Their culture was the culture of the warrior... ." More on this later.
The bottom line is that so little is known, that most Pictophiles need to make huge leaps and prodigious interpretations of the "facts" to state their views. The explanations migrate to this core of "facts" in a futile effort to explain this mysterious people.
The Romans came to Scotland, often defeated the Picts in battle, but they never conquered them or the land on which they lived. By the third century A.D. the Roman general Agricola slaughtered a Pictish army led by the quoted Calgacus, the Swordsman (as many of 10,000 Picts may have been killed and 340 Romans). The Picts who fought Agricola at Mons Grampius were described as tall and fair headed. Agricola's legions halted near Aberargie in Perthshire, where they built a fort. They also met a new tribe of barbarians, who the Romans described as swarthy and looking like the Iberians they had conquered in southern Spain. It was to retain control of the advances made by Agricola that several forts were built between Callander near Stirling up to Perth. Within thirty years of their establishment, the Picts had destroyed and burned the Roman forts, and according to Victorian legend, Rome's most famous legion, the Ninth was sent north from Inchtuthil to perhaps relieve Pictish pressure. Legend has it that legion was massacred and forever lost in some unknown battle against the painted men of the north, although history shows us that the Ninth reappears later on in Judea.
It was Hadrian who decided that northern Scotland was not worth more legions, and so he pulled back the Empire to the Tyne and the Solway. There he built the famous wall which bears his name, seventy miles from sea to sea. Perhaps because of constant warfare and attacks against the wall, that Antoninus Pius advanced the frontier again to the thin Scottish neck between the Forth and Clyde. Thirty nine miles long and boasting twenty forts, it may have separated Pictish tribes on either sides of the wall. The wall was manned by the Second, Sixth and Twentieth Legions during its forty years. The Picts never ceased attacking it, and in fact the Romans lost it and regained it twice before finally giving it up by the end of the second century and retreating to Hadrian's Wall. We lean from the words of Cassius Dio that the northern tribes "crossed the wall, did a great deal of damage and killed a general and his troops."


"Pictish Nation"
Modern Depiction of a Romanticized Pictish Woman as imagined by the author
(For Info on how to acquire a signed, limited edition print of this drawing, click on the image)
In 208 A.D., the governor of Britain was forced to appeal to the Emperor for help against the barbarians, and Septimus Severus decided to come to Britain together with his sons. The old soldier took a Roman fleet loaded with 40,000 centurions into the Firth of Forth, landed a vengeful Roman army ashore, and although he defeated every Pictish army he met and beheaded every Pictish chief who failed to surrender, he failed to conquer the land which he called Caledonia and he too was soon dead. However, the lesson grimly taught by the Roman and the decimation caused in the Pictish countryside must have been of such consequences that for nearly a century peace was kept in the land; the Romans manned Hadrian's Wall and the northern tattoed tribes stayed in their grim, brooding hills north of it.

The fourth century erupts in warfare again and in 305 A.D. the Romans fought against "Caledones and other Picts." The northern tribes are now called "Picts" by their enemies, and in the south, Scots, Saxons and Franks also add to the woes of Rome by raiding southern Britain. In 343 A.D. Constans starts a campaign against the Picts and probably entered into a truce with them. In 360 Ammanius Marcellus states that the "Picts were now two peoples - the Dicalydones and Verturiones." That same year, the truce is broken and the Picts, allied with the Scots of Ireland pour through the wall into northern England and are repulsed back. They kept hammering at the wall, and may have in fact joined in a multi- tribal alliance against Rome. In 382-3, allied with the Scots they again invade England, and this time the damage done to the wall and its forts is never repaired although the invaders are driven back by Magnus Maximus. The end of the century brings yet another Pictish invasion, this time met by the great Roman general Stilicho himself, who also manages to send the great Irish hero Niall of the Nine Hostages, scampering back to Ireland.
By 409 the Roman hold on Britain was slipping away, and Britons were told to defend themselves. About this time the Celtic Gaelic tribe of Scots begins settling in the southwest of Scotland, creating the kingdom of Dalriada in Argyll (Oir Ghaedhil or Eastern Gaels). Out of the need to protect themselves from the barbaric Pictish and Scottish hordes, a new kingdom is created by the Britons of Strathclyde, who spoke a Celtic tongue much like their cousins in Wales. By 450 the Picts are pouring into the south again, and the monk Gildas calls them the "foul hordes of Scots and Picts, like dark throngs of worms who wriggle out of narrow fissures in the rock when the sun is high and the weather grows warm." This is the last time we hear of the Picts and Scots fighting as allies, and if we take Gildas literally, the Scots return to Ireland around this time. In 461, St. Patrick dies, but Christianity is well spread in Ireland.
The Land of the Picts
By studying the Roman accounts of the Pictish Wars as well as later accounts, it appears that the Pictish lands were essentially north of the Forth-Clyde line, north of the Antonine Wall. Roman pacification, and Celtic and Saxon migration from the south would have erased any Pictish claims to people or lands south of the wall. In the west, Pictish presence in Argyll must have disappeared quickly after the arrival of the Scots of Dalriada around 500 A.D., although as evidenced by the standing stone near the entrance to Inveraray castle in Campbell country, they were there at one point in their history. In the north, Pictish influences reached as far north as the islands went and stones have been found in nearly all of them. This land was defended many times after the departure of Rome's legions. The Picts fought invasions by the Scots in the west, the Britons and Angles in the south and the Vikings in the north. They sometimes lost great battles and huge chunks of land, only to regain it in the vicious warfare of the Dark Ages. In the 7th century the Scots pushed their frontier far north, and a victorious Celtic army came within a half-day march of the Pictish capital of Inverness in the north before it was crushed. In the south, the Angles marched their Teutonic armies north and held Pictish lands for thirty years before they were butchered and sent fleeing south by a united Pictish army.
Although historians disagree on nearly everything which has been written about the Picts, and they disagree on the following, it is thought that the Picts had 69 Kings. Click below to discover...
http://members.tripod.com/~Halfmoon/index.html
The Pictish Kings
The Ancient Names of Scotland
Mac Alpin's Treason
The Ancient Connection to Spain
Pictish Links
Books About The Picts
Pictish Art 
Nation, Pictish (I070394)
 
168
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II.Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was the pharaoh of Egypt from 281 BC to 246 BC. He was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief of the old style. E.J.Bickermann (Chronology of the Ancient World, 2nd ed. 1980) gives the date of his death as January 29.

His brother Ptolemy Ceraunus found compensation by becoming king in Macedonia in 281 BCE, and perished in the Gallic invasion of 280-79 (see Brennus).

He began his reign as co-regent with his parents Ptolemy I and Berenice I from 288 BC-285 BC.

Ptolemy II maintained a splendid court in Alexandria. Not that Egypt held aloof from wars. Magas of Cyrene opened war on his half-brother (274 BCE), and Antiochus I Soter, the son of Seleucus, desiring Coele-Syria with Judea, attacked soon after. Two or three years of war left Egypt the dominant naval power of the eastern Mediterranean; the Ptolemaic sphere of power extended over the Cyclades to Samothrace, and the harbours and coast towns of Cilicia Trachea ("Rough Cilicia"), Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria were largely in Ptolemy's hands.

The victory won by Antigonus, king of Macedonia, over his fleet at Cos (between 258 and 256) did not long interrupt his command of the Aegean. In a second war with the Seleucid kingdom, under Antiochus II Theos (after 260), Ptolemy sustained losses on the seaboard of Asia Minor and agreed to a peace by which Antiochus married his daughter Berenice (ca. 250).

Ptolemy's first wife, Arsinoë I, daughter of Lysimachus, was the mother of his legitimate children. After her repudiation he married, probably for political reasons, his full-sister Arsinoë II, the widow of Lysimachus, by an Egyptian custom abhorrent to Greek morality.

The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II. Pomps and gay religions flourished. Ptolemy deified his parents and his sister-wife, after her death (270), as Philadelphus. This surname was used in later generations to distinguish Ptolemy II. himself, but properly it belongs to Arsinoë only, not to the king.

Callimachus, made keeper of the library, Theocritus, and a host of lesser poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. Ptolemy himself was eager to increase the library and to patronize scientific research. He had the strange beasts of far off lands sent to Alexandria. But, an enthusiast for Hellenic culture, he seems to have shown but little interest in the native religion.

The tradition preserved in the pseudepigraphical Letter of Aristeas which connects the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament into Greek with his patronage is probably not historical. Ptolemy had many brilliant mistresses, and his court, magnificent and dissolute, intellectual and artificial, has been justly compared with the Versailles of Louis XIV.

List of pharaohs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pharaohs 
Egypt, Ptolemy II 'Philadelphos' Pharaoh of (I063070)
 
169
Richaed Atlmee, Esq. of Lyons, appointed Chief Sergeant of the co. Kildare, 1 June, 27 Hen It VIII. A.d. 1535, m. Genet, dau. and heir of Alderman Thomas Tew, of Dublin, and was s. by his son,

Rich»rd Atlmee, Esq. of Lyons, m. Elinor, dan. of George Fleming, 2nd son of James Lord Slane, and bad,

i. Thomas, bis heir.

ii. George, of Cloncurrie. co. Kildare, m. Mary. dau. of Patrick Hussey, Baron of Gattrim.

in. Gerald (Sir), created a Bart, (see Boeke's Peerage and Baronetage).

Iv. Edward, m. Katherine, dau. of Robert Fitzgerald, Esq. of Alloone. The eldest son,

Thomas Atlmee, Esq. of Lyons, s. his father, and had livery of his estate, 20 July, 1562. He m. Alison, dau. of Thomas Cusac, Esq. of Cussingtown, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and by her (who a!. Dec. 1623) had,

i. Bartholomew, $. his father, and was ancestor of Atlmee of Lyons.

Ii. Richard of Hartwell, who left four sons, in. John, ancestor of Atlmee of Co or town.

The third son,

John Atlmee, Esq. of Ballykennan. co. Kildare, m. Elinor, dau. of Hussey, of Noyle Hosecy. and had (with three daus.,


EUice, m. Gerald Dillon, Esq. of Kellynynon, co. Wcetmcath; Cicely; Alison) five sons,

i. Matthew, his heir. 
Aylmer, Edward (I100633)
 
170
Richard Camoys, of Ingescourt
https://www.geni.com/people/Sir-Richard-Camoys-of-Ingescourt/364361217620006861
Birthdate: circa 1390
Birthplace: Camoys Court, Sussex, England
Death: before June 24, 1416
Trotton, West Sussex, England, United Kingdom

Immediate Family:
Son of Thomas de Camoys, 1st Baron Camoys and Elizabeth de Camoys, heir of Milton
Husband of Joan Camoys
Father of Eleanor Lewknor; Margaret (Camoys) Rademylde; Jane De Camoys and Hugh de Camoys, 3rd Baron Camoys
Brother of Maud de Camoys; Sir Roger de Camoys, of Camoys Court and Alice de Camoys

Occupation: Knight in Camois Court

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated: September 22, 2016  
de Camoys, Richard (Sir) of Ingescourt (I032797)
 
171
Robert Clayton
Male 1030 - 1066 (36 years)

Name Robert Clayton [1, 2]
Born 1030 Caudebec, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Gender Male
Died 1066 Leyland, Lancashire, England
Person ID I1649 Woodworth Ancestry
Last Modified 14 Jan 2020

Children
1. John Clayton [natural]
2. Robert Clayton, b. 1052, France [natural]
+ 3. William Clayton, b. 1060, Haute-Normandie, France , d. 1141, Slain/ (Age 81 years) [natural]

Last Modified 14 Jan 2020
Family ID F519 Group Sheet | Family Chart

Sources
1.[S65] Clayton Family History, http://www.billputman.com/Clayton.pdf.
2.[S309] The Clayton Family, Hepburn, Henry F, (Name: Historical Society of Delaware; Location: Wilmington, Delaware, USA; Date: 1904;).

Pedigree Chart
ROBERT de CLAYTON was born in Caudebec, Normandy in about 1030. Robert was the son of Hugh and Grandson of Leofwine of Normandy. He came to England with William the Conqueror and fought at the Battle of Hastings. For his services, he was awarded the Manor of Clayton in Lancashire. He was then known as Robert de Clayton. He had three sons: John, William and Robert.

WILLIAM de CLAYTON was born about 1060 in Normandy. William took over as Lord of Clayton after his older brother was slain when he was in the war against Malcolm, King of Scotland.

WILLIAM de CLAYTON married Mary Hyde and they had one son before he was slain in battle on Candlemass day in 1141.

ROBERT de CLAYTON was born about 1090, the first of the line to be born in England. He married Margaret Cabaldeston and ruled as Lord of the Manor.

WILLIAM de CLAYTON was born about 1120. He was the only son of Robert and inherited the Clayton Manor. He married Elizabeth Farrington. William died in 1152 and is
buried at Leyland, Lancashire. He had three sons: Richard who became a priest and died in France, Thomas who died without children and Robert.

ROBERT de CLAYTON inherited the Manor and married Elizabeth Parker in 1169. He had four sons, but three, William, Robert and Thomas were killed in Normandy while fighting for King John of England in 1200. The remaining son, John the third eldest, took over the manor.

JOHN de CLAYTON was born about 1180 and was the surviving son of Robert. He married Cicily Peel and had two sons. John died in 1210. The eldest son William must have died as the youngest, Thomas took the Manor

Pedigree Chart

PAPERS OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF DELAWARE.
XLI.
The Clayton Family.
BY
HENRY K. HEPBURN, ESQ., L.L. B.
OF PHILADEIvPHlA, PA.
Read before the Historical Society of Delaware, Feb. 15, 1904.

THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF DELAWARE,
WII^MINGTON,
1904.
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2008 with funding from
IVIicrosoft Corporation
http://www.archive.org/details/claytonfamilyOOhepb

https://archive.org/stream/claytonfamily00hepb/claytonfamily00hepb_djvu.txt
THE CLAYTON FAMILY.
It is well to start with the family history at the founda- tion, and then follow it up through its various changes to the present time. We will start about 912, when Rollo made peace with the King of France, and the Dukedom of Normandy was confirmed. In that settlement after a thirty years war, the King of France agreed to confirm Rollo's title as Duke of Normandy, and give him his daughter in marriage; the Duke agreeing to do homage to the King, to become a Christian and marry the King's daughter. But when the time came for the Duke to do homage, he refused to kiss the King's foot, and no persuasion or entreaty could induce him to perform that part of the ceremony. It was finally compromised by permitting Rollo to kiss the King's foot by proxy, but when the courtier lifted up the King's foot, he raised it so high that it tumbled the King out of his chair, which created great laughter among those present. Yet the King bore this indignity, well knowing that Rollo's army was too strong to meet in battle.

From that time Normandy began to flourish, and during the time of its first six dukes, it was one of the richest provinces in the world, notwithstanding its many wars. When "William the Conqueror", who was the seventh Duke, came upon the stage of action, Normandy was divided into two classes, the nobility, who were the descendants of Rollo's followers, and the peasants who were the descendants of the French; so that we find a class of cultured people, who had

4 THE CLA YTON FA MIL V.
much of the polish of Paris, and who were far in advance of the Saxons in England

During the time of the quarrel between William the Conqueror and King Harold, William called together his chieftains in council. Some were willing to go to war while others refused; but one of his brainy men "Fitzosborne" advised the Duke to call upon the nobility separately, which was done, and in a short time sufiicient men and means were ready for his enterprise. A man by the name of Robert, born in Caudebec Normandy, France, accompanied William the Conqueror to England. He was a soldier well skilled in arms, and after the battle of Hastings, had the Manor of Clayton given him by William the Conqueror for his laudable services in battle. He was afterwards known
as "Robert de Clayton" and was Lord of the Manor of Clayton, and the first Clayton spoken of in the history of England.

He had three sons: — John, William and Robert. John accompanied William Rufus in his war against "Malcolm" King of Scotland, and fell nobly in battle near Penrith, in Cumberland. William de Clayton, the second son, succeed-ed his father. He faithfully served King Stephen in all his troubles, and on Candlemas Day, 1141, he lost his life in battle, and was succeeded bj- his son Robert.

Robert had one son William de Clayton. He married Elizabeth Farringtou, of Farrington. He had three sons and died in 1152 and was buried at Leyland, Lancashire. The eldest son, Richard, was a priest of a very benevolent character and died in Normandy. Thomas, the second son, died without issue and Robert de Clayton, the third son, succeeded his father. He married in 1151 and had four

John M. Clayton.
THE CLAYTON FAMILY. 5

sons: — William, Robert, John and Thomas. Three of the sons accompanied King John into Normandy in 1200 and died without issue. John the third son succeeded his father. He had two sons William and Thomas and died in 1209 and was succeeded by his second son Thomas de Clayton.
https://archive.org/stream/claytonfamily00hepb/claytonfamily00hepb_djvu.txt 
de Clayton, Robert Lord of Clayton (I134320)
 
172
Robert IV Passemer d'Estouteville
https://www.geni.com/people/Robert-IV-Passemer-d-Estouteville/6000000007302873312?through=6000000007302873307
Gender: Male
Birth: circa 1240
Death: circa 1310 (61-79)
Immediate Family:
Son of Jean I D'Estouteville and Agnès Isabeau de Châteaudun
Husband of Jeanne Alix d'Estouteville and Eléonore d'Estouteville
Father of Robert d'Estouteville; Jeanne d'Estouteville; Raoul d'Estouteville and Alix d'Estouteville
Brother of Estout d'Estouteville and Léonore d'Estouteville
Added by: Matthieu Parneix on May 21, 2008
Managed by: Catherine Dulondel, Ofir Friedman, Christian Cussonneau, Jf Antoine and Jan Sem Dambæk « less  
d'Estouteville, Robert IV Passemer (I136530)
 
173
Roger de Coleville
oleville-Lord-Colville-of-Bytham/6000000003243404915
Also Known As: "de Colevyle", "de Colville"
Birthdate: circa 1251 (37)
Birthplace: of Castle Bytham, Lincolnshire , England
Death: April 1288 (33-41)
Bytham, Lincolnshire, England

Place of Burial:
Bitham, Lincolnshire, England, UK

Immediate Family:
Son of Walter de Coleville, Lord Colville, of Bytham and Isabel de Coleville
Husband of Margaret Devereaux and Elizabeth Handsacre
Father of Alice de Gernon; Elizabeth Basset and Edmund de Coleville, of Bytham
Brother of Margaret de Colville

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated: July 21, 2015  
de Colville, Roger Lord Colville (I036807)
 
174
Sarah Post 2Z48-HF3??
https://www.familysearch.org/tree/person/details/2Z48-HF3
Birth 6 November 1659 Old Saybrook, Hartford, Connecticut Colony, British Colonial America
Death after 1715 New London, Ne


Family Members
Spouses and Children

Captain John Hough 1655–1715 • LCYQ-9D9??
Marriage: 27 January 1680 Norwichtown, New London, Connecticut Colony, British Colonial America
Sarah Post 1659–1702 • 2Z48-HF3??
Children of Sarah Post and Captain John Hough (7)
Sarah Hough 1684–1714 • LCWK-MWS??
Hannah Hough 1688–1754 • L6PY-DKM??
Abiah Hough 1690–Deceased • LTDN-CWJ??
Esther Hough 1695–1740 • KZQZ-R4Z??
Capt. John Hough 1697–1785 • LC7V-NZZ??
David Hough 1699–Deceased • L7NX-FJ2??
Jabez Hough 1702–1725 • L4S2-DVP?? 
Post, Sarah (I1702227)
 
175
Sent: Sunday, July 24, 2005 3:27 PM

Subject: WorldConnect: Revised Post-em posted

Database: maclaren
Individual: I60536
Name: joe c
Email: kcofin4@aol.com

Anne Williams married John Daniels their dau Elizabeth Daniels b circa 21721
married Christopher Dudley they have descent to today not yet posted

3 Elizabeth DANIEL b: c 1723-5
+ Christopher DUDLEY b: May 1715 d: 1781 Va

4 Ann/Anne DUDLEY b: ab 1740
+ Henry MEACHUM/MEACHAM b: 1721

Anne DUDLEY b: ab 1735
+ Henry Meacham / Meachum
b: 1721 Surry Co, VA d: 1804 - 1809 NC
note Meachum is also Meachum Machin Mecom

Col Henry Meacham / Meachum b: 1753 Va d: 1836 NC
+ Wilmite Williams b: d: NC
dau of William Williams

Rev Robert Bartlett Meachum b: 1807 d: 1886
+ Nancy Elizabeth Reynolds b: 1830 d: 1912
both buried Rock Mills, Al cemetary behind school

dau of Rev Edmund Wyley Reynolds
b: 17 Sept 1803 d: 13 Nov 1870
& Hattie Louise Sentell
b: 13 Mar 1801 d: 10 Dec 1870 Fayette Co, Ga or Rock Mills, AL


William Banks "Squire" Meachum b: 1853 d: 1915
+ Sarah Evelyn Ussery b: 1851 d: 1923
dau of Milton Jackson Ussery b: 1818 d: 1886
& Sarah Adeline Henry b: 1826 d: 1888
of Bacon Level, Al (3-4 miles SE of Roanoke, Al)
both buried at Bacon Level Baptist Church
(stones moved to Rock Mills, AL cemetary behind school)

Ila Princess Meachum b: 16 Sept 1881 d: 10 Jan 1973
+ Samuel Lester Bonner b: 14 Feb 1873 d: 4 Mar 1947
Both of Bacon Level, Al
(3-4 miles SE Roanoke, Al)
son of James Whitmal Bonner and Flora Anna Rushton

Flora Evelyn Bonner b: 26 Aug 1908 d: 24 Sept 1984
+ L E Cooper Sr b: 2 Mar 1911 d: 2 Oct 2000
both of Roanoke, Al
son of John Frank Cooper & Emma Ophelia Kitchens

Living Cooper Jr, Ens, Author
+ living Wood
dau of Kenneth Elton Wood (1923-12 Aug 2004) & Living Breen

 
Daniels, Anne Williams married John (I067373)
 
176
Sent: Thursday, November 02, 2006 2:28 AM
Subject: WorldConnect: Post-em posted
Name: joe c
Email: kcofin2@aol.com
:
Note:

Keith(s) Marischal(s) of Scotland to Erskine Earls of Mar to Elphinstone

http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=PED&db=wolfordsheppard&id=I043059

1 Hervey Keith , Marischal of Scotland d: Bef 1196
2 Malcolm Keith d: Aft 1220
3 Phillip Keith , Marischal of Scotland d: Bef 1225
+ Eda Lorens
4 Hervey Keith , Marischal of Scotland d: Bef 1250
5 John (Sir) Keith , Marischal of Scotland d: Bef 1270
+ Margaret Comyn
6 William (Sir) Keith , Marischal of Scotland d: Bef 1293
+ Barbara Seton
7 Edward (Sir) Keith , Marischal of Scotland d: Bef 1351
+ Isabella Sinton , heiress of Sinton
+ Christian Menteith d: ab 1387
8 Janet Keith d: ab MAY 1413
+ David (Sir) Barclay , lord of Brech
d: Bef 16 APR 1369
9 Margaret Barclay d: Bef 1 AUG 1404
+ Walter Stewart , Earl of Atholl & Caithness
b: ab 1360 d: 26 MAR 1437
10 David Stewart , master of Atholl d: 1434
10 Alan Stewart , Earl of Caithness d: 1431
+ Thomas (Sir) Erski
d: 11 NOV 1403 - MAY 1404
9 Robert (Sir) Erskine , earl of M
d: 7 SEP 1451 - 6 NOV 1452
+ Elizabeth Lindsay
10 Christian Erskine d: Aft 1479
+ Patrick Graham , Lord Grah
d: Aft 24 JUN 1466
+ William Charteris , of Kinfauns
10 Janet Erskine
+ Walter (Sir) Stewart , master of Fife
d: 24 MAY 1425

10 Thomas (Sir) Erskine, Earl of Mar d: ab 1493
+ Janet Douglas d: Aft 12 AUG 1489

http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=DESC&db=wolfordsheppard&id=I011776

1 Thomas (Sir) Erskine , Earl of Mar d: ab 1493
+ Janet Douglas d: Aft 12 AUG 1489
2 Alexander Erskine , Earl of Mar
d: JUL 1508-10 MAY 1509
+ Christian Crichton , of Sanquhair
d: NOV 1477 - MAR 1478
3 Robert Erskine , Earl of Mar d: 9 SEP 1513
+ Elizabeth (Isobel) Campbell , of Loudoun
d: Aft 14 DEC 1518
4 John (Sir) Erskine , Earl of Mar
d: 11 JUL - NOV 1555
+ Margaret Campbell , of Argyll
5 Margaret Erskine d: 5 MAY 1572
+ Robert (Sir) Douglas , of Lochlev
d: 10 SEP 1547
+ James V Stewart , King of Scotland
b: 10 APR 1512 d: 14 DEC 1542
6 James Stewart , 1st Earl of Mor
b: ab 1531 d: 23 JAN 1570
+ Agnes (Annas) Keith d: 16 JUL 1588


5 Catherine Erskine
+ Alexander Elphinstone , 2nd lord Elphinsto
b: 22 MAY 1511 d: 10 SEP 1547
6 Isobel/Elizabeth Elphinstone b: 13 MAY 1532
+ James Hamilton , of Haggs

http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=PED&db=refinnigan&id=I513336

1 Elizabeth Elphinstone b: 1524
+ James Hamilton b: ABT 1514
2 Agnes Hamilton b: 1550
+ Alexander Dalmohoy b: 1550 d: MAR 1616
3 John Dalmohoy b: 1596 d: 1653
+ Barbara De Lindsay b: 1600 d: 1656
4 Barbara Dalmohoy b: 1626
4 John Dalmohoy b: 1628
5 Jean Dalmahoy b: 1654 d: 1756
+ Patrick Home b: 1650 d: 1723

http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=DESC&db=maclaren&id=I64095

1 Jean Dalmahoy b: ab 1688 d: 23 JAN 1756
+ Patrick (Sir) (1st Bart of Lumsden) Home b: ab 1650 d: FEB 1722/23
2 David De Lumsden b: 1670
3 John (aka John Lumsden) De Lumsden
+ Wilmoth Steele b: ABT 1736
4 Jeremiah Lumsden
+ Elizabeth Belcher b: 2 NOV 1757 d: 6 NOV 1830
5 Elizabeth Lumsden b: 10 SEP 1782 d: 6 NOV 1830
+ Charles B Kitchens b: 1776
6 Joel W. (Dr) Kitchens b: 1819 d: 1896
+ Sarah Paker d: 1822
7 Edward Oliver Kitchens b: 11 MAR 1859 d: 9 JAN 1940
+ Sarah Clifton Green b: 2 JUL 1856 d: 14 MAY 1925
8 Emma Ophelia Kitchens b: 26 JUN 1880 d: 23 MAR 1957
+ John Frank Cooper b: 28 FEB 1877 d: 22 MAY 1960
9 Leon E (Sr) Cooper b: 2 MAR 1911 d: 2 OCT 2000
+ Flora Evelyn Bonner b: 26 AUG 1908 d: 24 SEP 1984
10 Living Cooper
+ Craig Knowles b: 1942 d: 1972
+ Living Curry
+ Living Beal
10 Living Cooper
+ Living Wood 
Cooper, Keith(s) Marischal(s) of Scotland to (I022394)
 
177
Simon III zur Lippe (Graf zur Lippe), Graf
https://www.geni.com/people/Simon-III-Graf-zur-Lippe/6000000006727840542
Birthdate:
circa 1340
Birthplace:
Brake, Lippe, Detmold, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
Death:
February 17, 1410 (65-74)
Schloss Brake, Lippe, Lemgo, Detmold, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
Immediate Family:
Son of Otto I, Graf zur Lippe and Irmgard, Gräfin von der Mark
Husband of Ermengard (Irmgard) Gräfin zu Lippe und Diepholz
Father of Katharine zur Lippe; Bernhard VI zur Lippe, Count; Magdalene Zur Lippe; Elisabeth Zur Lippe; Jutte Zur Lippe and 3 others
Brother of Margarethe zur Lippe and Adelheid zur Lippe
Occupation:
Graf zur Lippe

Managed by:
Private User
Last Updated:
May 24, 2018  
Lippe, Simon III Herr von der (I045787)
 
178
Sir John Colquhoun, 9th of Colquhoun & 11th of Luss[1, 2, 3]
1420 - 1478
http://www.clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info/genealogy/TNGWebsite/getperson.php?personID=I2442&tree=CC

Title Sir
Suffix 9th of Colquhoun & 11th of Luss
Birth 1420 Camstradden, Luss, Dunbartonshire, Scotland
Gender Male
Honours 1474 Scotland
Lord High Chamberlain
Occupation Sheriff of Dumbarton
Died 1478 Dunbar Castle, Dunbar, East Lothian, Scotland [4]
Cause: killed by a canonball at the siege of Dunbar Castle .
Person ID I2442 Clan current
Last Modified 20 Dec 2007 09:01:00

Father Malcolm Colquhoun, Fiar of Luss, b. 1390, Colquhoun, Dunbartonshire, Scotland
Family ID F1628 Group Sheet

Family 1 dau. Boyd, b. Abt 1410
Children
1. Robert Colquhoun, Bishop of Argyle
>2. Margaret Colquhoun
>3. Humphrey Colquhoun, 10th of Colquhoun & 12th of Luss, b. 1440, Dumbarton, Dunbartonshire, Scotland
Last Modified 20 Dec 2007 09:01:00
Family ID F1627 Group Sheet

Family 2 Elizabeth (or Agnes, or Mary) Dunbar
Married Bef 1463 [5]
Children
1. son Colquhoun
Last Modified 22 Mar 2004 15:02:00
Family ID F2050 Group Sheet

Notes
Sir John Colquhoun was one of the most distinguished men of his age in Scotland, and highly esteemed by King James III, from whom he got a charter in 1457 of the lands of Luss, Colquhoun, and Garscube, in Dumbartonshire, and of the lands of Glyn and Sauchie, in Stirlingshire, incorporating the whole into a free barony, to be called the Barony of Luss; and in the following year he obtained from the king a charter erecting into a free forest the lands of Rossdhu and Glenmachome. Builder of Rossdhu Castle the remains of which can still be seen today behind the current mansion house.. From 1465 to 1469 he held the high office of comptroller of the Exchequer, and was subsequently appointed sheriff principle of Dumbartonshire. In 1645 he got a grant of the lands of Kilmardinny, and in 1473 and in 1474, of Roseneath, Strone, &c. In 1474 he was appointed lord high chamberlain of Scotland, and immediately thereafter was nominated one of the ambassadors extraordinary to the Court of England, to negotiate a marriage between the Prince Royal of Scotland and the Princess Cicily, daughter of King Edward IV. By a royal charter dated 17th September 1477, he was constituted governor of the castle of Dumbarton for life. He was killed by a cannon-ball at the seige of Dumbarton Castle, probably in 1478. By his wife, daughter of Thomas, Lord Boyd, he had two sons and one daughter. His second son, Robert, was bred to the church, and was first rector of Argyle from 1473 to 1499. The daughter, Margaret, married Sir William Murray, seventh baron of Tullibardine (ancestor of the Dukes of Athole), and bore to him seventeen sons.

Sources
[S265] Colquoun_Cunningham.ged, Jamie Vans

[S260] Burke's Landed Gentry of Great Britain 2001, Peter Beauclerk Dewar,, (2001.)

[S280] Stirnet Genealogy, Peter Barns-Graham, Murray02: (Reliability: 3)

[S270] Hamilton Adams & Co, London, (Hamilton Adams & Co, London)

[S280] Stirnet Genealogy, Peter Barns-Graham, Dunbar02: (Reliability: 3) 
Colquhoun, John (Sir) 11th of Luss (I008028)
 
179
Sir Ralph Dennis
https://www.geni.com/people/Sir-Ralph-Dennis/6000000008260568235
Gender:Male
Birth:circa 1164
Wick, St. Pancreas, Devonshire, England (United Kingdom)
Immediate Family:
Husband of ? Unknown wife of Ralph Dennis
Father of Sir Robert Dennis and William Dennis
Added by:Bjørn P. Brox on June 2, 2009
Managed by:Nathan Carlisle Hulse, Bjørn P. Brox, Roger Churm, Harriet Owrutsky and Susan Muir « less
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Descendants of Sir Ralph Dennis
8
https://www.geni.com/list/descendants/6000000008260568235#8
1. Sir Ralph Dennis b. circa 1164, Wick, St. Pancreas, Devonshire, England (United Kingdom)
+ +? Unknown wife of Ralph Dennis b. circa 1180, Of Wick,St. Pancreas,Devon,England
2. Sir Robert Dennis b. circa 1200, Of Wick,St. Pancreas,Devon,England
+ +Unknown
3. William II Dennis (le Deneys) b. circa 1232, Orleigh, Devon, England (United Kingdom)
+ +Unknown
4. John I Dennis (le Deneys) b. circa 1260, Orleigh, Devon, England (United Kingdom)
+ +Unknown
5. Henry Dennis b. circa 1292, Orleigh Close, Bideford, Devon, England, EX39, United Kingdom
+ +Unknown
6. Richard Dennis b. circa 1322, Orleigh, Devon, England (United Kingdom); d. 1442
+ +Elizabeth Bowhay
7. John Dennis II, of Orleigh b. circa 1355, Orleigh Close, Bideford, Devon, England, EX39, United Kingdom; d. January 18, 1415
+ +Joan Esse
8. John Dennis b. circa 1382, Orleigh, Devon, England (United Kingdom); d. October 2, 1419

3. John Dennis

2. William Dennis b. circa 1202, Wick, St. Pancreas, Devonshire, ENgland
+ +(No Name) b. circa 1204, Of Wick,St. Pancreas,Devon,England
3. Alan Dennis, Sir b. circa 1226, Wick, St. Pancreas, Devonshire, ENgland
+ + b. circa 1228, Of Wick,St. Pancreas,Devon,England
4. Robert Dennis b. circa 1250, Wick, St. Pancreas, Devonshire, ENgland
+ +Maud Manworthy b. circa 1252, Holsworthy, Devonshire, England
5. William Dennis b. circa 1274, Giddecote, Devonshire, England
+ +? Unknown wife of William Dennis b. circa 1276, Of Giddecote,Devon,England
6. Walter Dennis, Sr. b. circa 1298, Giddecote, Devonshire, England
+ +? Unknown Wife of Walter Dennis b. circa 1300, Of Giddecote,Devon,England
7. Sir John Dennis b. 1319, Giddecote, Devon, England; d. England
+ +Jane Dennis b. 1321, Clovelly, Devon, England
8. Walter Dennis b. 1346, Giddecote or Gidicotte, Devonshire, England; d. 1380
8. Sir Gilbert Denys b. circa 1358, Gloucestershire, England; d. March 24, 1422, Alveston, Gloucestershire, England
8. Thomasin Dennis b. circa 1348, Of Giddecote,Devon,England
7. Walter Dennis b. circa 1321, Of Giddecote,Devon,England
5. Walter Dennis b. circa 1276, Of Giddecote,Devon,England
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Dennis, Ralph (Sir) (I161201)
 
180
Sir Richard de Quincy, Sir
https://www.geni.com/people/Sir-Richard-de-Quincy-Sir/48950084081500839
Also Known As: "Richard de /Quincy/"
Birthdate: 1066
Birthplace: Cuinchy, Pas-de-Calais, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
Death: Long Buckby, Northamptonshire, England

Immediate Family:
Son of Robert de Quincy and N.N.
Husband of Lady Judith de Quincy
Father of Lord Saher de Quincy, Lord of Buckby and Daventry
Brother of Jonet de Quincy and Saier de Quincy Lord Bradenham, Lord of Bradenham

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated: September 17, 2017  
de Quency, Richard (Sir) (I113598)
 
181
Stephen Devereux of Bodenham and Burghope
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Devereux_of_Bodenham_and_Burghope
Stephen Devereux
Born c 1290
Died 1350
Spouse(s) Cicely
Issue
Walter Devereux of Bodenham
William Devereux of Bodenham

Father Walter Devereux of Bodenham
Mother Margery de Braose

Stephen Devereux of Bodenham and Burghope was a member of a prominent knightly family in Herefordshire during the reigns of Edward I, Edward II, and Edward III. An important retainer of the de Bohun Earls of Hereford, he gave rise to the Devereux Earls of Essex and Viscounts of Hereford.

Ancestry and childhood
Stephen Devereux[1] was born about 1290,[a] the son of Walter Devereux of Bodenham[2][3] and his wife, Margery de Braose.[3] His grandmother, Alice Grandison, died shortly after the birth of his father, and his grandfather married a second time to Lucy Burnell.[1] She gave birth to his half-uncle, John Devereux of Frome,[1] whose descendants would later contend with Stephen over control of their patrimony.[b] His grandfather spent his life struggling to regain control of the lands forfeited by Stephen’s great-grandfather who had died in rebellion at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and were subject to the Dictum of Kenilworth. Stephen Devereux’s coat of arms was the same as his father: argent a fess gules, in chief three torteaux.
Marriage[edit]
He married Cicely[1][c][4] around 1308.[d] They had children:
Walter Devereux of Bodenham.
He was born in 1309,[5] and like his father was a supporter of the de Bohun family. He probably participated in the Scottish Wars under William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton in the 1330s.[e] On 1 February 1338 he set out on pilgrimage on the Camino de Santiago. With the outbreak of the war with France, Devereux was back in support of the Earl of Northampton, and probably participated in the Battle of Sluys, Battle of Morlaix, and the campaigns in Brittany. Walter Devereux was in the retinue of the king when Edward III invaded France in 1346. He was present at the Battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346.[6] As a retainer of William de Bohun, he probably fought in the second division.[7] On 10 November 1351, Devereux received a commission with Thomas de Cary, sheriff of Somerset and Dorset, to arrest Nicholas de Poyntz and his servants.[8] Walter Devereux seized Hoke and Stapulford in Dorset on 6 January 1355 following the death of Joan, widow of Robert Syfrewast of Hoke, claiming to be the chief lord of these lands.[9] Devereux held the estates until 1 August 1355 when they were taken into the king's hands. He died without issue about 1359.
William Devereux of Bodenham[1][3]
Career[edit]
Upon the death of his father, Walter Devereux, in 1305 Stephen Devereux inherited the ancestral Devereux lands in Bodenham and Burghope.[10] Large parts of Bodenham had been in the possession of his family since the Domesday Survey when they were held by a William Devereux. Burghope had been held by the Longchamp family,[11] and probably came into the possession of the Devereux’s through the marriage of Walter Devereux with Cecilia de Longchamp as did other lands at Frome Herbert (Halmond) in 1205.[12]
He was a retainer of the de Bohun's, and his family had been drawn into the private war between Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, and Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester in 1291.[13] It is probable that de Bohun’s defiant actions in support of baronial rights may have contributed to an unfavorable disposition by King Edward I towards the Devereux family.
Stephen’s grandfather, Baron Devereux of Lyonshall, to meet debts incurred in the service of the King in Gascony, was forced to grant in 1299 his castle of Lyonshall to Roger, 1st Baron de la Warr. Within the year de la Warr transferred it to Walter de Langton, Bishop of Coventry, and in 1300 the Baron is shown granting Lyonshall to the Bishop for life. Later that same year Langton in turn placed Lyonshall in the possession of William Tuchet who began styling himself as Lord of Lyonshall.
Following the death of Edward I in July 1307, Walter de Langton was arrested, and his lands seized. The bishop was brought to trial for corruption, and during the proceedings the court dealt with the ownership of Lyonshall.[14] The sheriff of Herefordshire was ordered to determine if Sir William Devereux, Lord of Lyonshall, or his heirs held the castle. The sheriff reported that William Devereux held nothing, but William Tuchet and Richard de Abyndon[f] possessed certain lands and tenements previously held by Devereux.[14] On 30 November 1307 William Tuchet testified[14] that William Devereux currently held the manor of Tasley, Shropshire, and the Bishop of Chester[g] held some of the other tenements in the county of Salop, which together Devereux held on the day of the debt’s recognition in 1300.[14]
The court proceedings continued from term to term, and William Devereux failed to appear to protect his family’s interests (possibly due to some incapacity either from old age or injuries suffered from many years of military service). The reversion of Lyonshall after the death of William Devereux and his second wife, Lucy Burnell, had been granted to Walter Devereux, William’s son by his first marriage and Stephen's father. As his father had died in 1305, Stephen Devereux seized this opportunity in 1308 to drive Tuchet from Lyonshall by force.[15] In June 1308 Tuchet requested 30 pounds compensation for damages and losses caused by the attacks executed by Stephen Devereux and 4 others.[16]
On 14 October 1309 the part of Langton’s trial concerning Lyonshall was dismissed because no recognizance was found.[14] As Stephen was under-age, his guardian (and uncle, John Devereux of Frome) brought suit on his behalf in 1310 against William Tuchet demanding the restoration of Lyonshall as the transfer violated Stephen's rights of reversion as heir of Walter Devereux, son of William Devereux and his first wife, Alice Grandison. Stephen was granted the right to be heard despite being under-age, as the potential damage was occurring while he was under-age. Stephen's suit was denied based on the terms of the recovery of Lyonshall under the dictum of Kenilworth. It had been granted to William Devereux and his second wife, Lucy Burnell, for the term of their two lives, and after their decease reverted to Stephen's father, Walter Devereux, and his heirs. As the Baron and his second wife were both alive and tenants-for-life, any action on behalf of Stephen was not supported by common law or Statute (which only gave right of recovery for alienation by a tenant-in-dower). Stephen Devereux yielded control of Lyonshall in 1310.[17][18]
Walter de Langton would be restored to his office of Treasurer in January 1312, but by this time Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, had gained the rights to Lyonshall and enfeoffed William Tuchet again. By the time of Langton’s death in 1321 control of Lyonshall castle had passed from the Devereux family.
Stephen Devereux’s alignment with Humphrey de Bohun during the killing of Edward II’s first favorite, Piers Gaveston, probably contributed to the failure of the family to retain their Barony upon the death of Stephen’s grandfather in 1314. As the Baron’s widow, Lucy, was still alive, he still had no legal claim to a large portion of his inheritance. In Easter 1315, her right to dower was upheld despite a claim that she was living in adultery at the time of her husband’s death.[19] The court found in her favor as she had not abandoned her husband’s home by continuing to live in a Devereux manor.
As a member of the Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford|Earl of Hereford’s]] retinue, Stephen Devereux was probably present at the Battle of Bannockburn in June 1314. In the subsidy rolls of 1316 Stephen was listed as holding lands in Bodenham and Burghope in Herefordshire.[20] As later the Despenser War played out, Devereux was also probably with Humphrey de Bohun when he was killed at the Battle of Boroughbridge on 16 March 1322. Stephen Devereux served on the jury on 24 January 1324 attesting to Adam Orleton, Bishop of Hereford’s complicity in the rebellion of Roger de Mortimer in 1321, and his brother, John Devereux of Manne, was among the men conducting the inquiry into Orleton’s actions.[21] Although Stephen was in the party opposing the king's favorites, the Devereux of Bodenham bore a grudge against Mortimer that had its roots in his being granted their lands under the Dictum of Kenilworth described above. This placed Stephen Devereux further at odds with the Devereux’s of Frome. His half-uncle, John Devereux, had become associated with Henry Mortimer of Chelmarsh prior to his death in 1310, and John’s widow, Constance Burnell, had married Henry Mortimer as her second husband. Stephen Devereux’s cousin, William Devereux of Frome, would be part of the Mortimer retinue throughout his life.
The Despencer War also caught up with William Tuchet who was executed along with Bartholomew de Badlesmere in 1322 following the Battle of Boroughbridge. His death brought Lyonshall Castle back into the King’s hands as Baron Devereux’s widow was still alive, and Badlesmere’s heir was a minor.[22] Stephen’s cousin, William Devereux of Frome, made his first claim to usurp control of Lyonshall at this time,[23] but Edward II refused to restore it to either line of the Devereux family and granted it to John de Felton in 1326. The invasion of England by Roger Mortimer and Queen Isabella shifted power to the Mortimers and the King was forced to abdicate in favor of his son Edward III. William Devereux of Frome, took this opportunity to forcibly disseise Felton of the castle.[24][25] He held it until Edward III reached majority in 1331, and had Mortimer executed. Without Mortimer support, William Devereux’s petition[26] was denied and Lyonshall relinquished back to the crown. Edward III bestowed it back on the Badlesmere heir, Giles de Badlesmere. Upon Giles death, William Devereux's son, another William Devereux of Frome would make one last attempt to gain the castle by filing suit in 1340 against John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford who had gained possession by right of his wife, but was again denied.[h]
Stephen Devereux, like his cousin, lacked enough royal favor to regain Lyonshall during his lifetime, but remained a key retainer of the de Bohun family. William and Edward de Bohun participated in the coup against Roger Mortimer that freed Edward III from his control.[27] The king later rewarded the family by creating William de Bohun Earl of Northampton. The influence of the de Bohuns provided a path for the Devereux family to regain royal favor, and facilitated the placement of Devereux's nephew, John, in the company of Edward, the Black Prince.
Stephen witnessed land transactions in Whitchurch Maund in 1335 along with his brother, John Devereux of Manne.[28] His brother and son, Walter Devereux, both probably participated in Edward III’s wars in Scotland and France.
By 1340, Stephen had gained enough royal trust to be assigned on 20 April the task of collecting the ninth of lambs, fleeces, and sheaves in Herefordshire granted by Parliament to pay for the King’s military actions on the continent.[29] On 15 March 1341 Devereux was appointed to collect and sell the ninth for the second year of the grant.[30][i]
In 1346 Stephen Devereux was listed as holding Bodenham in Herefordshire for ½ knight’s fee valued at 20s annually [31][j] On 20 July 1348, Stephen was again appointed to collect from Herefordshire the first of three years of the tenth and fifteenth granted by Parliament to the king.[32] The appointment was renewed on 16 July 1349, but Stephen Devereux must have become ill or infirmed shortly after as another was appointed in his place on 26 September 1349.[33] When he died in 1350,[1] he had laid the groundwork for the advancement of his descendents. Also his nephew, John Devereux of Whitchurch Maund, would rise through his close relationship with the Black Prince to finally regain the barony and Lyonshall Castle.
References[edit]
^
Jump up to:
a b c d e f Morgan G. Watkins. Collections Towards the History and Antiquities of the County of Hereford in continuation of Duncumb’s History, Hundred of Radlow. (High Town [Hereford]: Jakeman & Carver, 1902). Page 42 to 49. Parish of Castle Frome, Genealogy contributed by Lord Hereford
Jump up
^ Anthony Story. Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids: 1284-1431, Volume II: Dorset to Huntingdon. (London: Public Record Office, 1900). Pages 378, 384, 394
^
Jump up to:
a b c Evelyn Philip Shirley. Stemmata Shirleiana. (Westminster: Nichols and Sons, 1873). page 103 to 104
Jump up
^ Some Notes of On Medieval English Genealogy. CP 25/1/82/37, number 10
Jump up
^ Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume X, Edward III. (London: Mackie and Co., LD, 1909). 531. Edmund, son and heir of Reynold Le Fitz Herberd. Writ to the escheator in Gloucester, Hereford and the March of Wales adjacent to take the proof of age of Edmund, son and heir of Reynold le Fitz Herberd. Proof of age made at Hereford, Saturday after St. John before the Latin Gate, 33 Edward III [29 June 1359]
Jump up
^ George Wrottesley. Crecy and Calais, From the Original Record in the Public Record Office. (London: Harrison and Sons, St. Martin’s Lane, 1898). Page 94, French Roll, 20 Edward III, Part I, Membrane 9
Jump up
^ George Wrottesley. Crecy and Calais, From the Original Record in the Public Record Office. (London: Harrison and Sons, St. Martin’s Lane, 1898). Page 30
Jump up
^ Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward III, Volume IX, 1350-1354. (London: Mackie and Co, 1907). Page 204, 10 Nov 1351
Jump up
^ Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume X, Edward III. (London: Mackie and Co., 1909). 563. Robert Syfrewast of Hoke
Jump up
^ William Henry Cooke. Collections Towards the History and Antiquities of the County of Hereford in continuation of Duncumb’s History. Hundred of Grimsworth. London: John Murray, Albermarle Street. 1892, Page 2, Parish of Bishopstone
Jump up
^ William Henry Cooke. Collections Towards the History and Antiquities of the County of Hereford in continuation of Duncumb’s History. Hundred of Grimsworth. London: John Murray, Albermarle Street. 1892, Page 172, Grimsworth Hundred
Jump up
^ Morgan G. Watkins. Collections Towards the History and Antiquities of the county of Hereford in continuation of Duncumb’s History, Hundred of Radlow. High Town: Jakeman & Carver, 1902. Page 47
Jump up
^ [1], Accessed 13 January 2014, British History Online. Parliament Rolls of Medieval England, Roll 5 (SC 9/5). Proceedings on the complaint of the earl of Hereford against the earl of Gloucester
^
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a b c d e Alice Beardwood. Records of the Trial of Walter Langeton, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 1307-1312. (London: University College, 1969). Pages 71, 201, 202, and 258
Jump up
^ Placitorum in domo capitulari Westmonasteriensi asservatorum abbrevatio, temporibus regum Ric. I., Johann., Henr. III, Edw. I, Edw. II. (London: Public Record Office, 1811). Page 304
Jump up
^ Placitorum in domo capitulari Westmonasteriensi asservatorum abbrevatio, temporibus regum Ric. I., Johann., Henr. III, Edw. I, Edw. II. (London: Printed by Command of His Majesty King George III in pursuance of an address of The House of Commons of Great Britain, 1811). Page 304
Jump up
^ F.W. Maitland (Editor). Year Books of Edward II. Volume III, 3 Edward II, AD 1309-1310. (London: Benard Quaritch, 1905) Page 16 to 20. 1310, Hillary Term
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^ Placitorum in domo capitulari Westmonasteriensi asservatorum abbrevatio, temporibus regum Ric. I., Johann., Henr. III, Edw. I, Edw. II. Printed by Command of His Majesty King George III in pursuance of an address of The House of Commons of Great Britain. 1811. page 304
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^ William Craddock Bolland, Year Books of Edward II, volume 17: 8 Edward II (1314-1315). (London 1925). Pasch. 8 Edw. 2, pl. [6], Vulgate p. 268 (version I), pl. [12], Vulgate p. 272 (version II)[2]
Jump up
^ Anthony Story. Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids: 1284-1431, Volume II: Dorset to Huntingdon. (London: Public Record Office, 1900). Page 383
Jump up
^ Placitorum in domo capitulari Westmonasteriensi asservatorum abbrevatio, temporibus regum Ric. I., Johann., Henr. III, Edw. I, Edw. II. Printed by Command of His Majesty King George III in pursuance of an address of The House of Commons of Great Britain. 1811. page 345
Jump up
^ UK National Archives, Lyonshall Collection: Records of the Exchequer, and its related bodies, with those of the Office of First Fruits and Tenths, and the Court of Augmentations. Date range: 8 July 1321 - 7 July 1322 . Reference: E 142/27.
Jump up
^ UK National Archives Petitioners: William Deverous (Devereux), son and heir of John Deverous (Devereux). Names: Deverous (Devereux) …[c. 1322] Reference: SC 8/43/2102
Jump up
^ Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume VII, Edward III. London: Mackie and Co, LD. 1909. Entry 104 and 308, Bartholomew de Badelesmere.
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^ UK National Archives Petitioners: John de Felton. Name(s): de Felton, John. Addressees: King and…[c. 1327] Reference: SC 8/164/8165
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^ Ancient Petitions, file 43, no 2102, January 1330/1
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^ Dan Jones. The Plantagenets, The Warrior Kings and Queens Who Made England. New York: Viking. 2012, Pages 363, 375.
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^ John Duncumb. Collections Towards the History and Antiquities of the County of Hereford, Volume 2, Issue 1. Hereford: EG Wright, 1812. Page 49, Broxash Hundred, Amongst the Collections of St. George, Clarencieux King at Arms
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^ Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward III, Volume IV, 1321-1324. (London: Mackie and Co, 1904). Page 502, 20 April 1340
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^ Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward III, Volume V, 1340-1343. (London: Norfolk Chronicle, 1900). Page 155, 15 Mar 1341
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^ Anthony Story. Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids: 1284-1431, Volume II: Dorset to Huntingdon. (London: Public Record Office, 1900). Page 389
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^ Calendar of Fine Rolls, Edward III, Volume 6, 1347-1356. (London: Eason and son, 1921). Page 90
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^ [3], Calendar of Fine Rolls, Edward III, Volume 6, 1347-1356. London: Eason and son. 1921. Page 190 and 193
Notes[edit]
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^ In the legal battle over Lyonshall between 1306 to 1310, Stephen Devereux was consistently described as being of 'non-age' during these events. This indicates he had not reached the legal age of 21 years by 1310.
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^ The early death of Stephen Devereux's grandmother, Alice de Grandison, and the granting for life of some of the attainted Devereux lands directly to his step-great-grandmother, Maud de Giffard, facilitated the passage of lands to John Devereux including Frome, Holme Lacy, Stoke Lacy, and Lower Hayton.
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^ Cicely’s last name may be de la Wood. On 27 Oct 1328 William de la Wood the Elder was granted Willersley manor; and 3 messuages, 2 carucates, 45 acres of land, and 2 shillings rent in Weobley, Norton Canon, Willersley, and Bredwardine from Parson John Gomond with remainder to William de la Wood the Younger, and in absence of heirs successively to William Devereux, Nicholas Devereux, and Richard Clehonger. William Devereux was the patron of the rectory in Willersley parish, Herefordshire in 1349.
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^ Stephen Devereux possibly had a second wife, Agnes, who was his widow. There is a reference in the will of Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Northampton, dated 31 May 1356 to an Agnes Devereux.
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^ About 1331 Sir Walter Devereux witnessed the grant for life by Walter fitzRichard of Bulley (Gloucestershire) to Hugh and Mabel de Bradfield of 20 acres of land and a fourth part of the meadow held in Bulley of the fee of the Hospital for 20s and rent of 2s yearly. A copy of this grant is held in the Devereux Papers at Longleat House
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^ Appointed baron of the Exchequer in 1299, he worked closely with Walter de Langton and would receive a prebend in Lichfield Cathedral in 1304.
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^ The bishopric of Chester at this time was held by Walter de Langton as part of the bishopric of Coventry
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^ In 1335, William de Bohun, earl of Northampton, married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, widow of Edmund Mortimer, to promote an end to the hostilities between the two families. This probably also contributed to the failure of the de Bohun’s to support any effort on Stephen Devereux to regain Lyonshall
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^ The king complained that he did not receive these funds in time the previous year, and was compelled to raise the siege of Tournay and make a truce with France.
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^ Bodenham was indicated as being previously held by his father, Walter Devereux. 
Devereux, Stephen of Bodenham and Burghope (I111841)
 
182
The Beebe Family in Northamptonshire
Submitted by Alan D Henry, of Michigan, USA
http://www.kellner.eclipse.co.uk/genuki/NTH/beeby.htm
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Four generations of the family are shown to correct a mistake made in the early 1900s, in a genealogy published by Clarence Beebe. Clarence had thought that Alexander Beeby was the direct ancestor of the North American Beebes. This has now been proven incorrect, though many are probably not aware of this fact. By including four generations, the error can be demonstrated, by showing that Alexander was the Great Uncle, and not the Grandfather, of John Beeby, who died on the way to America in 1650.

First Generation
1. Thomas Beebe b. EST 1535, England, m. Unknown. Thomas (called Thomas Bebe) lived in Great Addington, Northamptonshire, England and is mentioned in records in 1551, 1559 and 1561. On 19 May 1551 he is cited in a list of 11 names in a Manor Court Roll as a Manorial tenant and serving on a Manorial Jury. On 10 May 1559 he witnessed the will of Alexander Bolney of Great Addington. And on 21 Jul 1561 he witnessed the will of Agnes Bate of Great Addington. While no proof has been found that he is the father of Alexander, John and Mary, he certainly appears to be the most likely candidate.

Children:

2. i Alexander Beeby b. ABT 1555.

3. ii John Beeby Sr. b. ABT 1560.

iii Mary Beeby m. Thomas Foscutt, d. BEF 1610. Mary died 1610. She had two daughters and a son. She died Easterday, 1610 . In her will (which was of the type given verbally) the Memorandum states "that on Easterday last in Anno Dom 1610 immediately after morninge prayer Mary Ffoscutt of great addingtion in the diocese of P'boro widowe being sicke in body yet of good memory beinge & demanded how she would bestowe her goods made ansere to this effect. I have a sonne and two daughtors and I would have that that I have equally divided amongst them . . . " Crossed out in the will were several names including "Elizabeth Bibbie wife of Alexdr Bibie." Foscutt wills later in the century mention Beeby relatives. Thomas: Thomas described himself as a husbandman of Great Addington in his will 2 Nov 1609. He also mentioned his wife Mary and his brothers-in-law John and Alexander Beeby.

Second Generation
2. Alexander Beeby b. ABT 1555, England, occ. Shoemaker, m. 1578, in Stoke Doyle, Northamptonshire, England, Elizabeth Hull, d. 1633/4, England. Alexander died 1623, Gr. Addington, Northamptonshire,England. Alexander was witness to a land purchase in Gt. Addington in1608 and became a landowner there in 1610. He also purchased land there in 1610 with his son John. This land passed through the family until at least 1672. He was a witness to the will of his brother John in 1622. Alexander's will was dated 20 Feb 1623/4 and proved Apr 1624. It read: Unto James my second son that piece of meade with the appurtenances which I had and purchased to mee and my heirs of Richard Currier, clerke to him and his heirs after the death of Elizabeth my wife. To all my grandchildren 2 shill 6d apiece. to my wife Elizabeth and John my eldest son all my croppe and other goods as well real as personal, to be equally divided. The inventory amounted to L5.2.4. No documents have been found that gave the actual date of birth of any of his children. In the marriage register, Alexander is called "Saunder Beebye." This line, for at least the next few generations, spelled their name "Beeby" although there are some variations recorded.

Elizabeth: Her will was written 13 Mar 1633 and proved 17 Apr 1634. It mentions four married daughters and their husbands, John and his sons and a granddaughter Ann Love. Inventory, valued at L18.18. 2., taken by Thomas Cox, Peter Cranke and her son John Beeby.

Children:

i Joan Beeby b. ABT 1580, m. 1612, in Old Weston, Cambridgeshire, England, Richard Reynolds. Her children are mentioned in her brother James' will in 1631.

ii Anne Beeby b. ABT 1583, m. John Hans. Her children are mentioned in her brother James' will in 1631 and she and her husband and their two daughters are mentioned in her mother's will in 1633.

iii Elizabeth Beeby b. ABT 1586, m. Peter Cranke, d. 1653. Elizabeth died AFT 1653. Like her other sisters, she and her immediate family members are mentioned in brother James' will and also in her mother's will. She was alive in 1653 when her husbands will was proved. Peter: Peter's will was proved in 1653. He is mentioned in his mother-in-law's will in 1633.

iv Alice Beeby b. ABT 1594, m. Samuel Stratton. Had children.

4. v John Beeby b. ABT 1590/91.

vi James Beeby b. ABT 1596, d. 29 Aug 1631. No children. His will dated 21 Aug 1631 reads: all my messuages, lands, etc. to John Bebye, my natural brother and his heirs. I will that my sister Sarah shall have her dwelling in some of my messuages during her life the children of my sister Sarah, L20 apiece at their ages of 21. Children of sisters, Joan, Eliza, Anne and Alice, L20 apiece at 21, to my servant John, 5 shillings; to Edward Morton, ten shillings. The will was proved 14 Sept 1631. His older brother was sole executor. An Inquisitor Post Mortem was held at Northampton 22 Nov 1632. It states that he died 29 Aug 1631, that he held lands in Great Addington, that his heir was his brother John who was age 40+ at the time of his death.

vii Sara Beeby b. ABT 1598. She was alive but unmarried in 1631, 1633 and 1638.

3. John Beeby Sr. b. ABT 1560, Gr. Addington, Northamptonshire,England, m. Unknown. John died 1622. John "the elder" purchased land in Gr. Addington in 1614. He wrote his will in 1622 and it was proved 5 Mar 1622. Will mentions 6 "kin." His nephew John Beeby (described as the testator's brother's son) named as Co-supervisor.

Children:

i James Beeby. Called eldest son of John Beeby in records in 1614 and also in his father's will in 1622. In his father's will he was given responsibility to bring up his youngest sister Margery.

5. ii John Beeby Jr. b. ABT 1600.

iii Thomas Beeby. In 1622, he was under age 21.

iv Elizabeth Beeby.

v Ann Beeby m. 1630, in Broughton, Northamptonshire, England, John Harris. In 1622, she was under age 21.

vi Margery Beeby. She was called youngest daughter in her father's will in 1622.

Third Generation
4. John Beeby b. ABT 1590/91, Gr Addington, Northamptonshire, England, occ. Shoemaker, m. 1623, in Podington, Bedfordshire, England, Alice Stratton, d. BEF 1672. John died 1 Aug 1638, Gr Addington, Northamptonshire, England. His birth date is based on the statement at his brother's Inquisitor Post Mortem that he was age 40+ in Nov 1632. He purchased land in Great Addington in 1610 with his father and named co-supervisor of his Uncle John's will in 1622. He is called eldest son in his father's will. John was born and died in Great Addington, Northamptons, England. His will is dated 30 July 1638 and he is described as John Beby of Great Addington, Yeoman. It reads: To John Beby, my second son, messuage or tenement wherein my father lived. James Beby, my third son; William Beby my forth son; sister Sara; son Alexander; James my brother deceased; All properties to be used by wife Alice to raise children under age 21. Wife Alice sole executrix. Friends, Mr. Cox (he was rector of the parish) and Mr. Bletso, overseers. It was proved 11 Sept 1638. A document filed in London covers an Inquisitor Post Mortem, held in Kettering (a town close to Great Addington) 6 Sep 1639 which describes his lands in Great Addington and mentions his heir as Alex Beeby, age 13 years, 8 months and 10 days at the time of John's death. John was a yeoman which in English society is generally meant to be a free landowner of a rank lower that gentry. A descendant tells that a note in the Great Addington Parish register (now lost)said that "in 1638 at harvest time, which was an extreme hot time, many people then at work in the fields at Addington fell sick and some d'yd." Alice: On 18 Nov 1626, her mother is buried in Podington, Beds and 3 Jun 1627 her father, John Stratton, yeoman, wrote his will. It includes a statement "to John Bebie his wife a black ____". In 1650, she is shown as the wife of Henry Hemington on a Gr. Addington deed. (He was of Great Addington 1647-68 and of Sudborough 1671). She evidently died before 1672 because a Henry Hemington is recorded as marrying an Elizabeth Beal in that year.

Children:

6. i Alexander Beeby b. 23 Nov 1624.

7. ii John Beeby b. 1626/7.

iii James Beeby b. 1627/8, d. BEF 1671. Called third son in father's will in 1638.

iv William Beeby b. 1630/31, m. 1656, Isabella Samnar?. William died AFT 1671. Called fourth son in his father's will. He was also mentioned in his brother Alex's will. It is believed that they had a son named William.

5. John Beeby Jr. b. ABT 1600, Broughton, Northamptonshire, England, m. 1627, in Broughton, Northamptonshire, England, Rebecca Ladd, d. BEF 1650, England. John died 18 May 1650. He was called second son in his father's will in 1622. In an Indenture (162/361) on 17/11/Charles 5th year (1631) John Bebye of Broughton (and his wife Rebecca) sold land in Great Addington to his elder brother James of Islip, both referred to as sons of John Bebye, deceased. John died 18 May 1650 while on his way to America. He left five sons and two daughters. He left England in April or May 1650 and was accompanied by his five children. Two sons, John and Samuel, preceded him to America and his daughter Hannah and wife Rebecca probably died before he started. His will (below) was written and signed on shipboard on the day he died, at which time his eldest son was twenty-two and his youngest child eight. He appointed William Lewis and John Cole executors of his will. The immigrants reached their destination in the latter days of May 1650 and it is probable that the ship reached a port in the neighborhood of Cape Ann, MA. for it is recorded the Rev. Mr. Blinman administered to the spiritual interests of this Colony and that he, with a party including the Beebes, had moved to New London, CT by March 1651, where they were prominent in the early settlement of that place.

WILL OF JOHN BEEBY, 18 MAY 1650. It being agreabl to Civill and religious Custome as required by God upon the occation of his hand upon the sonnes of men as a forerunner of death unto them therefore to sett theyr house in order; wherefore I John Beeby, Husbandman, late of Broughton in the County of Northampton, being by Gods good hand bought on a voyadge towards New Engl'd to sea and there smitten by the good hand of God, so as that my expectation is for my chaynge, yet though mercy as yet in perfect memory and understanding; doe hereby (my just and dewe debts being fully and dewely discharged); give and bequeathe unto my seven children, to say John Beeby, Thomas Beeby, Samuel; Nathaniell, Jeames, Rebecca and Mary Beeby all and every such moneyes or goods of what spetia or kynde somever as all the proper estate belonging unto me the above sayde John Beeby, to be equally divided between the sayd John, Thomas, Samuel, Nathaniell, Jeames, Rebecca and Mary Beeby in equall parts and portions, Further I the sayde John Beebe doe will that my faure elder children to say; John, Thomas, Samuel and Rebecca shall have that part of the sayde monnies and goods belonging unto the three younger to say, Nathaniel Jeames and Mary, in their hands as wel as theyr owne proportions, and that the sayde John Thomas Samuell and Rebecca shall take care for the provition of the three younger till that they the sayde Nathaneill Jeames and Mary be of adge, at wh tyme they are to have theyr proportions payde in unto them by my sayde sonnes & daughter John Thomas Samuel and Rebecca Bebe, whom I appoint as execurors of this my last will and in case that any of the three of my younger childdren shall dye before they come at adge that then theyr proportion of estate so dyeing to be equally divided amongst all the survivors; Further I John Beeby doe will and desyor that loving friends Mr. William Lewis, and John Cole; be overseers of this my will; and that all my sayde children be advised and counselled by my sayde overseers for ther future desposal whether upon chaynge of theyr condition by marriage or otherwyse for the good of my sayde children: Lastly I will that it be understod that my daughters be at full adge for receyving theyr proportion of estate at ye adge of eighteen yearses; As a testimony that this is my last will and testamt I have this eighteenth day of May one thousand sixe hundred and fifty sett to my hand and seale. John Beeby, Witness, William Partridge, John Partridge.

The above was copied from the Book "The Beebe Family of Broughton, England" by Clarence Beebe, 1915. It is believed to be as nearly as possible verbatim.

Rebecca: She was of Broughton, Northamptonshire,England and was the sister of Samuel and Rev. Nathaniel Ladd of Broughton. In the will of Samuel Ladd, dated 23 Sep 1634 "To sister Rebecca Beebe, 5 pounds. To her son Samuel, 5 pounds. To each of her other children, viz.: to John, Thomas, and Rebecca, 10 shillings, being 1 pound, 10 shillings in all."

Children:

8. i John Beebe III. bp. 4 Nov 1628.

9. ii Rebecca Beebe bp. 11 Aug 1630.

10. iii Thomas Beebe bp. 23 Jun 1633.

11. iv Samuel Beebe Sr. bp. 23 Jun 1633.

v Nathaniel Beebe bp. 23 Jan 1635, Broughton, Northamptonshire, England, d. 17 Dec 1724, Stonington, New London, CT. Nathaniel settled in Stonington, CT. His land was absorbed in the large estates of his neighbors the Denisons. In the will of William Denison (1715) he disposes of the Beeby land, but adds "I order my executors to take a special care of Mr Nathaniel Beeby during his life and give him a Christian burial at his death." His gravestone is near the Denisons and states that he died December 17th 1724, aged 93. There is no record that he ever married or had children.

vi Mary Beebe bp. 18 Mar 1637, Broughton, Northamptonshire, England. It is said she was unmarried and of New London, CT on 30 Sep 1662.

vii Hannah Beebe bp. 23 Jun 1640, Broughton, Northamptonshire, England, d. BEF 1650. She is believed to have died before the date of her father's will since she is not mentioned.

12. viii James Beebe Sr. b. ABT 1641.

Fourth Generation
6. Alexander Beeby b. 23 Nov 1624, m. Elizabeth Noke, b. ABT 1630, d. ABT 1688. Alexander died 1671. He was called heir (age 13 years, 8 months) in his father's Post Mortem in 1639, a land owner in 1647. Alexander Beeby, of Great Addington, Yeoman, wrote his will 24 Jun 1671 and died in that year. At time of death he had 4 children plus an unborn child which were mentioned in his will as well as a mention of his father-in-law, Henry Hemington Elizabeth: She is mentioned as "with child" in her husband's will. She wrote her will 18 Apr 1683 and it was proved in 1688. Co-Overseer of will is her "loving brother John Beeby" who also is witness to the will.

Children:

i John Beeby b. 1647.

ii Alexander Beeby b. ABT 1649.

iii Thomas Beeby b. 1652.

iv Elizabeth Beeby b. 1655.

7. John Beeby b. 1626/7, m. 7 Apr 1666, in Hargrave, Northamptonshire, England, Susanna Sanderson, b. 1630, bd. 1724. John died 1693, bd. 2 Mar 1693, Gr. Addington, Northamptonshire,England. Called second son in his father's will in 1638. In 1671, he is mentioned in his brother Alex's will. He was witness 20 Mar 1647 to Great Addington land transfers to/from Henry Hemington, his father-in-law and 27 Jun 1672, he and wife Susanna sold land he had inherited from his father in 1638. His will was written 22 Jan 1693 and proved 28 Apr 1694. He died in 1693 and was buried 3 Mar 1693 leaving a wife and 4 children. Will states that John Beeby of Great Addington, husbandman, wrote the will, his wife and executrix (Susanna) retained properties during her lifetime. Eldest son John (under 21) gets estate, land, house and farm animals. Son Lawrence (under 21) Co-executor, his house & Spinney and 3 acres in Great Addington fields. Daughters Jane and Elizabeth (both under 21) receive 40 pounds each. The will is witnessed by John Beeby, Lawrence Sanderson; land holders John Beeby; William Beeby. Susanna: She was "of Great Addington"at time of marriage. Witnessed land record of her husband in 1672. She was executor of her husband's will in 1693/4 and called a widow in a 1698 record. She was the daughter of Lawrence Sanderson whose will, 28 Mar 1678, mentions his daughter Susanna, the wife of John Beeby.

Children:

i Jane Beeby b. ABT 1672, m. 1698, William Pettit. William: His 1737/8 Will mentions his sister-in-law Eleanor Beeby.

ii Elizabeth Beeby b. 1676, m. 1703, Thomas Abbot.

iii John Beeby b. AFT 1671, occ. Miller, m. Eleanor _____. Called eldest son in his father's will. Birth date uncertain but after 1671. Probably had children. His will written 1730 where he was a Miller of Great Addington. Eleanor: Will written 1770 and proved 1774.

iv Lawrence Beeby b. ABT 1676, m. 1709, in Bedford, England, Mary Broughton, bp. 1709, d.1768, Gr Addington, Northamptonshire, England. Lawrence died 1763. Lived in Great Addington, Northamptonshire, England. He had a will. Mary: Adult Baptism.

8. John Beebe III. bp. 4 Nov 1628, Broughton, Northamptonshire, England, occ. Farmer Soldier, m. 1659, in Stonington, New London, CT, Abigail Yorke, b. 1638, d. 7 Jan 1720/21. John died 14 Apr 1708, New London, New London, CT. In the summer of 1676, Ensign John Beebe on New London, with Captain George Denison, was with a company which was raised in New London County for the Indian War. There are records of several land purchases in 1651 and 1652 by John. In 1707, he deeded 31 acres to his son Benjamin. This deed was recorded 28 April 1714 but he was probably dead at that time. He was called a "Leather Dresser" in a deed dated 1660. In 1675, he was appointed Ensign by the general court. During King Philip's War in June 1676, he went on several expeditions against the Indians to Rhode Island, Taunton and beyond Westfield, MA. on the way to Albany. On one of these expeditions, the company ascended the Connecticut River to Northampton, where they joined Major Talcot with supplies of which the army was in urgent need. In 1690, he was commissioned a lieutenant.

Clarence Beebe in "John Beebe of Broughton," 1921, says his death was "about April 1714." Abigail: Daughter of James and Joannah (____) Yorke Sr. of Stonington, CT. There is some question concerning the birthdate since, according to the Hempstead Diary, she is said to have been buried 7 Jan 1720 at age 86/7. Clarence Beebe in his 1921 book shows her death as Mar 1725 but this appears to be about the date Mary, Samuel Beebe's wife, died. Clarence also called her "Old Goodie Beebe" which was really the "pet" name of Mary (Keeney) Beebe.

9. Rebecca Beebe bp. 11 Aug 1630, Broughton, Northamptonshire, England, m. 2 Jan 1651, in Hartford, Hartford, CT, John Rusco, b. ABT 1623, England, d. 1702, Norwalk, Fairfield, CT. John: Son of William and Rebecca Ruscoe. He was one of the 14 original proprietors of Norwalk, CT. He is named in his fathers Will 5 Aug 1680 and was left 5 shillings. According to New York Settlers from New England, 1901, p 379, his father died in 1682 at Jamaica, Long Island. Inventory of John's estate taken 20 Nov 170

10. Thomas Beebe bp. 23 Jun 1633, Broughton, Northamptonshire, England, occ. Ship-master in CT, m. BEF 1658, Millicent Addis. Thomas died 1699, New London, New London, CT. Thomas was made a freeman of the Colony in 1666 and was of a committee of seven to fortify New London against King Philip in 1675. His homestead descended to his son Thomas, by whom it was conveyed in the latter years of his life, to his nephew, William Holt. Millicent: Millicent m. (1) William Southmead, and by him had two sons; William and John Southmead. She m. (2) William Ash of Gloucester, MA and (3) Thomas Beebe of New London, CT.

11. Samuel Beebe Sr. bp. 23 Jun 1633, Broughton, Northamptonshire, England, m. 1660, in New London, New London, CT, Mary Keeney, b. ABT 1639, d. 9 May 1725, New London, New London, CT, bd. 10 May 1725. Samuel died 1712, Plum Island, Suffolk, NY. Samuel was a twin brother of Thomas and baptized with him at Broughton, England, 23 June 1633. He came to New England in 1649 with his brother John. They lived briefly in Glouchester, MA but then removed to New London, CT where land was granted him December 2nd 1651 as well as several times afterwards. In 1708 he testified that he and his brother made the fence to Mr Winthrop's ox pasture "sixty years since." This expression is understood to mean about sixty years as he could not have been in New London earlier than the summer of 1650. A deed recorded in New London, and dated 8 May 1716 from Mary Beebe, then resident of Colchester, and relict of Samuel Beebe, late of New London, deceased, and conveyed to Samuel Fox of New London, for a valuable sum of money, land in New London, "originally granted to William Keeney." He probably moved to Plum Island and died there early in 1712 as administration was granted on his estate, 6 April 1712, to his widow, Mary and his son Samuel of Southold, Long Island. The Genealogy by Clarence Beebe names a first wife, Agnes Keeney, which is believed to be in error. Search does not reveal any such person other than Mary Keeney's mother, the wife of William Keeney. It appears that Clarence Beebe merely repeated the incorrect information provided by Frances M. Caulkins who earlier wrote the History of New London. New London Probate Record (A/620), rejected will of Samuel Beebe of New London, dated 10 Nov 1702, mentions wife Mary (executor), sons Samuel, William, Nathaniel, Jonathan and Thomas Beebe; daughters Agnes, Susanna and Mercy. His daughter Mary was not mentioned although Mary dec'd was mentioned in the distribution of her father's estate. Mary: Daughter of William and Agnes (Duckett?) Keeney. She was called "Old Goodie Beebe" in Hempsteads Diary. More recent researchers have incorrectly applied this "pet" name to Abigail Yorke.

12. James Beebe Sr. b. ABT 1641, Broughton, Northamptonshire, England, m. (1) 24 Oct 1667, in Hadley, Hampshire, MA, Mary Boltwood, b. ABT 1646, Hartford, Hartford, CT, d. 19 Aug 1676, Hadley, Hampshire, MA, m. (2) 19 Dec 1679, in Norwalk, Fairfield, CT, Sarah Benedict, b. ABT 1657, m. (3) AFT 1704, Rebecca (Beardsley) Curtis, d. 13 Feb 1738/9, Woodbury, Litchfield, CT. James died 22 Apr 1728, Danbury, Fairfield, CT. James was probably baptized at Broughton, England in the year 1641. He was undoubtedly the youngest of the Beebe brothers and probably accompanied his father to New England in 1650 when but 8 years of age. Not many years later he is found at Hadley, MA where he remained for more than 25 years. He was apprenticed by William Lewis, overseer of his father's Will to Thomas Stanley, of Hartford and Hadley. Stanley in his Will bequeathed five pounds "unto James Beebe my servant to be paid unto him a'ft he hath p'formed that tyme of service whe was promised by William Lewis, that he is to be with me until he is 20 and 5 years old." In 1679 he was a resident of Stratford, CT but soon removed to Norwalk and thence to Danbury. The first permanent settlement of Danbury was made in 1685 by James and seven other families. Here he was appointed to sundry offices, being a Commissioner in 1691, a Lieutenant in 1696, a Justice of the Peace for many years from 1698, a Deputy to the General Assembly in 1710, and Captain of the Train Band from 1716. He married first at Hadley, 24 October 1668, Mary, daughter of Robert and Mary (Gernor) Boltwood. She was the mother of his five older children and died 19 August 1676. He married second, at Norwalk, CT, 19 Dec 1679, Sarah, daughter of Thomas and Mary (Bridgeman) Benedict. He married third, after 1704, Rebecca (Beardsley) Curtis, daughter of William and Mary (Harvey) Beardsley. He died at Danbury, CT 22 April 1728 at the age of 87 as recorded on his tombstone. This stone was seen by Rev. Thomas Robbins and referred to in a century sermon in 1801.

Most of the information for the the first four generations in England is based on research by Steve Walker of Desford, England from documents on file in Northampton, Leicester, Warwick and London, England.


Alan Henry can be contacted by e-mail at alanhenry@buckeye-express.com.
 
Bebe, Thomas (I067272)
 
183
The reign of Tridu Songtsän (677-704)

Emperor Tridu Songtsän ruled in the shadow of his powerful mother Thrimalö on the one hand and the influential Gar (Mgar) clan on the other hand. In 685, the minister, Gar Tännyädombu (Mgar Bstan-snyas-ldom-bu) died and his brother, Gar Thridringtsändrö (Mgar Khri-‘bring-btsan brod) was appointed to replace him.[12] In 692, the Tibetans lose the Tarim Basin to the Chinese. Gar Thridringtsändrö defeats the Chinese in battle in 696, and sues for peace. Two years later in 698 emperor Tridu Songtsän invites the Gar clan (over 2000 people) to a hunting party and has them executed. Gar Thridringtsändrö commits suicide, and his troops loyal to him join the Chinese. This brought to end the power of the Gar family.[5]

From 700 until his death the emperor remained on campaign in the north-east, absent from Central Tibet, while his mother Thrimalö administrated in his name.[13] In 702 China and Tibet concluded peace. At the end of that year, the Tibetan imperial government turned to consolidating the administrative organization (Tibetan: khö chenpo; Wylie: mkhos chen-po) of the northeastern Sumru (Wylie: Sum-ru) area, which had been the Sumpa country conquered 75 years earlier. Sumru was organized as a new "horn" of the empire. During the summer of 703, Tridu Songtsän resided at Öljag (‘Ol-byag) in Ling (Gling), which was on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, before proceeding with an invasion of Jang (‘Jang). In 704, he stayed briefly at Yoti Chuzang (Yo-ti Chu-bzangs) in Madrom (Rma-sgrom) on the Yellow River. He then invaded Mywa but died during the prosecution of that campaign.[13]


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Tibet, Tridu Songtsän King of (I074806)
 
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The reign of Trimang Löntsän (650-677)

The minister Gar Songtsän died in 667, after having incorporated Azha into Tibetan territory. Between 665-670 Kotan was defeated by the Tibetans. Emperor Trimang Löntsen (Khri-mang-slon-rtsan) married Thrimalö (Khri-ma-lod), a woman who would be of great importance in Tibetan history. The emperor died in the winter of 676-677, and Zhang Zhung revolts thereafter. In the same year the emperor's son, Tridu Songtsän (Khri-'dus-srong-rtsan), was born.[5]

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Tibet, Trimang Löntsen King of (I074801)
 
185
Timeline of Scottish History
http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usfeatures/timeline/index.html
Wherever you turn in Scotland you come across signs of an incredibly complex and remarkably violent history. It might be one of the 2700 castles built in an often vain attempt to defend land, property and lives: or one of the innumerable battlefields where ordinary Scots fought, often with one another, and usually in pursuit of someone else's ambitions or beliefs. Or it might be one of the seemingly endless succession of castles and houses, large and small, in which Mary Queen of Scots is said to have spent the night.
Some understanding of Scottish history is essential if you are to get any real feel for a country with such a turbulent past. There's no substitute for reading some of the many books available on every aspect of the subject. A selection, some of which served as reference works for this Timeline, can be purchased from Amazon.co.uk via the bookshop inserts at the foot of each page.
The Timeline is divided into 10 pages to make it easier to use. They are:
•Prehistory to 1000:
Including early settlers, Romans, Dalriada, Scots, Picts and Vikings.
•1000 to 1200:
Duncan, Macbeth, the Canmore Dynasty and confilcts with England.
•1200 to 1300:
Alexander II and III, Haakon, the Wars of Independence, and William Wallace.
•1300 to 1400:
Robert the Bruce and Bannockburn, the Balliols, and Roberts II and III.
•1400 to 1500:
James I, II, III and IV.
•1500 to 1600:
James V, the Battle of Flodden, Mary Queen of Scots, the Reformation, James VI.
•1600 to 1700:
James I/VI, Wars of the Covenant, Charles, Cromwell, and William of Orange.
•1700 to 1800:
Act of Union, Jacobite Uprisings of 1715 and 1745, Highland Clearances.
•1800 to 1900:
Agricultural and industrial revolutions, Queen Victoria.
•1900 to Present:
World wars, industrial development, and the road to devolution.




Timeline: Prehistory to 1000
http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usfeatures/timeline/to1000.html

7000 BC: The date of the oldest human settlement yet found in Scotland, near Kinloch on Rum.
3000 BC: Maes Howe chambered tomb is built on Orkney.
3000 BC: Alleged date of origin of the Fortingall yew, probably the world's oldest living thing.
2500 BC to 2000 BC: Stone village of Skara Brae on Orkney in occupation.
500 BC: Crannogs, stilt houses, begin to appear on Scottish lochs.
200 BC to AD 200 Building and occupation of Brochs, circular stone defensive towers.
AD 80: Agricola, Roman Governor of Britain, invades Scotland, reaching a line between the Rivers Clyde and Forth by AD 82.
AD 83: Agricola invades northern Scotland.
AD 84: Battle of Mons Graupius, site unclear, but probably in Moray. The Romans convincingly defeat the Caledonians and other northern tribes. They establish a defensive line of forts extending north east from Loch Lomond to Stonehaven to guard the exits from the main highland glens.
AD 105: The Romans withdraw from Scotland to a defensive line between the Rivers Solway and Tyne. This is fortified as Hadrian's Wall from AD 121.
AD 139: The Romans advance again, to a line between the Forth and Clyde and build the Antonine Wall.
AD 170: The Romans withdraw to Hadrian's Wall once more.
AD 209: The Romans push north again, though only temporarily.
AD 250: The first raids take place in western Scotland by the strong Irish tribe, the Scots.
AD 367: The Picti, or the Picts, push the Romans back from Hadrian's Wall. "Picti" is the Romans' disparaging slang for their northern neighbours, meaning the painted (or tattooed) ones.
AD 430: Saint Ninian's followers build the first Christian church in Scotland at Whithorn.
AD 500: Increased migration of Scoti or Scots from Ireland to Scotland leads to the establishment of the kingdom of Dalriada in what is now Argyll, with its capital at Dunadd in Kilmartin Glen.
AD 500: King of the Scots of Dalriada, Fergus Mor fights both the Picts to the east and the Britons of Strathclyde to the south for land.
AD 550: The Angles establish Bernicia, later called Northumbria, with boundaries extending south to Yorkshire.
AD 570: St Columba founds a settlement on the island of Iona, off the western tip of Mull.
AD 590: St Mungo or St Kentigern founds a church in a green hollow or "glascu", on part of the site that later became Glasgow Cathedral.
AD 638: Edinburgh - Din Eidyn - is overrun by the Angles of the Kingdom of Northumbria.
AD 672: A Pictish uprising against the Kingdom of Northumbria is suppressed.
20 May 685: The Battle of Dunnichen or Nechtansmere, near Forfar. King Ecgfrith of Northumbria is decisively defeated by the Picts, paving the way for the development of a separate Scottish nation.
750: King Unust of the Picts defeats the Northumbrians at Athelstanford in East Lothian after a visitation in a dream by St Andrew and the appearance of a diagonal cross of cloud against the blue sky. Scotland thus acquires its patron saint and its flag, the Saltire.
795: First recorded Viking raid (probably from Orkney), on Iona, which is raided twice more in the following decade.
843: Kenneth MacAlpin becomes King of the Scots of Dalriada; and later becomes King of the Picts of Pictland as well, unifying the main groups in Scotland north of the Forth-Clyde line for the first time within the Kingdom of Alba.
850: Viking pressure leads to the relocation of the capital of Alba from Argyll to Scone, near Perth. The religious centre, and the relics of St Columba, moves from Iona to Dunkeld.
850: Kenneth MacAlpin, also known as Kenneth I, raids Northumbria six times in the 850s.
870: Following a 15 week siege the Vikings capture the fortress at Dumbarton Rock guarding the entrance to the Clyde and the British Kingdom of Strathclyde.
890: The Vikings capture the Pictish fortress at Dunottar, near Stonehaven.
900: Constantin II comes to power and helps incorporate Viking settlers into the emerging Kingdom of Scotland.
945: Edmund, a Danish King ruling Northumbria, gives Cumbria to Malcolm I of Scotland in return for military support.



Timeline: 1000 to 1200
1018: Malcolm II defeats the Northumbrians at the Battle of Carham, near the River Tweed. This leads to the first demarcation of the modern border between Scotland and England. He also incorporates the British Kingdom of Strathclyde into what is increasingly known as Scotland.
1034: Malcolm II is succeeded by Duncan I.
10 August 1040: King Duncan I tries to impose his will on northern Scotland, but loses to MacBeth of Moray at the Battle of Pitgaveny, near Elgin. Duncan is killed during the battle, and King Macbeth is crowned at Scone later in 1040.
27 July 1057: Duncan I's son Malcolm Canmore defeats Macbeth at the Battle of Dunsinane in Perthshire.
25 April 1058: Malcolm Canmore becomes King Malcolm III, founder of the Canmore Dynasty.
1065: Malcolm III marries Ingibjorg, daughter of Thorfinn the Mighty, Viking Earl of Orkney, bringing stability in the north of Alba.
1070: Malcolm III, now a widower, marries his second wife, Margaret - later St Margaret - a Saxon princess in Dunfermline. She is part of the English royal family fleeing the Normans after 1066.
1072: Malcolm III's incursions into Northumbria provoke an invasion of Scotland by the Normans. This ended with the Treaty of Abernethy, in English eyes a submission that gives rise to later claims of dominance of the English throne over the Scots throne.
1079: Another Norman/English invasion of Scotland following further raids into Northumbria by Malcolm III. The Treaty of Abernethy is reimposed.
13 November 1093: Malcolm Canmore is killed, along with his eldest son by Margaret, in yet another raid on Northumbria.
16 November 1093: Margaret dies of grief and is buried in the church she has founded in Dunfermline. She later becomes St Margaret and Dunfermline becomes a centre of pilgrimage.
1093: Malcolm is succeeded by his younger brother, Donald, who becomes Donald III. The Scots evict the many English who have gathered around the Anglicised court of Malcolm and Margaret, including their surviving children.
1093: Duncan, eldest son of Malcolm III and Ingibjorg, who has been a hostage with the English court since Abernethy, becomes Duncan II after defeating Donald III with Norman/English help.
12 November 1094: Duncan II is killed at Battle of Monthechin, near Kincardine. Donald III returns to the throne.
1097: Edgar, a son of Malcolm III and Margaret, invades at the head of another Norman/English army and becomes King Edgar. Donald III is killed.
8 January 1107: Alexander, Edgar's younger brother, succeeds to the throne on Edgar's death as Alexander I.
23 April 1124: On Alexander's death he is succeeded by his younger brother, who becomes David I, and the third of the sons of Malcolm III and Margaret to become King of Scots.
22 August 1138: The Scots army under David I is defeated at the Battle of the Standard at Northallerton in Yorkshire in an attempt to capitalise on unrest in England to extend his kingdom. Despite the defeat, the Treaty of Durham that follows in 1139 gives David I effective control over Northumbria and Cumbria.
24 May 1153: David I dies, and is succeeded by his grandson, Malcolm IV, aged 12.
6 January 1156: Somerled defeats the Norse and subsequently becomes Lord of the Isles, leader of a Gaelic state centred on Loch Finlaggan on Islay.
1157: Henry II of England rips up a promise given to David I in 1149 to allow the Scots all the land North of the River Tees. He summons the 16 year old Malcolm IV to Chester and persuades him to sign a treaty giving up Cumbria and Northumbria to the English.
9 December 1165: Malcolm dies, aged 24 and unmarried, and is succeeded by his younger brother William I or William the Lion after his symbol, a red lion rampant on a yellow field that becomes the basis of one of Scotland's two flags.
13 July 1174: William I is captured by the English at Alnwick while trying to retake Northumbria.
December 1174: In the Treaty of Falaise, where William is being held captive, he agrees that the King of Scots will henceforth be subordinate to the King of England, and that key Scottish castles would be occupied by the English.
1186: Henry II of England forces William I to marry Ermengard, from a Norman family: and gives her Edinburgh Castle as a wedding present.
1189: The Treaty of Falaise is nullified in return for a payment of £6,500 to Henry's son Richard I.




Timeline: 1200 to 1300
1204: The Scots attack the newly built English fort at Tweedmouth, overlooking the key Scots port of Berwick-upon-Tweed.
1209: The Treaty of Norham between William I and King John of England stops the building of the Tweedmouth fort, but at the cost of a £10,000 payment to the English: and William's two oldest daughters, who John later marries to English nobles.
4 December 1214: William I dies after a reign of 49 years. He is succeeded by his son, Alexander II.
1215: Alexander II takes advantage of King John's weakness after the signing of the Magna Carta to try to capture Northumberland. He is beaten back and a period of cross border warfare follows until John's death in 1216.
1221: Alexander II marries King John's daughter Joan (and the young Henry III of England's elder sister) and a period of peace ensues.
1230: Håkon the Old of Norway tries to reimpose direct Norwegian rule over the Viking-descended Lords of the Isles in the Hebrides. This includes a successful attack on Rothesay Castle.
1237: Alexander II freely signs the Treaty of York, giving up future claims to lands south of the modern border between England and Scotland.
1240: Alexander II marries Marie de Coucy, a member of the French royal family, following the death of Joan in 1238.
1244: Cross border tension with the English leads to the betrothal of the three year old future Alexander III, and four year old Margaret, daughter of Henry III.
1244: Alexander II opens negotiations with Norway over the sovereignty of the Hebrides. King Håkon is unyielding and unprepared to sell.
1249: The Scots invade the Norse territories in Western Scotland and the Hebrides. The first objective is Dunstaffnage Castle, the stronghold of the Macdougalls, appointed Lords of the Isles by Håkon.
8 July 1249: Alexander II dies on the island of Kerrera, in Oban Bay, after a premonition while on board his fleet. The military action dissipates on his death.
13 July 1249: Alexander III succeeds his father at the age of 8.
December 1251: Alexander III, aged 10, goes to York to meet Henry III and marry his daughter, Margaret. Alexander evades Henry's efforts to have him do homage for the Kingdom of Scotland.
July 1263: King Håkon of Norway responds to Scots raids on the Hebrides with a major invasion force that sails to the Firth of Clyde. A series of negotiations ensue, with the Scots playing for time.
2 October 1263: Håkon's fleet is damaged by a storm on the night of 30 September and this leads to the inconclusive skirmishes along the beach now known as the Battle of Largs. Håkon takes his battered fleet back to Orkney and later dies there.
2 July 1266: In the Treaty of Perth the Norwegians cede the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to the Scots in return for £2,500 and guarantees about future Norwegian rights over Orkney and Shetland.
17 January 1284: Alexander III's eldest son, also named Alexander, dies aged 20 without children. Alexander III's younger son had died in 1281, and his daughter, Margaret, in 1283, leaving him with an infant granddaughter, also called Margaret, living in Norway. Alexander's wife Margaret had died in 1275.
14 October 1285: Alexander III remarries.
19 March 1286: Alexander III, aged 44, dies in a fall from his horse en route to be with his new bride in Fife. Once his young wife's claims to pregnancy turn out not to be true, his granddaughter Margaret, "The Maid of Norway" becomes Queen of Scots at the age of three.
September 1290: Margaret, Queen of Scots, sails from Bergen for Leith and an arranged marriage with Edward the young heir to the English throne. This will ensure a stable future relationship between England and Scotland. She dies of sea sickness en route, still aged only seven. With her dies the Canmore dynasty that has ruled Scotland since 1058.
November 1292: Edward I of England oversees the selection between competing claims to the Scottish throne, on condition he is acknowledged as Lord Superior of Scotland. 13 competitors are narrowed down to two. John Balliol is selected over Robert Bruce and is crowned King of Scotland on 30 November 1292.
1295: The Treaty of Paris offers military support for Scotland by France. It is taken by Edward I as a declaration of war and is, in effect, the start of the Wars of Independence.
30 March 1296: Edward I attacks Berwick-upon-Tweed two-thirds of the 12,000 residents are massacred. The Scots retaliate with a raid on 8 April and atrocities of their own in Hexham.
27 April 1296: Edward I defeats the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar.
8 July 1296: John Balliol resigns his kingdom to Edward I at Montrose. Edward takes the Stone of Scone back to London after the Scottish nobility have signed their loyalty to him. He appoints the Earl of Surrey as Governor of Scotland.
May 1297: William Wallace sacks Lanark Castle, killing the Sheriff and other English in the town. It is the spark for more widespread rebellion.
7 July 1297: An "official" or nobles' rebellion surrenders to the English at Irvine.
Summer 1297: Sir Andrew Murray captures a series of English castles in the Highlands and the north east, including Urquhart Castle.
11 September 1297: William Wallace and Sir Andrew Murray comprehensively defeat the English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Murray subsequently dies of wounds suffered during the battle.
29 March 1298: Wallace is titled "Guardian of Scotland", but still acting in the name of King John Balliol.
22 July 1298: Wallace is badly defeated by Edward I at the Battle of Falkirk after the Scottish cavalry flee the field without a fight. Wallace subsequently resigns as Guardian and returns to a guerilla existence.
Timeline Footer Menu (Level 3)



Timeline: 1300 to 1400
May 1303: Edward invades Scotland once more, with a view to subjugating the country once and for all.
3 February 1304: The Community of Scotland surrenders to Edward I.
22 April 1304: Edward besieges the last Scottish stronghold, Stirling Castle. It surrenders three months later when the food runs out.
3 August 1305: William Wallace is captured near Glasgow after periods as guerrilla and diplomat. He is tried in London on 23 August, then executed.
10 February 1306: Robert the Bruce, the grandson of the Robert Bruce who had competed with John Balliol for the crown in 1292, murders the Red Comyn, head of one of the most powerful clans in Scotland in an argument about power in a church in Dumfries.
25 March 1306: Robert the Bruce moves to fill the power vacuum in Scotland and crowns himself King Robert I.
10 May 1307: At the Battle of Loudon Hill in Ayrshire, Robert the Bruce defeats forces loyal to the English.
7 July 1307: King Edward I of England dies.
November 1307: Robert the Bruce secures his power base by taking Comyn castles at Urquhart and Balvenie.
24 June 1314: An English army under King Edward II sent to relieve Stirling Castle is defeated by Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. Edward II only narrowly escapes with his life. It is the most important single military victory in Scottish history.
1315: Robert the Bruce invades Ireland and his brother is declared King.
1318: Bruce captures Berwick Castle.
6 April 1320: The Declaration of Arbroath is addressed to the Pope in an effort to have him recognise Robert the Bruce as King of Scotland (and remove the excommunication that followed his murder of the Red Comyn in a church). It defines the relationship between the Scottish King and the Scots people.
17 March 1328: The Wars of Independence finally end with the Treaty of Edinburgh and Northampton.
July 1328: Robert the Bruce's four year old son David is married to Joan, the seven year old sister of Edward III of England.
7 June 1329: Robert the Bruce dies aged 55. He is succeeded by his five year old son, David II.
8 August 1332: The Scots are defeated by the English led by Edward Balliol (son of John Balliol) at the battle of Duppin Moor, near Perth.
24 September 1332: Edward Balliol is crowned King of Scots at Scone.
17 December 1332: Edward Balliol is surprised by Sir Andrew Murray on behalf of David II (son of the Sir Andrew Murray who had fought alongside William Wallace at Stirling Castle) and flees the country.
May 1333: Edward III invades Scotland in support of Edward Balliol and besieges Berwick Castle.
19 July 1333: The Scots are heavily defeated by Edward III at the Battle of Haildon Hill as they try to relieve Berwick Castle. David II, still a boy, goes to France for safety.
30 November 1335: The Battle of Culblean, near Ballater, sees the defeat of Balliol's forces by Sir Andrew Murray.
1338: Sir Andrew Murray dies and his role as Guardian of King David II passes to Robert Stewart, who is King David's nephew, but eight years older than him at 22.
16 June 1338: The English give up their siege of Dunbar after six months.
June 1341: King David II returns to Scotland from France, aged 17.
17 October 1346: David II responds to a French request to help take the English military pressure off them in France by raiding Northumberland. At the Battle of Neville's Cross, near Durham, David II is captured by the English under Edward Balliol and taken to London.
1349: The Black Death reaches Scotland, killing as many as 200,000 people out of a population of 1 million over the following two years.
1356: Although Edward Balliol has been in possession of large parts of the south of Scotland since Neville's Cross, he realises his lack of general support and sells the Balliol claim to the Scottish throne to Edward II of England for a pension.
October 1357: David II is released in return for a ransom of £65,000. He returns to a country heavily under the influence of Robert Stewart, who has been acting as "King's Lieutenant" for eleven years.
23 February 1371: David II dies at Edinburgh Castle. He is succeeded by his nephew, Robert Stewart who becomes King Robert II, and the founder of the Stewart dynasty that is to rule Scotland for most of the next three hundred years. Robert II is the grandson of Robert the Bruce by his daughter Marjory.
November 1384: An ailing Robert II is sidelined in favour of his own eldest son and heir, John, Earl of Carrick, who becomes Guardian of the Kingdom.
June 1385: The Scots under the Earl of Carrick, supported by a French army, invade northern England but are pushed back as far as Edinburgh, which is destroyed in retaliation by the English.
August 1388: The Earl of Carrick leads the Scots into Cumberland and Northumberland. This culminates with the Battle of Otterburn, a victory for the Scots but with the loss of their battlefield commander James, Earl of Douglas, the Earl of Carrick's most powerful ally in southern Scotland.
December 1388: John, Earl of Carrick, who has been injured while riding, is replaced as Guardian of the Kingdom by his younger brother Robert, Earl of Fife.
April 1390: Robert II dies, and is succeeded by his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick. He becomes, confusingly, King Robert III because the Scots feel John is an unlucky name for a King: and because for him to become John II would acknowledge John Balliol as John I, and so revive a claim to the throne that had been sold to Edward III of England in 1356.
17 June 1390: Alexander Stewart, youngest son of Robert II and younger brother of John, Earl of Carrick (now Robert III) and Robert, Earl of Fife, destroys Elgin Cathedral. He is better remembered as the "Wolf of Badenoch".
September 1396: In an effort to halt one of the many clan feuds dividing the Highlands, Robert III arranged a fight to the death between 30 warriors from each of the Clans Kay and Chattan on the edge of Perth in front of spectators. 11 Clan Chattan emerge alive and one man of Clan Kay escapes by swimming the River Tay. This is later called the Battle of the Inch.
1398: Robert III's eldest son, David, is created Duke of Rothesay, and Robert III's younger brother, Robert, Earl of Fife, is created Duke of Albany.
1399: The General Council takes power from Robert III, now in poor health, and gives it instead to David, Duke of Rothesay, who they make the King's Lieutenant.


Timeline: 1400 to 1500
1400: The Duke of Rothesay bigamously marries Mary Douglas. The father of his spurned first wife gains support from Henry IV of England and an English army easily takes Edinburgh, except for the castle, before withdrawing.
1401: David, Duke of Rothesay is captured by his uncle Robert, Duke of Albany and imprisoned in St Andrews Castle. He is subsequently moved to the Duke of Albany's home at Falkland Castle in Fife.
March 1402: David, Duke of Rothesay dies at Falkland Castle as a result, the General Council decides, of "Divine Providence". Others say the cause is starvation. This leaves David's 7 year-old brother James as heir to the throne still held by Robert III. There are fears that James in turn will not be safe from the ambitions of his uncle Robert.
February 1406: An army of James' supporters is defeated by the Duke of Albany at Edinburgh. James is taken for safety to Bass Rock, off North Berwick.
22 March 1406: James is captured by pirates off Flamborough Head in Yorkshire while en route to sanctuary in France. They then hand him over to Henry IV of England.
4 April 1406: King Robert III dies in Rothesay Castle after hearing the news of James' capture. James therefore succeeds to the throne as James I at the age of 11 and as a prisoner of the English.
1406: Robert, Duke of Albany becomes Governor of Scotland in his nephew's absence and moves his base to Doune Castle.
1407: The Duke of Albany negotiates a renewal of the long standing treaty of mutual support against England with France.
24 July 1411: At the Battle of Harlaw, 20 miles north of Aberdeen, the highland army of Donald, the Lord of the Isles meets the lowland army of Alexander, Earl of Mar, son of the Wolf of Badenoch. At stake is the control of northern Scotland and the isles. After an inconclusive day of heavy fighting and heavy casualties, Donald retires to Inverness and Alexander to Aberdeen.
1411: The University of St. Andrews is founded as a center for learning and the arts.
1420: Robert, Duke of Albany, dies and is succeeded as Governor of Scotland by his son, Murdoch.
December 1423: The Treaty of London provides for the release of King James I by Henry VI of England in return for a King's ransom of £40,000, plus £4,000 for the expenses incurred during James' 18 years of captivity.
February 1424: James I marries Lady Joan Beaufort, a close relative of Henry VI, in London.
21 May 1424: James I is crowned at Scone.
April 1425: James I arrests many members of the Albany family, descendents of his uncle, Robert. James Albany evades long enough to attack Dumbarton and destroy the castle, so justifying a charge of treason against the family.
May 1425: The Scottish Parliament meets in Stirling to try the Albany family for treason. Murdoch and three others are executed and the family is virtually extinguished.
1428: James I summons Alexander, Lord of the Isles and other highland clan chiefs to a meeting in Inverness, and has them arrested. Three are executed as an example, but others including Alexander are later released.
1429: Alexander, Lord of the Isles, attacks and destroys Inverness. James I retaliates and captures Alexander on Islay, releasing him again two years later.
16 October 1430: Twin sons, James and Alexander, are born to James I and Joan. Alexander dies as a baby, but James survives.
August 1436: James I loses considerably credibility after his efforts to besiege the English in Roxburgh Castle fail miserably.
21 February 1437: James I is assassinated while staying at the Abbey of Black Friars in Perth. Queen Joan is injured but escapes with her son James. She arranged for the conspirators, including relatives of James I, to be caught and executed.
25 March 1437: James II is crowned in Edinburgh, aged 6.
24 November 1440: The Livingston and Crichton families seek to secure their joint influence over the young King James II by killing the Earl of Douglas and his brother in the presence of the King at Edinburgh Castle.
3 July 1449: King James I takes formal control of his kingdom following his marriage to Marie, niece of the Duke of Burgundy in Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh.
1450: James II demonstrates his power by executing two members of the Livingston family.
7 January 1451: Glasgow University is founded.
22 February 1452: James II invites the dangerously powerful Earl of Douglas to Stirling Castle where he personally murders him. Followers of the Earl subsequently sack the town of Stirling.
1455: James II completes his subjugation of the Black Douglas family by taking their land and castles in south west Scotland.
1457: In an effort to ensure the population practice military skills, and archery in particular, James II decrees that "futeball and golfe be utterly cried down." He is widely ignored.
3 August 1460: James II is killed during his siege of Roxburgh Castle when an artillery piece explodes. A week later his 9 year old son James is crowned James III of Scotland.
1461: In return for a promise of support from James III's mother against the House of York, Henry VI of Lancaster gives Berwick-upon-Tweed back to Scotland, and offers Carlisle.
1464: Bishop Kennedy of St Andrews, acting for the King after the death of his mother, signs a truce with the English.
July 1466: The Boyd family kidnap James III, now 14, and use his influence to enhance their own power, including a marriage to the King's sister.
10 July 1469: James III, now 18, marries 10 year old Margrethe, Princess of Norway and Denmark and assumes his full powers over Scotland. Part of her dowry is mortgaged against Orkney and Shetland.
November 1469: Parliament upholds charges of treason against the Boyd family for their kidnap of King James III in 1466. The head of the family, Sir Alexander Boyd, is executed and family land and property is seized.
1472: Shetland and Orkney formally become part of Scotland under an Act of Parliament, so settling the northern extent of the Kingdom.
October 1474: Marriage is arranged between James III's one year old son James and Lady Cecilia, Edward IV's three year old daughter.
1479: James III is worried by unrest amongst Scottish nobles who want him replaced, and arrests and imprisons his brothers Alexander and John. John subsequently dies in suspicious circumstances, but Alexander escapes via France to England.
November 1479: The arranged marriage between James III' younger sister Margaret and Edward IV's brother in law collapses when it emerges she is pregnant by someone else. A period of peace between England and Scotland comes to an end.
1482: The English, on behalf of James III's exiled brother Alexander, invade southern Scotland. At Lauder the Scottish nobles kill many of King James III's advisers and arrest the King, returning him to captivity in Edinburgh Castle. The English take Edinburgh, but then withdraw, keeping both Berwick-upon-Tweed and Berwick Castle, which will now remain English. James III is released following apparent reconciliation with his brother Alexander, Duke of Albany. It is only temporary: further plotting sees him leave for France in 1484.
June 1488: James III seeks to capture his eldest son, James, Duke of Rothesay, who at 15 is becoming a focus for dissent in the kingdom. Following a fight between their supporters near Stirling, on the site of the earlier Battle of Bannockburn, the injured James III is murdered by persons unknown on 11 June. James IV is crowned at Scone on 26 June.
1489: A serious rebellion by supporters of James III is followed by reconciliation with James IV in the 1490 Parliament.
1492: Blind Harry dies. He is the minstrel whose verses have preserved the story of William Wallace, and which help shape Scottish views of the English for the rest of the millennium.
1493: John II, Lord of the Isles is tried by James IV and the lordship destroyed, ending a "kingdom" that has ruled much of Western Scotland and the Isles for nearly 350 years.
1494: Aberdeen University is founded.
1494: The first written reference appears to the art of distillation of whisky in Scotland.
September 1496: James IV launches major raids on Northumberland.



Timeline: 1500 to 1600

http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usfeatures/timeline/to1600.html
8 August 1503: A "Treaty of Perpetual Peace" with England is followed by the marriage between James IV and Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII of England at Holyrood. This does little to interrupt James IV's succession of mistresses and illegitimate children.
1 July 1505: The Barber Surgeons of Edinburgh are granted a charter by the City Council enabling them to practise surgery within the city. This marks the beginnings of the Royal College of Surgeons.
October 1511: The launch of the "Great Michael" the flagship of the rapidly growing Royal Scottish Navy.
10 April 1512: After three children who die in infancy, Margaret gives birth to a son, James.
26 July 1513: James IV responds to pleas for assistance from France and gives notice to his brother in law, Henry VIII, that he is going to invade Northumberland.
22 August 1513: The Scottish army crosses the border with England, taking Norham Castle amongst others.
9 September 1513: At the Battle of Flodden, near Coldstream, 5,000 Scots are killed, including James IV himself and many Scots nobles. This compares with losses of just 1,700 on the English side. It is a decisive victory for the English.
21 September 1513: King James V is crowned at Stirling at the age of just one.
May 1515: John, Duke of Albany, son of James III's exiled brother Alexander, accepts the Scottish Parliament's invitation to become Governor of Scotland during James V's childhood. He brings from France, where he has been brought up, French troops and support.
May 1524: The Duke of Albany returns to France with his supporting troops. This leaves the way clear for Margaret Tudor, mother of James V, to have her son crowned at the age of twelve.
April 1526: James V's assumes his full powers at the age of 14, but is taken captive by Margaret Tudor's second - but by now estranged - husband, the Earl of Angus.
29 February 1528: Patrick Hamilton is tried and found guilty for heresy and burned in St Andrews. He is the first of eleven Protestant martyrs in Scotland.
1528: James V escapes and commences his true period of rule. His first act is to exile the Earl of Douglas to England and seize his lands.
5 July 1530: The King imposes order on the bandit country in the Scottish Borders by capturing and hanging Johnnie Armstrong and 50 other border reivers or raiders.
1 January 1537: Although she is in ill health, James V marries Madeleine, daughter of King Francois of France, in Paris. By July her health has worsened and she dies at Holyrood Palace.
17 July 1537: Janet, Countess of Glamis, and the sister in law of James V's exiled stepfather, the Earl of Angus, is tried on charges including trying to poison the King. She is burned at the stake outside Edinburgh Castle and her - extremely rich - estate is forfeited to the James V.
June 1538: James marries again, to Marie de Guise, adopted sister of Madeleine.
1540: James V tours the northern and western outposts of his kingdom in a fleet of warships to impose his rule.
24 November 1542: The Scots lose the Battle of Solway Moss, north of Carlisle, intended to stem the warlike moves of James V's uncle, Henry VIII.
8 December 1542: Marie de Guise gives birth to a daughter, Mary, at Linlithgow Palace.
14 December 1542: James V dies at Falkland Palace, aged 30, probably from cholera.
March 1543: The Earl of Arran is appointed Governor of Scotland.
July 1543: The Treaties of Greenwich provide for Mary to be married to Henry VIII's son Edward in 1552: and for their heir to inherit the Kingdoms of Scotland and England.
9 September 1543: Mary is crowned Queen of Scots at Stirling Castle, at the age of nine months.
December 1543: The Scottish Parliament believes it better to pursue alliance with France than England and takes advantage of the failure of the English Parliament to ratify the Treaties of Greenwich by repudiating them.
May 1544: Henry VIII commences a period of "rough wooing" designed to impose the marriage of his son to Mary Queen of Scots. Armies invade from the south and from the sea near Edinburgh.
1545: Cross border raids by English forces continue.
March 1546: Cardinal Beaton has the Protestant George Wishart executed at St Andrews.
29 May 1546: Protestants break into St Andrews Castle, surprise Cardinal Beaton with one of his many mistresses, murder him and take over the castle. Their appeals to Henry VIII for support are ignored.
31 July 1547: French naval forces in support of the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots bombard St Andrews Castle and capture the Protestant rebels. These include John Knox, who is sent to become a galley-slave.
10 September 1547: A large English army with naval support meets and soundly beats the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie, a little to the east of Edinburgh. The English move on to occupy Edinburgh, though not its castle. They bombard Dundee, destroying much of it.
1548: Another English army invades, building a major fortification at Haddington, east of Edinburgh.
16 June 1548: A large French army lands at Leith to support the Scots following an agreement that Mary Queen of Scots, still only five, would marry Francois, eldest son of King Henri II of France. They besiege the English at Haddington.
29 July 1548: A French fleet rescues Mary Queen of Scots from Dumbarton and returns with her to France.
June 1551: England agree to end hostilities with Scotland after a earlier withdrawal of their forces in 1549. The cost of the "rough wooing" since 1544, over half a million pounds, has broken the English exchequer.
1552: The Society of St Andrews is formed to promote the game of golf in the town. It becomes known from 1754 as the St Andrews Society of Golfers: and still later as the Royal and Ancient Golf Club.
24 April 1558: Fourteen year old Mary Queen of Scots marries fifteen year old Francoise, Dauphin of France in Paris. This is accompanied by an agreement that will unify the crowns of Scotland and France if there are children of the marriage, and hand over the crown of Scotland to France if there are not.
November 1558: Queen Elizabeth succeeds to the crown of England. Her parents' marriage follows Henry VIII's earlier divorce so is in the view of the Catholic Church, Elizabeth is illegitimate. So in Catholic eyes, especially in Scotland and France, Mary Queen of Scots is the rightful claimant to the English crown.
11 May 1559: John Knox preaches a sermon in Perth, starting a major Protestant uprising that spreads swiftly across central Scotland.
July 1559: Henri II of France dies after a jousting accident, and is succeeded by Franciose as Franciose II of France, with Mary as Queen.
July 1560: The Treaty of Edinburgh provides for the withdrawal of both English and French forces from Scotland and provides French recognition of the claims of Elizabeth to the Crown of England.
August 1560: The Scottish Parliament prohibits the practise of the Latin Mass in Scotland and denies the authority of the Pope, in effect implementing the Reformation across Scotland.
5 December 1560: Franciose II of France dies of an infected ear and is succeeded by his brother, Charles IX of France.
19 August 1561: Mary Queen of Scots, aged eighteen and now a widow, is increasingly isolated in France, and has little choice but to accept an invitation to return to a now Protestant Scotland as Queen.
4 September 1561: Mary meets John Knox at the Palace of Holyroodhouse to try to resolve the religious differences between them. The meeting fails and Mary neither ratifies nor revokes the Protestant Acts passed by Parliament.
28 October 1562: Mary defeats George, the 4th Earl of Huntly at the Battle of Corrichie, near Aberdeen, to curtail his ambition and assauge Protestant concerns in Scotland. She goes on to sack Huntly Castle.
29 July 1565: Mary marries her cousin Lord Darnley in a Catholic weddin
9 March 1566: Mary's private secretary, David Rizzio, is murdered in front of her at the Palace of Holyroodhouse by a group including her husband Lord Darnley. The attempted coup that follows fails when Darnley has second thoughts and helps Mary to escape to Dunbar.
18 March 1566: Mary returns to Edinburgh with an army provided by the Earl of Bothwell and the conspirators flee, many subsequently being exiled.
19 June 1566: Mary gives birth to a son, Charles James, at Edinburgh Castle.
17 December 1566: Charles James is christened at Stirling Castle. Darnley refuses to attend.
9 February 1567: Darnley, now ill with syphilis, is murdered while staying at the Provost's House on the edge of Edinburgh. The cellar of the building has been packed with gunpowder, but it seems Darnley may have been strangled while trying to escape the explosion. Public suspicions grow that the Earl of Bothwell, and possibly Mary herself, is involved in the murder.
12 April 1567: The Earl of Bothwell is tried for the murder of Darnley and found not guilty. Few Scots believe the trial to be fair.
19 April 1567: Bothwell, although already married, proposes marriage to Mary with the support of many influential nobles across Scotland. Mary turns him down.
21 April 1567: Bothwell kidnaps Mary on the edge of Edinburgh and takes her to Dunbar Castle, where, assuming Mary is an unwilling participant, he rapes her. They agree to marry.
3 May 1567: Bothwell is divorced from his wife.
15 May 1567: Mary marries the Earl of Bothwell in a Protestant wedding at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh. They then flee from widespread popular dissent to Dunbar Castle.
15 June 1567: Scottish nobles intent on retrieving Mary from Boswell meet the couple and a thousand supporters at Carberry Hill, east of Edinburgh. After a day long stand-off Mary agrees to the nobles' demands and sends Bothwell away. They never meet again. Mary is taken away to imprisonment in Lochleven Castle on an island in Loch Leven, near Kinross.
24 July 1567: Lords Ruthven and Lindsay visit Mary and insist she abdicates immediately or be killed. She abdicates.
29 July 1567: One year old Charles James is crowned King James VI of Scotland in a Protestant ceremony in the Church of the Holy Rude, close to Stirling Castle. John Knox preaches a sermon. It is exactly two years since Mary married Darnley.
2 May 1568: Mary escapes from Lochleven Castle and revokes her abdication. She gathers an army and moves towards Dumbarton Castle.
13 May 1568: Mary's army is defeated by a much smaller force under the Regent, the Earl of Moray, at the Battle of Langside, now part of Glasgow.
15 May 1568: Mary's flight takes her to Terregles Castle near Dumfries. She rejects supporters' advice to return to France and chooses instead to flee to England and seek the mercy of her cousin, Queen Elizabeth, who still fears Mary might make a claim to the Crown of England.
16 January 1569: Elizabeth delivers an ambiguous judgement on the dispute between Mary and the Scottish Lords that alienates neither side but resolves nothing.
23 January 1570: The Regent, the Earl of Moray, is shot and killed at Linlithgow by an assailant hiding in the home of the Catholic Archbishop of St Andrews.
12 July 1570: The Earl of Lennox, father of Lord Darnley, is appointed Regent with support from Queen Elizabeth.
September 1571: Mary, still captive in England, is implicated in a plot by the Catholic Duke of Norfolk to use Spanish troops to overthrow Elizabeth. This undermines much of her remaining support in Scotland.
1572 The Earl of Morton becomes Regent and is effectively ruler of Scotland for the next six years.
May 1573: The fall of Edinburgh Castle as the last bastion of support for Mary in Scotland brings three years of civil war to an end.
March 1578: James VI takes over the government of Scotland at the age of 12.
June 1581: The ex-Regent, the Earl of Morton, is executed for his alleged involvement in the murder of Darnley, fourteen years earlier.
August 1582: 16 year old King James VI is taken prisoner by the Earl of Gowrie and the "Lords Enterprisers" at Ruthven Castle now Huntingtower Castle near Perth. The "Ruthven Raid" was designed to increase the grip of the conspirators on power by controlling the King.
June 1583: James VI tricks his captors into allowing him to attend a feast at St Andrews Castle, where he escapes from them and subsequently forgives them.
April 1584: The Lords Enterprisers take St Andrews Castle in an effort to overthrow James VI, now aged 18. He musters an army and recaptures it, executing the Earl of Gowrie and exiling other conspirators to England.
May 1584: Parliament declared James VI head of both the church - the Kirk - and the state in the face of increasing efforts by the Kirk to limit his power.
11 August 1586: Mary Queen of Scots is arrested after writing a letter approving of a plot to kill Queen Elizabeth.
15 October 1586: Mary is tried for treason at Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire.
8 February 1587: Mary is beheaded at Fotheringay. Her son, James VI, briefly breaks off diplomatic relations with England.
28 August 1589: James VI marries Anne, daughter of King Frederik II of Denmark. The marriage is by proxy and her subsequent efforts to sail to Scotland see her blown back by storm to Norway, allegedly as a result of witchcraft.
22 October 1589: James VI sails to Norway to collect his bride.
1 May 1590: James VI and Anne of Denmark return to Leith, and Anne is crowned Queen of Scotland later that month. James begins a witch-hunt that will claim hundreds of lives in the following hundred years.
July 1596: James VI's efforts to have himself declared heir apparent to the English throne lead to the Treaty of Berwick, a formal alliance with England.
1597: The Scottish Parliament lease the Isle of Lewis in the Western Isles to the Duke of Lennox and the "Fife Adventurers". They are explicitly permitted to slaughter, mutilate, fire raise, and do anything necessary to "root out the barbarian inhabitants". This is how the inhabitants of the highlands and islands are viewed by lowland Scots.
1599: James and Anne start to live separate lives after her conversion to Catholicism, though they have seven children in total.





http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usfeatures/timeline/to1700.html

Timeline: 1600 to 1700
5 August 1600: An attempt is allegedly made on James VI's life by the Gowrie family in Perth during what is known as the Gowrie conspiracy. Others suggest it was a plot by the King to avoid paying the £80,000 owed by the crown to the family.
24 March 1603: Elizabeth I of England dies. The news is carried in two days to 36 year old James VI of Scotland in Edinburgh that he is now also King James I of England. He styles himself "King of Great Britain" and the crowns of Scotland and England are unified under the Stewart dynasty, though increasingly the family name is now spelled "Stuart".
3 April 1603: James leaves Edinburgh for London, promising to return every three years. He will in fact only return once, in 1617.
1609: Nine highland chieftains are tricked into captivity on a naval ship and only released from the island of Iona when they agree a programme designed to undermine the Gaelic language and culture.
1609: James I/VI begins the plantation of Scots Protestants into Ulster as a means of pacification.
1611: The growth in use of the English language King James Bible by Scottish Protestants helps weaken the Gaelic language.
1614: John Napier publishes the "Description of the Marvelous Canon of Logarithms": or log tables to everyone using them over the 360 years that follow until the invention of the electronic calculator.
1616: The Scottish church sets up schools in every parish to teach children "godliness and knowledge": and to read and write in English and not Gaelic, which it considers "the chief cause of the barbaritie and incivilitie of the people."
15 March 1617: James Stewart visits Scotland and gets into an argument with the Kirk over his wish for them to align more closely to practices in the Anglican Church.
27 March 1625: At the age of 58, James I/VI dies. His eldest son, Prince Henry, had died in 1612, so James is succeeded by his younger son, Charles I. Charles Stewart is aged 24 and knows little about being a king: except that it comes with a Divine Right to rule direct from God.
1 May 1625: Charles I marries Henrietta Maria, daughter of King Henry IV of France.
1633: Charles I comes to Scotland for his coronation as King of Scots.
23 July 1637: A riot erupts in St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh, when the Dean tries to use the Book of Common Prayer as authorised by King Charles I for use throughout his United Kingdom.
28 February 1638: The National Covenant is signed, eventually by thousands of Scots. It seeks to preserve distinctive Scots cultural and religious practices against the increasingly arbitrary and Kingdom-wide approach of Charles I.
21 November 1638: The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland begins a month-long meeting in Glasgow despite the efforts of the King's Lord High Commissioner in Scotland, the Marquis of Hamilton, to dissolve it. By continuing with the meeting, the Assembly members effectively declare themselves as rebels against the King.
May 1639: The Wars of the Covenant begin with the First Bishops' War. Fighting is focused in the north east of Scotland. The Earl of Montrose for the Covenanters takes Aberdeen, and captures the royalist commander, the Marquis of Huntly. Huntly's son is beaten at Brig o' Dee on 19 June. Promised support from Charles I's forces in England and Ulster fails to materialise.
18 June 1639: Charles' English army reaches Berwick-upon-Tweed but when confronted with a much larger Scots army he agrees a truce, the "Pacification of Berwick".
September 1639: The Scottish "Free Parliament" confirms the decisions of the General Assembly the previous year.
August 1640: The Second Bishops' War. The English "New Army" under the Earl of Stafford is pushed back through Northumberland and the Scots take Newcastle on 28 August. Meanwhile the Covenanters take both Edinburgh and Dumbarton castles; and the Duke of Argyll attacks the royalist clans in the Highlands.
26 October 1640: Hostilities cease with a truce signed at Ripon, under which Charles agrees to pay the costs of keeping their army in northern England.
3 November 1640: Charles convenes the English Parliament to raise the funds to settle with the Scots as agreed at Ripon. This "Long Parliament" will to sit until 1653 and lead to Charles' loss of his throne and his head.
14 August 1641: Charles I visits Edinburgh in an effort to placate opposition and buy off critics. He ends up confirming the decisions of the 1640 Free Parliament, and so, indirectly, the Covenant.
October 1641: The weakness of Charles in Scotland leads to Catholic revolt in Ulster, only suppressed with help from Protestant troops from Scotland.
22 August 1642: Charles I, having failed to suppress or coerce Parliament by his will, takes it on by military might. The English Civil War begins.
17 August 1643: The Scots offer to support the Parliamentary side in the Civil War in return for the acceptance by the English of a "Solemn League and Covenant", in effect exporting Presbyterianism to them. Military aspects are settled quickly and the English Parliament later accepts the religious aspects of the Covenant.
19 January 1644: A Scottish Covenanter army of 20,000 men moves south to support the Parliamentary Army.
February 1644: King Charles appoints the Marquis of Montrose, who with other moderate Covenanters is now on the Royalist side, as head of Royalist forces in Scotland.
March 1644: Montrose captures Dumfries for the Royalists.
2 July 1644: The Parliamentary Army, reinforced by the Scottish Covenanters defeat the Royalists at Marston Moor.
August 1644: Alasdair MacDonald lands on the Ardnamurchan Peninsula with 2000 troops from Ireland, who are quickly joined by a thousand highlanders. He supports the Royalist cause against Clan Campbell and storms through Argyll before joining forces with the Marquis of Montrose in Perthshire.
September 1644: MacDonald and Montrose defeat a large Covenanter force before taking Perth. They then take on and beat another larger force before taking and pillaging Aberdeen then retreating, pursued by the Marquis of Argyll.
December 1644: Montrose, supported by a reinforced Alasdair MacDonald, attacks Inveraray and the Campbell strongholds of Argyll killing a thousand Campbell Clansmen. They then withdraw north through the highland winter to Inverlochy Castle, near Fort William.
January 1645: Montrose heads towards Inverness, only to find a Covenanter army is approaching from Inverness. Meanwhile, the Marquis of Argyll has followed him north, and reached Inverlochy Castle.
2 February 1645: Montrose makes a forced march south and surprises the Campbells at Inverlochy Castle early on the Sunday morning. Though outnumbered Montrose soundly defeats the Covenanters, killing 1,500 for the loss of far fewer men. Over the following weeks, Montrose takes Aberdeen (again), Brechin and Dundee.
9 May 1645: The Marquis of Montrose and his Royalists camp at Auldearn near Nairn, while en route to attack Inverness. The Covenanters, reinforced by troops withdrawn from England because of the threat from Montrose, gather at Inverness before marching overnight in an attempt to surprise Montrose at Aldearn. After a fierce fight the Royalists again win, killing 2000 Covenanters for the loss of 200 of their own men.
14 June 1645: The New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell wins the decisive victory of the Civil War at Naseby.
2 July 1645: Montrose and the Royalists again defeat the Covenanters at the Battle of Alford, in Aberdeenshire, but this time with considerable loss of life on both sides. Montrose has defeated the Covenanters throughout northern Scotland.
15 August 1645: At the Battle of Kilsyth, midway between Stirling and Glasgow, Montrose and the Royalists again defeat the Covenanters, killing 3,000. He moves on to capture Glasgow and Edinburgh, effectively controlling Scotland.
13 September 1645: Major-General Leslie's Covenanter army returning from England after Naseby meets Montrose and the Royalists near Selkirk and comprehensively defeat them.
5 May 1646: King Charles Stewart surrenders to Scottish Covenanters besieging Newark on Trent. The Scots forces take him to Newcastle and try to bargain with him for Scots advantage. The English Parliamentary army threatens to take the King from the Scots by force.
2 June 1646: Montrose is ordered by Charles I to disband his forces and flee to France. He leaves the country in September.
30 January 1647: The Scottish Covenanters march north and back to Scotland having handed Charles Stewart over to the English in return for a payment of £200,000.
8 July 1648: The moderate arm of the Covenanters come to a secret agreement with Charles I, now in English custody, and 20,000 Scots move into England at the start of the Second Civil War.
17 August 1648: Oliver Cromwell heavily defeats the Scots at Preston, leading to a return to power in Edinburgh of the radical Covenanters of the Kirk Party under the Marquis of Argyll.
4 October 1648: Cromwell meets the Covenanters in Edinburgh leaving New Model Army troops to protect the hardline Presbyterians when he leaves.
30 January 1649: Charles I is executed in London despite protests from the Scots.
5 February 1649: The Scots Parliament proclaims Charles II as King.
March 1649: The English Parliament declares England to be a Republic.
March 1649: A delegation of Scots meets Charles II in the Hague demanding he impose Presbyterianism in Scotland, England and Ireland. Charles refuses.
March 1650: In a last effort to regain power by military means, Charles II seeks help from the Marquis of Montrose, who lands in Orkney with 500 Scandinavian mercenaries before moving on to Caithness, reinforced by Orcadian volunteers.
25 April 1650: At the Battle of Carbisdale, near Bonar Bridge, Montrose is defeated with heavy losses by a much smaller Covenanter force under Colonel Strachan. Montrose escapes north west until he is tricked into captivity at Ardveck Castle, on the shore of Loch Assynt.
22 May 1650: Montrose is executed on the basis of a conviction for treason in his absence in 1644. Charles II denies responsibility for his actions in his negotiations with the Scots.
24 June 1650: Charles II lands at Garmouth in Morayshire after sailing from the Netherlands and evading the English ships trying to intercept him. Charles has signed the Covenant and the Solemn League immediately before coming ashore.
22 July 1650: Cromwell responds by invading Scotland and proceeds to the eastern edge of Edinburgh. The Scots form a defensive line within Edinburgh.
3 September 1650: The armies engage at Dunbar. It is a resounding victory for Cromwell, largely because of the actions of extreme religious factions on the Scots side. Cromwell then marches on Edinburgh and subsequently occupies much of southern Scotland.
1 January 1651: Charles II is crowned King of Scots at Scone, before touring those parts of Scotland not under English occupation.
July 1651: Cromwell lands a force in Fife that defeats the Scots at Inverkeithing. He then moves on to Perth, tempting Charles II to use the gap he has left to advance on England and claim the throne. Charles takes the bait and Cromwell follows.
14 August 1651: General Monck, left by Cromwell to complete the conquest of Scotland, takes Stirling.
22 August 1651: Charles II reaches Worcester with very little evidence of English Royalist support.
1 September 1651: General Monck captures and pillages Dundee.
3 September 1651: Cromwell attacks Charles II and the Scots defending Worcester and inflicts a heavy defeat on them. Charles Stewart manages to escape: many of the Scots do not.
15 October 1651: Charles II sails to France from Sussex after six weeks as a fugitive in England.
4 February 1652: Cromwell's "Tender of Union" is announced in Edinburgh. This gives Scots 30 seats in a united Parliament in London. General Monk becomes Military Governor of Scotland and builds a series of defenses to ensure continued control over the country.
26 May 1652: The last Royalist stronghold anywhere on the eastern side of Scotland, Dunnottar Castle near Stonehaven, surrenders after an eight month siege, though not before the Scottish crown jewels have been smuggled out to safety.
1653: A Royalist uprising in the Highlands led by the Earl of Glencairn and General Middleton achieves little.
July 1653: A General Assembly of the Kirk in St Giles' Cathedral in Edinburgh is broken up by Cromwell's troops.
1657: George Fox comes to Scotland as a missionary for the Quaker Society of Friends.
3 September 1658: Oliver Cromwell dies. His son, Richard Cromwell is unable to maintain the Commonwealth.
1 January 1660: General George Monck, Cromwell's Military Governor of Scotland, leads troops based in Coldstream south to London to restore Charles Stewart - Charles II - to the throne.
14 May 1660: Charles Stewart is proclaimed King of England, Scotland and Ireland while still in Holland.
25 May 1660: King Charles II sails from Holland to Dover: the monarchy is restored.
January 1661: The Scottish Parliament meets under its Commissioner, the Earl of Middleton. On 28 March it revokes every law passed since the year of Charles I's accession, 1633. This rolls back the Covenants and restores ultimate power to the King in London.
27 May 1661: The Marquis of Argyll is executed in Edinburgh for his role during Charles II's 1650-1 reign. A number of other extreme Presbyterians are executed later in the year, though Neil Macleod, who had betrayed Montrose at Ardveck Castle escapes. Charles II is also settling scores in England, where many of those responsible for his father's death are executed.
6 September 1661: Charles II restores episcopal government to Scotland by royal decree. Alternative services called conventicles, often held in the open air, that spring up in an effort to retain a Presbyterian approach, are later made illegal.
13 November 1666: A dispute between conventiclers and soldiers near Dumfries grows rapidly into a protest march on Edinburgh. The marchers are turned back from the city gates, then caught at Rullion Green, on the edge of the Pentland Hills by General Tam Dalyell and 3,000 government troops. Some of the marchers are killed during the battle, others are hung after being captured.
February 1671: Rob Roy MacGregor is born at Glengyle at the head of Loch Katrine.
3 May 1679: Archbishop James Sharp, Primate of Scotland, is attacked and killed while travelling through Fife to St Andrews. The attackers are probably waiting for the Sheriff of Fife, but happy to murder instead the man leading the forces suppressing the Covenant in Scotland. It sparks a wider uprising leading to what is known as the "Killing Time".
29 May 1679: Covenanters under Sir Robert Hamilton take Rutherglen before evading government troops.
1 June 1679: The troops chasing Hamilton encounter a large conventicle of many thousands of people taking place in Ayrshire at Loudoun Hill. The Battle of Drumclog that follows sees the troops overwhelmed by much larger numbers of largely unarmed Covenanters and they flee.
22 June 1679: Covenanters gather at Bothwell, near the River Clyde, throughout June but are unable to agree a common manifesto. Meanwhile the government gathers its forces under the Duke of Monmouth, one of Charles II's many illegitimate offspring. The two sides meet at the Battle of Bothwell Brig (Bridge) and the Covenanters are routed with the loss of 800 killed and twice as many taken prisoner.
24 November 1679: James, Duke of York - Charles II's brother and heir to the throne - is appointed the King's Viceroy in Scotland.
22 July 1680: The radical Presbyterian Richard Cameron attempts to lead an uprising against the King. He is killed by government troops at the Battle of Airds Moss in Ayrshire.
1681: James summons the Scottish Parliament to pass the Test Act under which anyone seeking office in Scotland will have to swear a comprehensive oath to the King. The effect is to alienate large parts of the population.
27 July 1681: The Reverend Donald Cargill, who in October 1680 had excommunicated the entire government, is beheaded in Edinburgh.
12 January 1682: The Presbyterians become an underground movement of resistance to the crown and government. Sporadic violence continues on both sides.
1682: The Advocates' Library is founded. It later forms the core of the National Library of Scotland.
December 1684: The government produce an "Abjuration Oath" which all Scots are required to swear on pain of death. Many Scots are killed as a result, especially in the south west.
12 February 1685: Charles II dies after conversion to the Catholic Church on his deathbed. He is succeeded by his brother James Stewart, Duke of York as James II of England and VII of Scotland. James Stewart has been a convert to Catholicism for some time.
13 May 1685: The execution of James Kirk near Dumfries for refusing to swear the oath is one of the last of the wave of deaths of the "Killing Time".
20 May 1685: The Earl of Argyll sails from Holland to Campbeltown with 300 men in an attempted uprising. It fails and he is executed.
June 1687: James II/VII issues an Indulgence giving complete religious toleration to all denominations. The Scots see it as a precursor to greater Roman Catholic influence.
17 February 1688: James Renwick, leader of the remaining Covenanter Presbyterian rebels, is executed in Edinburgh.
10 June 1688: James II/VII and his wife Mary of Modena have a son, christened James Francis Edward. Many Scots - and English - are concerned by the prospect of a continuing Catholic Stewart dynasty.
5 November 1688: William of Orange lands in south west England with a huge army. He has come at the invitation of representatives of the English nobility and church. His wife Mary is James II/VII's daughter and until the birth of James Francis Edward was the heir to the throne.
9 December 1688: Serious rioting in Edinburgh spreads across Scotland.
25 December 1688: James II/VII sails to France after a largely bloodless coup by William and Mary.
22 January 1689: An English convention declares that James II/VII has in practice abdicated; and sets out the basis on which his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange can succeed to the throne. This includes their accepting the primacy of Parliament and the stipulation that no Roman Catholic or spouse of a Roman Catholic can take the crown.
13 February 1689: King William III and Queen Mary are declared joint sovereigns of England and Ireland.
14 March 1689: A Scottish Convention is divided between Williamite supporters of William and Mary, and Jacobite supporters of James II/VII. They consider a reasoned and courteous letter from William, and an arrogant and threatening letter from James Stewart which fatally undermines his own support. The Convention decides James has forfeited his right to the crown, which should be offered instead to William and Mary.
11 May 1689: William and Mary are crowned joint sovereigns of Scotland, though it is unclear whether they have first formally accepted the constitutional principles set by the Scottish Convention.
27 July 1689: The leader of Jacobite dissent in Scotland is Viscount Dundee who gathers an army of Highlanders and a few Irish at Blair Castle. As General Mackay moves a government army of lowland troops north from Dunkeld the two sides meet at the Battle of Killiecrankie. The outcome is a victory for the Jacobites, but at a high cost including the death of Viscount Dundee, or "Bonnie Dundee" as he is remembered.
21 August 1689: The Jacobite highland army attacks government forces in and around Dunkeld and its Cathedral at the Battle of Dunkeld. Both sides suffer heavy losses and much of the town is destroyed.
1 May 1690: The last organised Jacobite forces are beaten by government troops at Cromdale, near Grantown on Spey.
11 July 1690: William of Orange convincingly defeats James II/VII at the Battle of the Boyne, north of Dublin in Ireland. James returns to France from Ireland, and the hopes of Scottish Jacobites of his return to Scotland evaporate.
June 1691: Highland Clan Chiefs who have been opposed to William are offered bribes and an amnesty on condition they swear oaths of allegiance to him.
13 February 1692: The Glencoe Massacre takes place to punish the Macdonalds for the failure of their chief to swear allegiance to William. Full details can be found on our Glencoe feature page.
March 1693: Horse-drawn Hackney cabs come into service on the streets of Glasgow.
1695: The Scottish Parliament passes an Act establishing the "Company of Scotland Trading 
History, Timeline of Scottish (I070390)
 
186
WALMESLEY, Thomas (c.1537-1612), of Dunkenhalgh, Lancs.
http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/walmesley-thomas-1537-1612
Published in 1981
Biography Detail

Constituency Dates LANCASHIRE 1589

Family and Education

b. c.1537, 1st s. of Thomas Walmesley of Showley by Margaret, da. of James Livesey of Livesey. educ. L. Inn 1559, called 1567. m. Anne (d. 19 Apr. 1635), da. and h. of Robert Shuttleworth of Hacking, 1s. suc. fa. 16 Apr. 1584. Kntd. 1603.1

Offices Held


Gov. L. Inn 1575, Lent reader 1578, autumn reader 1580, serjeant-at-law 1580; commr. musters, Lancs. 1580; j.p. Lancs. by 1587; master forester of Quernmore, duchy of Lancaster 1587, 2nd justice at Lancaster 1589; j.c.p. 1589; freeman, Southampton 1595; commr. eccles. causes 1598 (Chester), 1603, 1604.2

Biography

Walmesley was a lawyer, already middle aged when elected for Lancashire in 1589. As a knight of the shire he could have sat on the subsidy committee, 11 Feb. He reported the bill about proclamations, 19 Feb., and sat on some minor legal committees, 22, 25 Feb. He also served on committees discussing captains and soldiers, 26 Feb., and the Queen’s dislike of the purveyors bill 27 Feb. Made a judge, he served as a receiver of petitions in the Lords in the 1597 and 1601 Parliaments. For all this, Walmesley was the son of a recusant and himself suspect in religion. In 1583 he defended, before the court of common pleas, the validity of papal dispensations issued during Mary’s reign, and 23 years later when Lord Sheffield wrote to Lord Salisbury to the effect that if Walmesley came on that (presumably the northern) circuit again ‘things standing as they do, it could not but overthrow all, for the Papists have ever borne themselves much upon his favour’.3

In 1591 it fell to Walmesley and Mr. Justice Clinch to try Thomas Langton and his associates for the murder of Mr. Houghton. As the sheriff was not thought to be ‘indifferent in that cause’, the Privy Council instructed Walmesley to supervise the composition of the jury, but his conduct in the event earned him a sharp reprimand from the Queen for allowing the accused bail contrary to her express command. She wondered ‘how he dared presume so far, showing both contempt of her commandment, and little regard for the due administration of justice’. She ordered him ‘at his peril’ to have the parties immediately returned to prison, to proceed to a speedy trial without bail.4

In 1593 or 1594 Walmesley was proposed as vice-chancellor at Lancaster, and may have held the post. As a justice of the common pleas, he rode every circuit in England except that of Norfolk and Suffolk. His account book for the years 1596-1600 has survived and contains an interesting record of the customary presents received while on circuit, and of his expenses. He was a member of the commission before which Essex was arraigned in 1600, and assisted the peers at his trial the following year. He was described by Cecil in 1603 as one of the three ‘learnedest judges’. An old man, he suffered at that time from gout and palsy. He was the only dissenter from the judges’ decision, in Calvin’s case in 1607, that natives of Scotland born since the accession of James I were naturalized Englishmen.5

Walmesley acquired property in Lancashire and Yorkshire, rebuilt the mansion on his estate of Dunkenhalgh, and also that of Hacking which came to him in right of his wife. In 1607, by deed of trust, he settled his estates on his only son Thomas, a Catholic. In 1611 he was ‘put to his pension’, and retired to Dunkenhalgh, where he died on 26 Nov. 1612. He was buried at Blackburn, and his monument—a replica of that of Anne, Duchess of Somerset in Westminster abbey—was destroyed during the civil wars.6

Ref Volumes: 1558-1603

Author: N.M.S.


Notes
1. Foster, Lancs. Peds. ; Abram, Blackburn, 433.
2. Foss, Judges, 698-9; Lancs. Lieutenancy Pprs. (Chetham Soc. 1), 109; Lansd. 53, f. 37; Somerville, Duchy, i. 474, 509; CSP Dom. 1581-90, p. 599; 1598-1601, p. 15; HMC Hatfield, xv. 223-4; xvi. 290; DNB.
3. DNB; VCH Lancs. vi. 42; Townshend, Hist. Colls. 18-21; D’Ewes, 431, 434, 437, 439, 440, 525, 529, 600, 603; Lansd. 31, f. 12; HMC Hatfield, xviii. 36.
4. APC, xxi. 385; CSP Dom. 1591-4, p. 188.
5. Somerville, i. 481; CSP Dom. 1601-3, p. 285; DNB; Cam. Misc. iv. 3, 13, 44, 55.
6. Abram, 433-4; VCH Lancs. vi. 421; Foss, 699 
Walmesley, Thomas (Sir) of Dunkenhalgh (I080321)
 
187
Walter Buchanan of that ilk, 14th of Buchanan (d 1526)
m. (before 26.11.1463) Isabelle Graham (dau of William Graham, 2nd Lord)

"The following were reported by 'Strathendrick' but not by BLG195
E. Margaret Buchanan
m. Alexander Graham, 2nd Earl of Menteith (d before 27.02.1536-
F. Elizabeth Buchanan
m. (1492) William Stirling, 11th of Cadder, 2nd of Lettyr (d 1517)
The following were reported by BLG1952 but not by 'Strathendrick
G. daughter
m. Lamond of Lamond
H. daughter
m. (22.06.1486) John Campbell of Ardkinglas (b c1460)"

From Stirnet Genealogy at http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/british/bb4fz/buchanan02.htm
Main sources:
(1) "Strathendrick and its Inhabitants from Early Times" by John Guthrie Smith, published in Glasgow in 1896
(2) BLG1952 (Murray-Buchanan of Leny). 
Buchanan, Margaret (I024583)
 
188
Wenilllian "Joan or Jane" Whitney (Oldcastle)
https://www.geni.com/people/Joan-Whitney-Oldcastle/6000000000167580856
Also Known As: "Joane Oldcastle", "Jane Oldcastle"
Birthdate: circa 1383
Birthplace: Whitney-on-Wye, Herefordshire, England, (Present UK)
Death: 1450 (62-72)
Whitney-on-Wye, Herefordshire, England, (Present UK)

Immediate Family:
Daughter of Thomas Oldcastle, MP and Alice Merbery
Wife of Sir Robert de Whitney and Robert Whitney
Mother of Sir Eustace Whitney and Perinda Cheyney
Sister of Richard Oldcastle; Elizabeth (Isabel) Hackluite and Wintelan Whitney
Half sister of Cecelia (Alice) de Cornwall and Elizabeth Devereux

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated: March 3, 2016  
Oldcastle, Joan or Jane (I136695)
 
189
William Douglas the Hardy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_William_Douglas_the_Hardy


Born 1243 Douglas, South Lanarkshire, Scotland
Died 1298 Tower of London
Predecessor William Longleg, Lord of Douglas
Successor Sir James Douglas
Issue Sir James Douglas
Sir Archibald Douglas
Dynasty Douglas
Father William Longleg, Lord of Douglas
Mother Constance of Fawdon
Sir William Douglas "le Hardi" (the bold), Lord of Douglas (born after 1243 – c. 1298) was a Scottish nobleman and warlord.

Contents
1 Early Life
2 Lord of Douglas
3 Marriage
3.1 Elizabeth Stewart
3.2 Eleanor de Lovaine
3.2.1 Reaction to the abduction
4 First Imprisonment
5 Build up to War
6 Siege of Berwick
7 Ragman Roll
8 Uprising of William Wallace
9 Bruce raid on Douglas Castle
10 Capitulation of Irvine
11 Death
12 Issue
13 References
13.1 Notes
13.2 Sources

Early Life
William Douglas was the son of William Longleg, Lord of Douglas and it is supposed by his possible second wife, Constance of Fawdon. He first is recorded at an Assize at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1256, when his father made over a Carucate of land at Warndon, Northumberland to him. Douglas' father William Longleg was Lord of Fawdon, and had as his superior Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus, Longleg was acquitted of withholding rents by a jury, Umfraville notwithstanding attacked Fawdon, imprisoned Longleg at Harbottle Castle and made of with some £100 sterling of goods. William Douglas was injured in the fight. Ita quod fere amputaverunt caput ejus - So as to nearly cut off his head[1]

Lord of Douglas
Douglas' father, Longleg died at some point c. 1274 and there is some confusion as to whether his eldest son Hugh predeceased him, however William the Hardy was certainly in possession of his estates by the end of the decade. Douglas was knighted before 1288, when he was called upon by Sir Andrew Moray, to imprison his uncle Sir Hugh de Abernethy at Douglas Castle. Abernethy had been party to the murder of Donnchadh III, Earl of Fife, one of the six Guardians of Scotland. Abernethy died in custody despite attempts by Edward I of England to have him released.

In 1289, Douglas requested the release of certain family charters from Richard, Abbot of Kelso. These charters had been kept at the Priory of Lesmahagow, a daughter house of the Tironensian Abbey of Kelso, for safety. In the receipt for these documents, Douglas styled himself Dominus de Duglas, Lord of Douglas, the first time the title had been recorded.

Marriage
Elizabeth Stewart
Douglas had married Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, by whom he had his eldest son James. Elizabeth Stewart appears to have died before the end of 1288, possibly in childbirth.

Eleanor de Lovaine
Later in 1288, William Douglas and a Borders Knight known as John Wishart surrounded the Castle of Fa'side near Tranent. The castle was held by Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby, feudal superior of the barony of Tranent. Within the Castle was Zouche's wife Eleanor, and another Eleanor, recently widowed wife of William de Ferrers of Groby, second son of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby. Eleanor Ferrers was the daughter of Matthew de Lovaine, a great grandson himself of Godfrey III, Count of Louvain. King Edward had provided a handsome dowry from her husband's English lands following his death. He had also possessed lands in five counties in Scotland, and Eleanor had come north to collect her rents. Rather than despoliate the land and the castle, Douglas contented himself by abducting Eleanor and removing her to Douglas Castle.

Reaction to the abduction
Apparently not averse to the rough charms of her kidnapper, Douglas and Eleanor were wed soon afterwards. King Edward was not so charmed and ordered the Sheriff of Northumberland to seize all Douglas possessions in that county, and apprehend Douglas and Wishart if the chance arose. Edward also demanded that the Guardians of Scotland immediately arrest Douglas and deliver him and Eleanor to his pleasure. The Guardians did not respond. Douglas was connected to two of the guardians, James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland was his brother in law, and Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan was a brother in law of Eleanor de Lovaine. Furthermore the Guardians may not have reacted well to the peremptory nature of the English King's request.

First Imprisonment
However, Douglas seems to have fallen into the hands of the English monarch in early 1290 and was confined at Knaresborough Castle. His imprisonment does not appear to have been unduly harsh, he was released by the spring of 1290 when his wife Eleanor posted bail for his release with four manucaptors in May 1290, these four knights, all her cousins, were John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, Nicholas de Segrave, 1st Baron Segrave, William de Rye and Robert Bardulf. He was in favour with Edward again and he and Wishart had their Northumbrian lands restored to them. Eleanor Douglas was fined £100 sterling, and by way of payment had some of her manors in Essex and Herefordshire taken by the crown in 1296.

Build up to War
Douglas seal is on the Treaty of Salisbury approving the putative marriage between Margaret, Maid of Norway with Edward of Caernarfon, and was amongst those nobles that hammered out the deal that would become the Treaty of Birgham. At Norham, in June 1291, the Guardians accepted King Edward as Lord Paramount of Scotland. Whilst the negotiations were progressing, regarding the choice of the next King of Scots, Edward was staying with Sir Walter de Lindsay at Thurston Manor, near Innerwick, when William Douglas paid an oath of fealty to him in the chapel there. By the end of 1291, Douglas had fallen again into disfavour and had his lands of Douglasdale forfeited to the English King. Edward appointed his own creatures as baronial officers and made one Master Eustace de Bikerton, Parson of St. Bride's Kirk, the spiritual home and burying ground of the Douglases. John Balliol was declared King of Scots on 17 November 1292, and called his first parliament on 10 February 1293. Douglas along with Robert de Brus, Earl of Carrick, Alexander, Lord of Islay, John, Earl of Caithness failed to attend and were proclaimed defaulters. Douglas attended the second parliament of King John, but was imprisoned again for failing to comply with royal officers enforcing a judgement against him. Whilst in prison Douglas was duty bound to be at his lands in Essex, in order to provide service for Edward, his failure cost him £20 sterling in fines.

Siege of Berwick
Upset at the humiliations heaped upon John Balliol and the ineffectiveness of his rule, a new Guardianship was created in 1295. These men concluded a treaty at Paris and ratified it at Dunfermline between the Kingdoms of Scotland, France and Norway, that would become known as the Auld Alliance. Douglas siding with his countrymen, was appointed Governor of Berwick upon Tweed, the most important commercial centre in Scotland at the time. When the Guardians threw down the Gauntlet to Edward, he arrived at the walls of Berwick with 5000 Cavalry and 30,000 Infantry. There followed one of the most brutal episodes in British history, the Sack of Berwick. The English army took the town by storm on Good Friday 1296 and gave no quarter to the inhabitants. The slaughter lasted for two days and the estimated death toll was between 7,500 and 8,500 men women and children. Appalled and after a reolute defence, the garrison of Berwick Castle under the leadership of William Douglas, gave themselves up to the mercy of King Edward. The garrison were freed and were allowed to march out of the castle with their arms, but Douglas was imprisoned and the last of his estates in Essex forfeit. (Douglas' two year old son Hugh had been taken into ward by the Sheriff of Essex at Stebbing, one of the forfeited properties)

Ragman Roll
Douglas was imprisoned in the Hog's Tower at Berwick castle and stayed there until gaining his freedom by appending his seal to the Ragman Roll, in common with the majority of the Scots nobility. Within days of his swearing his new oath of Fealty to Edward, Douglas was restored to his lands in Scotland, but not those in England. To add salt to the wound, Douglas' Land at Fawdon and others in Northumberland were made over to his old foe Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus, Douglas had no reluctance in joining the patriotic party.

Uprising of William Wallace
Following the Battle of Dunbar, a large section of the Scots nobility were languishing in prison in England. The countryside was in forment and there was talk of a new champion for the scots people, William Wallace of Elderslie had started his campaign. Douglas was summoned to attend King Edward in London on 7 July 1297, with fifty other barons to accompany him on an expedition to Flanders to aid Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders against Philip le Bel King of France. Douglas refused and joined company with Wallace. Most Scots magnates thought that Wallace was beneath their dignity, but Douglas had no such compunction. He was the first nobleman to join with Sir William Wallace in 1297 in rebellion; combining forces at Sanquhar, Durisdeer and later Scone Palace where the two liberated the English treasury. With that booty Wallace financed further rebellion including the successful Battle at Stirling Bridge fought on September 11, 1297. He was joined by other patriots such as Robert Wishart Bishop of Glasgow, Sir Andrew Moray and the Morays of Bothwell, with a contingent of Douglases at the national muster at Irvine, North Ayrshire.

Bruce raid on Douglas Castle
When Edward heard of Douglas' supposed treason he commanded the future King of Scots Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, then governor of Carlisle for the English to take retribution. Bruce swept into Douglasdale and sacked the Castle. Bruce then removed Eleanor Douglas and her sons to the confinement of Lochmaben.

Capitulation of Irvine
The third time Douglas was held a prisoner of Edward Plantagenet was after 9 July 1297 when he was accused by Sir Henry de Percy of breaking his covenant of peace with Edward that was agreed to in the document known as the Capitulation at Irving Water, where Douglas was in the company of Robert Brus, Alexander de Lindsay and John and James Stewart (the latter three his brothers in law). By the time that Wallace won his great victory at Stirling, Sir William the Hardy was again Edward's guest at Berwick Castle; staying in what was now called 'Douglas Tower'.

Death
Following Wallace's success at Stirling Bridge the English fled Berwick on Tweed with Douglas and another Scottish prisoner Thomas de Morham; both were later admitted to the Tower of London on 12 October 1297 with Douglas meeting his end there in 1298 due to mistreatment.

Issue
William the Hardy was twice married and had three sons
By Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland

Sir James Douglas
By Eleanor de Lovaine of Groby, daughter in law of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby and great-great granddaughter of Godfrey III of Leuven

Hugh Douglas
Sir Archibald Douglas
Preceded by
William "Longleg"
Lord of Douglas
c. 1274-c. 1298 Succeeded by
Sir James Douglas

References

Notes
^ Maxwell, Vol I, p. 21

Sources
Brown, Michael, The Black Douglases-War and Lordship in Late Medieval Scotland, East Linton 1998
Hume of Godscroft, David , The history of the House and Race of Douglas and Angus, London 1820
Maxwell, Sir Herbert, A History of the House of Douglas, II Vols. Freemantle, London 1902
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Douglas_the_Hardy" 
Douglas, William "le Hardi' 5th of (I003287)
 
190
William fitz Marshall, Earl of Pembroke
https://www.geni.com/people/William-fitz-Marshall-Earl-of-Pembroke/6000000024465176405?through=6000000024465252129
Gender:Male
Birth:circa 1104
Immediate Family:
Father of N.N. fitz Marshall
Added by:Jessica Lee Carswell on May 11, 2011
Managed by:Kaylene Hansen, John Albert Rigali, Jessica Lee Carswell and Thomas Maschak
Curated by:Erica Howton 
Marshall, William fitz Earl of Pembroke (I161049)
 
191
William PRINGLE 2
http://hainings.org/hainings-net/34110.htm
Born: Abt 1715, prob East Lothian, Scotland 1
Marriage (1): 1st wife (Margaret Harper?) UNK about 1745 in prob East Lothian, Scotland 1
Marriage (2): Alison NEWTON on 23 February 1750 in Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland
bullet Another name for William was William PRINGWELL.

Family Links
Spouses & Children
1. 1st wife (Margaret Harper?) UNK

William PRINGLE+
2. Alison NEWTON
Agnes PRINGLE
Helen PRINGLE
Margaret PRINGLE
Archibald PRINGLE
James PRINGLE+
Thomas PRINGLE
Archibald PRINGLE.

Recorded Events in His Life
He had a residence on 13 January 1751 in Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland. Daughter Agness baptized (witnesses: William Pringle and Robert Pringle).
He had a residence on 13 March 1757 in Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland. Son James baptized (witnesses: Alexander Hyslop and Thomas Pringle).
Witness: to the baptism of Walter Newton (son of James Newton and Mary Henderson), 9 November 1766, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland.
Witness: to the baptism of Anne Pringle (daughter of William Pringle and Mary Pirie), 20 January 1788, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland.
Witness: to the baptism of Margaret Newton (daughter of James Newton and Janet Hughes), 27 January 1788, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland.
Witness: to the baptism of William Pringle (son of James Pringle and Mary Dudgeon), 8 January 1797, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland.

picture
William married 1st wife (Margaret Harper?) UNK about 1745 in prob East Lothian, Scotland.1 (1st wife (Margaret Harper?) UNK was born about 1720 in prob East Lothian, Scotland 1 and died before 1750 in prob East Lothian, Scotland.)

picture
William next married Alison NEWTON, daughter of James NEWTON and Agnes CARFRAE, on 23 February 1750 in Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland. (Alison NEWTON was born in 1718 in Yester, East Lothian, Scotland and was christened on 11 December 1718 in Yester, East Lothian, Scotland.)

Sources
Kirsty M. Haining, Estimated date. Estimates are based off of known event dates (birth dates, christening dates, marriage dates, graduation dates, retirement events, death dates, etc.) from the lives of the individual's immediate ancestors or descendants. Women are estimated to be roughly 20 years older than the birth of the first child; men are about 5 years older than their wives; siblings are estimated at 2 years apart.
Kirsty M. Haining. 
Pringle, William (I364549)
 
192
William Reed 1857–1904
BIRTH JUN 1857 • Jackson, Jackson, Ohio, USA
DEATH 18 NOV 1904 • Jackson, Jackson, Indiana, USA
From
Miller Family Tree -Kristy Burdue
https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/7958591/person/-1011520494/facts
Marriage
2 Sep 1880 • , Jackson, Ohio, USA
Mary Maple (1864–1903) 
Reed, William (I148706)
 
193
Wulfnoth Godwinson
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wulfnoth_Godwinson

Wulfnoth Godwinson (b.1040) was a younger brother of Harold II of England, the sixth son of Godwin. He was given as a hostage to Edward the Confessor in 1051 as assurance of Godwin's good behaviour and support during the confrontation between the earl and the king which led to the exile of Godwin and his other sons. Upon Godwin's return to England at the head of an army a year later, following extensive preparations in Ireland and Flanders, Norman supporters of King Edward, and especially Archbishop Robert of Jumieges, fled England. It is likely at this point that Wulfnoth (and Hakon, son of Svein Godwinson, Godwin's eldest son) were spirited away by the fleeing archbishop, and taken to Normandy, where they were handed over to Duke William of Normandy. According to Eadmer's Historia novorum in Anglia, the reason for Harold's excursion to Normandy in 1064 or 1065 was that he wished to free Wulfnoth as well as his nephew Hakon. To this end he took with him a vast amount of wealth, all of which was confiscated by Count Guy I of Ponthieu when Harold and his party were shipwrecked. However, Harold's reasons for travelling to the continent are not clear, and there are other reasonable explanations, not the least of which was a sounding out among continental magnates of a response to his own intention to ascend the English throne at one point, given Edward's advanced age and lack of heir. When later Harold allegedly swore an oath to William agreeing to become his vassal and to support his succession to the English crown, one of the promises made by William in return, according to Eadmer, was that Wulfnoth would be returned safe and sound when William had become king. Harold's assumption of the crown broke this alleged agreement and Wulfnoth was never released. Of course, there are many other explanations of Wulfnoth's enduring captivity. Even following William's victory at Hastings (1066) over Harold and crowning as King of England in London later that year, England's pacification remained uncertain. William may have held Wulfnoth as hostage against a resurgence of a remnant of Godwinson power. He stayed in comfortable, if not enviable, captivity in Normandy and later in England, and died in Salisbury in 1094, still a prisoner.
 
Godwinson, Wulfnoth (I026411)
 
194
Ynyr ap Cadfarch
https://www.geni.com/people/Ynyr-ap-Cadfarch/6000000008640726214
Also Known As: "ap Gwernen"
Birthdate: circa 870 (79)
Death: 949 (75-83)
Wales

Place of Burial:
Llantwit Major, Vale of Glamorgan, UK

Immediate Family:
Son of Cadfarch ap Gwrgeneu and N.N.
Husband of N.N. and Rheingar verch Lluddoccaf
Father of Cadwgan ap Ynyr and Tudor Trevor ap Ynyr, Lord of the Mar

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated: December 31, 2017

About Ynyr ap Cadfarch
See http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id55.html

See Darrell Wolcott, "Bartrum's Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs" - #14 - Mam Tudor Trefor, http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id182.html. (Steven Ferry, March 12,2017.)

See Darrell Wolcott: The Clan of Tudor Trevor, http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id55.html. (Steven Ferry, March 20, 2017.)

Please see Darrell Wolcott: Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras; http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id25.html. (Steven Ferry, April 11, 2017.)

Please see Darrell Wolcott: Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook; http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id54.html. (Steven Ferry, April 22, 2017.)

The PEDIGREE of Ynyr ap GWERNEN (ap CADFARCH ?)
HM George I's 23-Great Grandfather. Lady Diana's 24-Great Grandfather. Geo Washington's 25-Great Grandfather. Poss. Agnes Harris's 21-Great Grandfather.
Wife/Partner: Rheingar (Heiress) of HEREFORD

Child: Tudur (Tudor) `Trefor' ap YNYR
_____ _____ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ __ __

/ -- Selyv Sarffgadau ap C. + ==&=> [ 156 ,,xBD,&]

/ -- Manwgan (Maelmynan) ap SELYFAN

/ | (skip this generation?)

/ -- Beli ap ELIUDD (635? - ?)

/ -- Gwylog (Guoillauc Gwyllawg) ap BELI

/ -- Byordderch ap GWYLLAWG

| \ | OR: Byordderch ap GWYLAWR + ====> [ 151 ,,xBD,&]

| | | or: poss. Byordderch's son Iorddwyn

/ \ -- Sanan + ====> [ 157 ,,x,&]

/ -- Bywyn ap BYORDDERCH

/ -- Gwaeddgar ap BYWYN

/ -- Gwernen (Gwrgenew) ap GWAEDDGAR

/ -- Cadfarch (Kaduarch) ap GWERNEN

/ -- Gwernen ap CADFARCH

/ | (skip this generation?)

- Ynyr ap GWERNEN

\

\ -- (missing)

 
Cadfarch, Ynyr ap (I116108)
 
195
Æthelweard (historian)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelweard_%28historian%29

Æthelweard (also spelled Ethelward), Anglo-Saxon historian, was the great-great-grandson of Æthelred of Wessex (who was the brother of Alfred the Great), and was ealdorman or earl of the western provinces (i.e. probably of the whole of Wessex).

He first signs as dux or ealdorman in 973, and continues to sign until 998, about which time his death must have taken place. In the year 991 he was associated with archbishop Sigeric in the conclusion of a peace with the victorious Danes from Maldon, and in 994 he was sent with Bishop Ælfheah of Winchester to make peace with Olaf at Andover.

Æthelweard was the author of a Latin Chronicle extending to the year 975. Up to the year 892 he is largely dependent on the Saxon Chronicle, with a few details of his own; later he is largely independent of it. Æthelweard gave himself the bombastic title "Patricius Consul Quaestor Ethelwerdus," and unfortunately this title is only too characteristic of the man. His narrative is highly rhetorical, and as he at the same time attempts more than Tacitean brevity his narrative is often very obscure. Æthelweard was the friend and patron of Ælfric of Eynsham.

New scientific research found the reason for Æthelweard's obscure Latin. He wrote his work on request of his relative Mathilde, abbess of Essen monastery and granddaughter of emperor Otto I and Eadgyth of Wessex, to help her in the duty of keeping the remembrance of the dead relatives. Mathilde was not able to understand Æthelweard's preferred old English, therefore he had to write in Latin. Most likely Mathilde rewarded him with a copy of Vegetius' work De Re Militari which was written in Essen and survived in England.

A later Mediaeval historian, William of Malmesbury says of him"... a noble and illustrious character, who attempted to arrange these chronicles in Latin, and whose intention I could applaud, if his language did not disgust me it would be better to be silent..."
Aethelweard was the brother of Aelgifu, the wronged consort of King Edwy the Fair, who was their foster-brother.He and Aelfric of Hampshire- who later turned traitor, were said to have suggested the idea of danegeld. Professor Kelley also suggests that the notorious Eadric Streona was his son, which implies that Brihtric and Aethelmaer Se Greatta were his sons as well. Eadric's involvement with the attempt to rescue Alfheah from the Danes in 1012 by raising a large ransom may suggest his involvement in Aethelweard's earlier mission at Andover. Aethelweard had access to a now lost version of the Anglo Saxon Chronicle and was an example of a secular writer in a time where this was largely the preserve of monks. He was also at the centre of contemporary politics and his idiosyncratic Latin style is inspirational to schoolboys everywhere.

His grandson was Aethelnoth, who became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1020, and was later regarded as a saint.[1]

See also
House of Wessex family tree

Literature
Elisabeth van Houts: Woman and the writing of history in the early Middle Ages: the case of Abbess Mathilda of Essen and Aethelweard in: Early Medieval Europe, 1992, p. 53ff.

References
^ Mason, Emma "Æthelnoth (d. 1038)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 Online Edition accessed November 7, 20
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelweard_%28historian%29" 
Historian, Aethelweard the (I076012)
 
196
ADELHEID MEYER (born Käuffeler), 1526 – 1568
https://www.myheritage.com/names/adelheid_käuffeler#
ADELHEID MEYER (born Käuffeler) was born in 1526, at birth place , to FELIX Käuffeler (born Kaeffeler) and DORA Käuffeler (born FREY) .
FELIX was born in 1505, in Regensdorf, Dielsdorf district, Canton of Zurich, Switzerland.
DORA was born in 1505, in Wettingen, Baden District, Aargau, Switzerland.
ADELHEID had 7 siblings: Caspar Kauffeler , Anna Blickenstorfer and 5 other siblings.
ADELHEID married HANS ZIMMERMAN MEYER .
HANS was born in 1530, in Schleitheim, Schaffhausen, Canton, Switzerland.
They had 17 children: MELCHIOR MEYER , Johannes Meyer and 15 other children .
Isn't that incredible?
ADELHEID then married Hans Caspar Meyer .
Hans was born in 1530, in Regensdorf, Zurich, Switzerland.
ADELHEID passed away on month day 1568, at age 42 at death place .
She was buried at burial place .
+++++++++

Adelheid Meyer (born Kaeuffeler), 1526 – 1658
https://www.myheritage.com/names/adelheid_käuffeler#
Adelheid Meyer (born Kaeuffeler) was born in 1526, at birth place , to Felix Käuffeler and Dora Käuffeler (born Frey) .
Felix was born in 1500, in Lugano, Ticino, Switzerland.
Dora was born in 1505, in Wettingen, Aargau, Switzerland.
Adelheid had 4 brothers: Hans Käuffeler and 3 other siblings .
Adelheid married Hans Caspar Meyer in 1552, at age 26 at marriage place .
Hans was born in 1522, in Schleitheim, Schaffhausen, Switzerland.
They had 18 children: Felix Meyer , Melchior Meyer and 16 other children .
Isn't that incredible?
Adelheid passed away on month day 1658, at death place .
 
Kaeuffeler, Adelheid (I3327)
 
197
Alice A Birtwistle
in the 1939 England and Wales Register
Name: Alice A Birtwistle
Gender: Female
Marital Status: Married
Birth Date: 13 Oct 1883
Residence Year: 1939
Address: Withnell House
Residence Place: Withnell, Lancashire, England
Occupation: Unpaid Domestic Duties
Line Number: 32
Schedule Number: 99
Sub Schedule Number: 2
Enumeration District: NXYC
Borough: Withnell
Registration district: 475-1 (Withnell)
Inferred Spouse:
William Birtwistle
Household Members Age
William Birtwistle 55
Alice A Birtwistle 56
Margaret M Mc Ewen 28
Gertrude Omell 53
https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/30879851:61596
 
Drew, Alice A (maybe Ashworth) (I000583)
 
198
Charles F Rosner 1905–
BIRTH 14 AUG 1905 • Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California
DEATH Unknown
From
Adamson. lori0628
https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/5140359/person/1110122610/facts
 
Rosner, Charles F (I108)
 
199
Elsie Crombleholme 1900–1966
BIRTH 30 SEPTEMBER 1900 • Blackburn, Lancashire, England
DEATH 27 DECEMBER 1966 • Blackburn, Lancashire, England
From
Wade Family Tree. ritawade12
https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/1120102/person/-52782704/facts
Marriage
July 1920 • Blackburn, Lancashire, , England
Thomas Cardwell (1897–1943)

Family
Parents
Roger Crombleholme 1865–1924
Martha Ann Bradley 1869–1949
Siblings
Spouse & Children
Thomas Cardwell 1897–1943
Stanley Cardwell 1921–2005
+++++++++++++++++

Thomas Cardwell 1897–1943
BIRTH 3 MAR 1897
DEATH 23 APRIL 1943 • The Royal Infirmary, Blackburn, Lancashire, England
From
Wade Family Tree. ritawade12
https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/1120102/person/-52779969/facts
Marriage
July 1920 • Blackburn, Lancashire, , England
Elsie Crombleholme (1900–1966)

Family
Parents
Henry Cardwell 1854–1933
Elizabeth Green 1855–1928
Spouse & Children
Elsie Crombleholme 1900–1966
Stanley Cardwell 1921–2005
 
Crombleholme, Elsie (I242)
 
200
Florence Duxbury 1888–1966
BIRTH 9 JULY 1888 • Darwen, Lancashire, England
DEATH 7 SEP 1966 • Blackburn, Lancashire, England
From
Cross / Weaver Family Tree. DeborahAnnCross52
https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/13115161/person/26892949093/facts

Baptism
12 Aug 1888 • Darwen, Holy Trinity, Lancashire, England

Marriage
1 SEP 1908 • Holy Trinity Church
John Thomas Aspden (1886–1971)

Family
Parents
John Duxbury 1843–1912
Sarah Ann Whittaker 1848–1903

Siblings
John Duxbury 1869–
Mary Betsy Duxbury 1871–
Elizabeth Ann Duxbury 1874–1959
James Henry Duxbury 1876–
Lawrence Duxbury 1878–1917
Sarah Jane Duxbury 1881–1965
Andrew Duxbury 1883–1970
William Duxbury 1885–1972

Spouse & Children
John Thomas Aspden 1886–1971
Doris Aspden 1909–1976
John Aspden 1911–1982
Albert Aspden 1913–1963
Private 
Duxbury, Florence (I384)
 

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