Ancestorium Family Tree Collaboration



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During his term was born on Nov. 23, 1769, the Rev. Thomas Gillow,
fourth son of Richard Gillow, of Singleton, by Isabel, only daughter
of John Brewer, of Fishwick, gent., and sister and heiress of Henry
Brewer, of Moor House, Newton-cum-Scales, gent., Fr. John Brewer,
S.J., who died at Shepton Mallet, co. Somerset, Sept. i, 1797, aged 65,
and Fr. Thomas Brewer, S.J., who died at Bristol, April 18, 1787,
aged 44. Some of the family resided at Ribbleton Lodge, and of this
branch were the eminent Benedictines of the name. He left home
on May 9, 1784, for Douay College, where he arrived on the
22nd, and was placed by his cousin, the Rev. John Gillow, the prefect
of studies, in third-class rudiments. Thus he continued his scholastic
course till the collegians were ordered by the French revolutionists
to quit the college, but were allowed to retire to their country-house
at Esquerchin, a village about three miles from Douay, on Aug. 9,
1793. There they found themselves prisoners, under the strictest
surveillance. On Oct. ist the scholastic year commenced, and Thomas
Gillow entered upon his first year s theology, but on the I2th the
collegians were ordered to return to Douay, and thence he succeeded in
eluding the sentinels at the city gates, hurried back to Esquerchin to
warn the students who had to follow the first batch, and, in company
with Thomas Penswick, subsequently vicar-apostolic of the Northern
Vicariate, escaped to the sea-coast and sailed across the channel two
days later. 
Brewer, Isabel (I078423)
Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln1
M, #105889, b. 1512, d. 16 January 1584/85
Last Edited=10 Jun 2017

Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln 2
Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln was born in 1512.3 He was the son of Thomas Clinton, 8th Baron Clinton and Joan Poynings.3 He married, firstly, Elizabeth Blount, daughter of Sir John Blount, from 15 April 1530 to 12 February 1534/35.4 He married, secondly, Hon. Ursula Stourton, daughter of William Stourton, 7th Baron Stourton and Elizabeth Dudley, before 15 June 1541.4 He married, thirdly, Lady Elizabeth FitzGerald, daughter of Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare and Lady Elizabeth Grey, circa 1 October 1552.4 He died on 16 January 1584/85.4
He was also known as Edward Fiennes.4 He succeeded as the 9th Baron Clinton [E., 1299] on 7 August 1517.5 He was appointed Knight in 1544.4 He held the office of Chief Captain of Boulogne between 1548 and 1550.4 He was appointed Privy Counsellor (P.C.) in 1550.4 He held the office of Lord High Admiral [England] between May 1550 and October 1553.4 He was appointed Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) in 1551.4 He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire between 1552 and 1585.4 He held the office of Constable of the Tower of London between 7 July 1553 and 19 July 1553.4 He held the office of Lord High Admiral [England] between February 1557/58 and 1585.4 He was commander of the army that crushed the rebellion of the northern earls in 1569.4 He held the office of Lieutenant of the Order of the Garter in 1570.4 He held the office of Lord Steward between 1572 and 1584.4 He was created 1st Earl of Lincoln [England] on 4 May 1572.4 He held the office of Lieutenant of the Order of the Garter in 1573.4

Children of Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln and Elizabeth Blount
1.Lady Katharine Clinton+6 d. c Aug 1621
2.Lady Margaret Clinton+7

Children of Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln and Hon. Ursula Stourton
1.Lady Frances Clinton+1 d. 12 Sep 1623
2.Henry Clinton, 2nd Earl of Lincoln+6 b. 1540, d. 29 Sep 1616

1.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 78. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
2.[S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
3.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume VII, page 690.
4.[S37] BP2003 volume 1, page 824. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
5.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 317.
6.[S37] BP2003. [S37]
7.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 704. 
Clinton, Edward Fiennes 1st Earl of Lincoln (I005308)
Employment: Worked for Ford Motor co as gas distribution engineer and manager blast furnace s and coke oven till he took early retirement in 1976.
Lived at 2 Maple Avenue Upminster for 33 years. 
Brayshaw, Laurence William (I056719)
Name and gender
31 Dec 1629 Ø Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotland

27 Jan 1662 Ø Bo'ness, West Lothian, Scotland
Isobel Charters (1620)
1 Source

Birth of Daughter Christian Browne(1662)
24 Nov 1662 Ø Bo'ness , West Lothian, Scotland

Birth of Son Mungo BROUNE(1664)
22 Nov 1664 Ø Carriden, West Lothian, Scotland

1 Jan 1685 Ø Scotland

Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Scotland
Isobel Chartersm(1620)

Name and gender
31 Dec 1629 Ø Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotland

27 Jan 1662 Ø Bo'ness, West Lothian, Scotland
Isobel Charters (1620)
1 Source

Birth of Daughter Christian Browne(1662)
24 Nov 1662 Ø Bo'ness , West Lothian, Scotland

Birth of Son Mungo BROUNE(1664)
22 Nov 1664 Ø Carriden, West Lothian, Scotland

1 Jan 1685 Ø Scotland

Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Scotland
Isobel Chartersm(1620) 
Browne, John (I124657)
Father: Richard 1485-1543
In 1555 Edward rented a large farm in Childers Green from the Towneleys of Burnely. This farm was then to remain in the Birtwistle family for 150 years. He died c1585. 
Birtwistle, Edward (I090976)
Ferdinand Adamson LBZF-9YD??
Birth 25 September 1845 Luden, Iowa, United States
Death 14 December 1933 Kalispell, Flathead, Montana, United States

Family Members
Spouses and Children
Ferdinand Adamson 1845–1933 • LBZF-9YD??
Marriage: 15 June 1930 Kalispell, Flathead, Montana, United States
Mary Ann Shields 1856–1933 • L1KH-PNF??

Childrenof Mary Ann Shields and Ferdinand Adamson (0) 
Adamson, Ferdinand (I548367)
From Charles E Semple
"Cathcart entered the Sempill family when Helen married Alan Stewart, 3rd Baron Cathcart. William 2nd Lords' brother, Gabriel, had possessions in Cathcart and Ladymure. When Alan Stewart died, his Cathcart possessions remained with Helen and she apparently gave Cathcart to her uncle Gabriel or her cousin Gabriel, son to the 2nd Lords brother Gabriel. In any case, Cathcart became a Sempill thing in total during Helen's life from all that I can gather.

Cathcart was an official Barony and belonged to Lord Sempill until it failed with Samuel 8th Baron Cathcart sometime during the last half of the 1700's. What happened to Cathcart after that, I do not know. From all that I've read, I suspect it was absorbed as a "Sempill" thing.

I know the above is a "hazy" explanation without solid validity. As you may know, when we read one thing, then another, then another, some things begin to "add up"/"line up".......we begin to suspect things.....then we start searching to validate/confirm what we suspect. Well, everything adds up to Helen getting all that husband Alan had then "willing" it all to her cousin Gabriel whom she held in very high regard. According to a few transcripts, she thought her cousin Gabriel was getting screwed, as it were, out of some old Sempill legacies that she thought he had a right to, so, she went to bat for him. Cathcart remained as a Sempill entity for solid 200 years B4 it failed with Samuel. The Baronage of Scotland states that he, "being bred a merchant, settled at Dublin in Ireland, and has acquired considerable property in the counties of Wicklow and Dublin, viz, Roebuck, Bellview, Broomfield, Inchinappa, Castlehaven, etc." It states who me married, without issue, and that he was a son of Bryce, 7th Baron Cathcart, and also speaks as though he was still alone at the time it was written. Through whom this line continued is difficult to determine. However, there are many Semple's/Sempill's that have been found around Dublin at, and, after that time.

This is just one "clue" out of many. Sure, there is room for error, but, everything sure does come back and point in a very interesting direction. Regarding an official "Lordship" of Cathcart, I assume as you that the Baronage of Scotland apparently wrote off Cathcart for whatever reason......maybe due to Samuel skipping out and going to Ireland. ? ? ? ? ?"

This was in reply to and E Mail
"I have other Barons of Cathcart from what is now the Earl of Cathcart's family that I got from Burke's Peerage at very close to the same dates. I do not have access to "The Baronage of Scotland" so can not see what the connection is, it is a bit unusual to have two barons with the same title name. William 2nd Lord Sempill's daughter Helen married Alan 3rd Baron Cathcart of this other line as I show on the web page. Do you know if they are both "official" Baronies. I read somewhere that some traditional, centuries old, Scottish Baronies where later not consider "officially" a lordship, although I do not know what stand "The Baronage of Scotland" took on this.
Sempill, Gabriel of Cathcart & Ladymure (I025912)
From: Jo Anne Mackby
Sent: Thursday, March 13, 2008 3:40 PM
To: 'Hamish Maclaren'
Subject: Strickland-Grimston

Follow this descent to William Grimston m. Dorothy Strickland, dau. of Sir Robert Strickland m. Dorothy Alford.

Jo Anne

1 Robert de Vaux
2 Robert de Vaux
+ Dt. de Munchensy
3 Hubert de Vaux d: 1164
+ Grace
4 Eustace de Vaux
+ Dt. of Bueth
5 Adam de Vaux
6 Walter fitz Adam of Stirkland d: ABT 1239
+ Christian de Leteham b: ABT 1165
6 Robert de Castle Carrock
2 Aitard de Vaux
1 Walter fitz Adam of Stirkland d: ABT 1239
+ Christian de Leteham b: ABT 1165
2 Adam fitz Walter b: ABT 1200 d: AFT 1250
2 Robert de Strirkland d: BEF 1239
+ Beatrice de Cotesford
3 Adam de Strirkland
4 Robert de Strirkland
3 Robert de Strickland d: 1278
+ Alice de Genellestane
4 William de Strickland b: ABT 1230 d: AFT 1305
+ Elizabeth D'Eyncourt d: ABT 1273
5 William de Strickland b: ABT 1259 d: BEF 1288
+ Margaret de Washington
6 d.s.p.
5 Walter de Strickland b: ABT 1260 d: ABT 1344
+ Eleanor de Goldington
+ Matilda
6 Thomas de Strickland b: ABT 1297 d: 1376
+ Cecilia de Wells
6 John de Strickland b: ABT 1300
6 Ralph de Strickland b: ABT 1301
5 Joan de Strickland b: ABT 1261 d: AFT 1324
+ Robert de Washington d: 1324
5 John de Strickland b: ABT 1265 d: 1352
+ Alice
6 d.s.p.
5 Robert de Strickland b: ABT 1267
6 John de Strickland b: ABT 1293 d: BEF 1361
+ Joan
5 Hugh de Strickland b: ABT 1269
3 Christian de Strickland
+ Thomas de Hastings
4 Christian de Hastings
+ William de Goldington
5 Eleanor de Goldington
+ Walter de Strickland b: ABT 1260 d: ABT 1344
2 William fitz Walter
2 Amabel de Strirkland
+ Richard de Preston 
Strickland, Dorothy of Thornton Briggs (I024701)
Gebhard Vll von Mansfeld-Hinterort (von Mansfeld-Mittelort)
Birthdate: 1478
Death: September 13, 1558 (79-80) Schloss Mansfeld
Place of Burial: Seeburg
Immediate Family:
Son of Ernst I von Mansfeld-Hinterort and Margarethe von Mansfeld-Querfurt
Husband of Margarethe, Gräfin von Gleichen
Father of Magdalene zur Lippe; Agnes von Mansfeld-Hinterort, Gräfin von Barby-Mühlingen; Dorothea Gräfin von Mansfeld; Christof Count Of Mansfeld; Margarethe Countess Of Mansfeld; Anna, Countess Of Mansfeld and Margarethe Caponhurst « less
Brother of Albrecht VII von Mansfeld, VII
Half brother of Margrethe Reuß zu Weida und Wildenfels, Gräfin zu Schwarzburg-Leutenberg, M1

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated: January 23, 2020

About Gebhard VII, Graf von Mansfeld

Herr Zu Schloss Mansfeld-Mittelort an der kirche, erhält bei der Erbteilung 1501 Seeburg, Mittelamt Mansfeld und Schlossamt Schraplau, lässt 1515-1518 Schloss Seeburg ausbauen, Unterzeichnet Confessio Augustana, Magdebuger Rat 1531. 
von Mansfeld, Gebhard VII Gf (I054562)
Godehildis de Bellême
Birthdate: 975 (60)
Birthplace: Belleme, Sarthe, Maine/Pays de le Loire, France
Death: October 27, 1035 (60)

Immediate Family:
Daughter of Yves de Creil, seigneur de Bellême and Godehilde
Wife of Albert I de la Ferté-en-Beauce and Raoul de Beaumont-au-Maine, II, Vicomte du Maine
Mother of ALBERT de la Ferté-en-Beauce, II; Raoul Roscelin -Fitzcane de Beaumont, III, Viscount of Mans; Geoffrey de Sablé and Yves de Beaumo
Sister of Avesgaud de Bellême; Yves de Bellême; Renaud de Creil, I; Guillaume I, 'Talvas' de Belleme, seigneur d'Alençon and Hildeburge de Bellê

Managed by: Erica Howton
Last Updated: January 3, 2015  
de Bellême, Godehildis (I100229)
Graaf Heinrich I. / Hezilo von Schweinfurt (Schweinfurt Nordgau), Markgraf im bayerischen Nordgau
Birthdate: between circa 950 and 980 (67)
Birthplace: Schweinfurt, Lower Franconia, Bavaria, Germany
Death: September 18, 1017 (33-71) Schweinfurt, Lower Franconia, Bavaria, Germany
Place of Burial: Schweinfurt, Bayern, Germany

Immediate Family:
Son of Berchtold I, margrave in the Bavarian Nordgau and Eilika of Walbeck
Husband of Gerberga of Gleiberg
Father of Eilika of Schweinfurt; Judith von Schweinfurt; Margravine Eilika Fitzbaldric; Maria (or Dorothea) von Schweinfurt; Heinrich I an der Pegnitz, Graf an der Pegnitz; Burchard Von Schweinfurt, Halberstad; Liutana von Schweinfurt; N.N. von Berg-Schelklingen and Otto III Schweinfurt, Duke of Swabia « less
Half brother of Arnulf; Burkhard von Cham; Heilika von Schweinfurt., Äbtissin in Niederburg; Friedrich I, Graf von Diessen; N.N. von Diessen, Gräfin; N.N. Isar von Wasserburg; Dietrich von Bayern; Otto Markgraf von Bayern and Burkard von Bavaria, marquis « less

Occupation: Markgraf des Nordgau, Margrave of the Nordgau, marquis de Schweinfurt, , margrave de Nord-Bavière 980, ma, Greve i Nordgau., Markgraaf van Scheinfurt, Nordgau

Managed by: James Fred Patin, Jr.
Last Updated: August 18, 2017  
von Schweinfurt, Heinrich (Count of Schweinfurt) (I041489)
Hamilton Fish, Jr.
Birthdate: April 17, 1849
Birthplace: Albany, Albany, New York, United States
Death: Died January 15, 1936 in Aiken, Aiken, South Carolina, United States

Immediate Family:
Son of Hamilton Fish, Governor, U.S. Senator, U.S. Secretary of State and Julia Ursin Niemcewiez Fish
Husband of Emily Maria Fish
Father of Emily Rosalind Cutler; Janet Fish, WWI Nurse; Helena Livingston Forster; Julia Keen Breese and Hamilton S. Fish, III, US Congress
Brother of Julia Kean Fish; Elizabeth-Stuyvesant Grand d'Hauteville; Sarah Morris Webster; Nicholas Fish, II and Stuyvesant Fish

Hamilton Fish, II, US Congress

Hamilton Fish II (April 17, 1849 Albany, Albany County, New York - January 15, 1936) was an American lawyer and politician. [Life

He was the son of Julia Ursin Niemcewicz Kean and Hamilton Fish. He graduated from Columbia College of Columbia University, where he was a member of St. Anthony Hall, in 1869. He served as private secretary to his father, and graduated from Columbia Law School in 1873. He was aide-de-camp to Governor John Adams Dix. He was a member of the New York State Assembly (Putnam Co.) in 1874, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896. He was the Republican leader in 1890 and Speaker in 1895 and 1896. He served as Assistant Treasurer of the United States for New York in the Administration of Theodore Roosevelt, and was elected to the US House of Representatives for a single term, from 1909-1911. He was defeated for reelection. For many years Fish was considered to be one of the top Republican bosses in the State of New York, controlling Putnam County. He was the father of long-time Republican congressional leader Hamilton Fish III. In 1933, Fish was on a committee that sponsored the publication in the United States of a translation of a Nazi book called Communism in Germany by Adolf Ehrt. In the prefatory note, the committee said that they did not publish it as a defense of antisemitism or a the Nazi regime, but because they believed that the struggle against communism in Germany and the lessons it taught about how the people should demand more "effective measures" to defend their system of government against communists.[1] In the late 19th century, he purchased the Rock Lawn and Carriage House at Garrison, New York.[2] He died in Aiken, South Carolina in 1936.[3] He was buried in Garrison, New York. 
Fish, Hamilton II, US Congress (I091353)
Haren-Anderson / Brownlees of Torfoot / Wilcox to Charlemagne
Entries: 105300 Updated: 2007-02-06 18:46:00 UTC (Tue) Contact: Kim Home Page: Kim Brownlee Myspace Music page

1 Amfleda of the Vandals b: ABT 496
+ Hilderic King of the Vandals b: ABT 480 d: UNKNOWN
2 Hildis Princess of the Vandals b: ABT 515 d: ABT 572
+ Valdar Hroarsson b: ABT 547
3 Frode VII Harald Valdarsson b: ABT 568 d: UNKNOWN
+ Hildur "Hildis" "Hervor" Heidreksdatter b: ABT 572 d: UNKNOWN
4 Halfdan Haroldsson b: ABT 590 d: UNKNOWN
+ Maolda Kinriksdatter b: ABT 594 d: UNKNOWN
5 Ivar "Vidfame" Halfdansson b: ABT 612 d: ABT 647
6 Aud of Uppsala
+ Rurick (or Hroerekr) King of Lethra b: ABT 620 d: ABT 700
7 Harold Hildetonn King of Lethra d: 770
8 Halfdan Margrave of Frisia b: ABT 757 d: 830
9 Effenda (Edvina) b: 850
+ Rurik (or Hrorekr) Grand Duke of Novogorod b: ABT 845 d: 879
10 Oleg (or Helgi II) Prince & Tsar of Kiev b: 872 d: ABT 912
10 Igor Grand Duke of Novgorod b: 875 d: 945
+ Olga (St. Helga) Grand Duchess of Kiev b: ABT 890 d: 11 JUL 969
6 Rurick (or Hroerekr) King of Lethra b: ABT 620 d: ABT 700
+ Aud of Uppsala
7 Harold Hildetonn King of Lethra d: 770
8 Halfdan Margrave of Frisia b: ABT 757 d: 830
9 Effenda (Edvina) b: 850
+ Rurik (or Hrorekr) Grand Duke of Novogorod b: ABT 845 d: 879
10 Oleg (or Helgi II) Prince & Tsar of Kiev b: 872 d: ABT 912
10 Igor Grand Duke of Novgorod b: 875 d: 945
+ Olga (St. Helga) Grand Duchess of Kiev b: ABT 890 d: 11 JUL 969
+ Gothilda (Gyrithe) Alfsdatter b: ABT 614 d: UNKNOWN
6 Aud Ivarsdottir b: ABT 633
+ Radbard King of Garderidge b: ABT 638
7 Randver Radbartsson b: ABT 710 d: 770
+ Asa
8 Sigurd Ranvarsson b: ABT 710 d: AFT 735
+ Alfhild Gandolfsdottir of Alfheim b: ABT 754 d: UNKNOWN
9 N.N. Sigurdsdottir b: ABT 770
+ King of Norway Thrond b: ABT 755 d: UNKNOWN
10 Eystein Earl of Throndheim b: ABT 705 d: AFT 840
2 Hilda Princess of the Vandals b: ABT 540 d: UNKNOWN
+ Frode VII Halfdanson King of Denmark b: 550 d: UNKNOWN
3 Halfdan King of Denmark b: 580 d: UNKNOWN
4 Ivar Vidfamus King of Denmark & Sweden b: 640 d: UNKNOWN
5 Audur Diuphraudza Queen of Holmgard b: 670 d: UNKNOWN
+ Rorik Slingeband King of Denmark & Sweden b: 660 d: 700
6 Harald Hildesfand King of Denmark & Sweden b: 690 d: 735
7 Sigurd Randversson King in Sweden b: ABT 725 d: 812
+ Brynhild Budlasdatter b: ABT 738
8 Ragnar"Lodbrock" Sigurdsson King of Denmark b: ABT 750 d: 845
+ Aslaug Sigurdsdatter b: ABT 765
9 Alof Ragnarsdottir d: UNKNOWN
+ Steinn Hundasson b: ABT 778 d: UNKNOWN
10 Biorn Hundasson d: UNKNOWN
10 Eirik Hulda Steinnsson b: ABT 814 d: UNKNOWN
9 Ivar 'the Boneless' Ragnarsson d: 873
+ Ingiald d: UNKNOWN
10 Guthorm Ivarsson King of Dublin d: 890
10 Sitric Ivarsson d: 888
9 Bjorn "Ironside" Ragnarsson b: ABT 770 d: UNKNOWN
10 Refill Bjornsson b: ABT 796 d: UNKNOWN
9 Sigurd Ragnarsson King of Denmark b: ABT 786 d: 873
+ Heluna (or Bleja) Princess of England b: ABT 784
10 Aslaug Sigurdsdatter b: ABT 800 d: UNKNOWN
+ Helgi Olafsson b: ABT 790 d: ABT 819
10 Thora Sigurdsdatter b: ABT 800
+ Rognvald Olafsen b: 790 d: 850
+ Helgi Olafsson b: ABT 790 d: ABT 819
10 Horda Knut Sigurdsson , King of Denmark b: 814 d: 895
+ Elgiva of England b: ABT 870 d: BET 888 AND 964
+ Alfhild Gandolfsdottir
9 Ingvar Ragnarsson b: ABT 802 d: 872
10 Gommeri Ingvarsson b: 844 d: AFT 911 
Vandals, Amfleda of the (I072717)
Haren-Anderson / Brownlees of Torfoot / Wilcox to Charlemagne
Entries: 105300 Updated: 2007-02-06 18:46:00 UTC (Tue) Contact: Kim Home Page: Kim Brownlee Myspace Music page

Interesting people found here; several U.S. Presidents inc William McKinley ( father's father's side.) On my father's mother's side, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and others; several actors inc. Richard Gere, Clint Eastwood, Christopher Reeve, Baldwin Bros., (all descend fr Mayflower passengers; I descend from Francis Cooke) Titanic passenger John Jacob Astor, the "Guardian of Scotland" William Wallace, numerous kings inc. Robert the Bruce, William the Conqueror, Charlemagne, the House of Windsor

1 Burggräfin und Gräfin zu Dohna Amalie b: 20 JUL 1661 d: 2 APR 1724
+ Burggraf und Graf Dohna-Schlobitten Alexander b: 5 FEB 1660/61 d: 25 FEB 1727/28
2 Louise Charlotte , Burggräfin Dohna-Schlobitten b: 5 JAN 1667/68 d: 27 MAY 1736
+ Friedrich Wilhelm , Graf zu Wied-Neuwied b: 15 NOV 1684 d: 17 SEP 1737
3 Johann Friedrich Alexander , Fürst zu Wied b: 18 NOV 1706 d: 7 AUG 1791
+ Burggräfin von Kirchberg Karoline b: 14 OCT 1720 d: 19 DEC 1795
4 Friedrich Carl , Fürst zu Wied b: 25 DEC 1741 d: 1 MAR 1802
+ Louise Wilhelmine , Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b: 13 MAY 1747 d: 15 NOV 1823
5 Johann August Carl , Fürst zu Wied-Neuwied b: 26 MAY 1779 d: 21 APR 1836
+ Sophie Auguste , Prinzessin zu Solms-Braunfels b: 24 JAN 1796 d: 23 JAN 1855
6 Prinzessin zu Wied Luitgarde b: 4 MAR 1813 d: 9 JUN 1870
+ Graf zu Solms-Laubach Otto b: 1 OCT 1799 d: 22 NOV 1872
7 Graf zu Solms-Laubach Friedrich b: 23 JUN 1833 d: 1 SEP 1900
+ Gräfin zu Stolberg-Wernigerode Marianne b: 6 SEP 1836 d: 13 AUG 1910
8 Graf zu Solms-Laubach Otto b: 26 MAY 1860 d: 9 SEP 1904
+ Isenburg und Büdingen in Büdingen Emma b: 28 AUG 1870 d: 13 DEC 1944
9 Georg Friedrich , Graf zu Solms-Laubach b: 7 MAR 1899 d: 13 MAY 1969
+ Prinzessin zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich Johanna b: 17 DEC 1905 d: 7 SEP 1982
10 Living Irene
+ Living Castell-Rüdenhausen
10 Graf zu Solms-Laubach Otto b: 26 AUG 1926 d: 1 MAR 1973
+ Living Madeleine
6 4º Fürst zu Wied Hermann b: 22 MAY 1814 d: 5 MAR 1864
+ Marie Wilhelmine Friederike Elisabeth , Nassau b: 29 JAN 1825 d: 24 MAR 1902
7 Wilhelm Adolph Maximilian Carl , 5º Fürst zu Wied b: 22 AUG 1845 d: 22 OCT 1907
+ Marie (Wilhelmine Frederica Netherlands b: 5 JUL 1841 d: 22 JUN 1910
8 (Wilhelm Friedrich Hermann Otto Wied Friedrich b: 27 JUN 1872 d: 18 JUN 1945
+ Pauline Olga Helene Emma , Prinzessin Württemberg b: 19 DEC 1877 d: 7 MAY 1965
9 Dietrich Wilhelm Friedrick Karl Paul , Prinz Wied b: 31 OCT 1901 d: 8 JAN 1976
+ Antoinette Julia , Gräfin Grote b: 9 OCT 1902 d: 17 FEB 1988
10 Living Wied)
+ Living Fischer
2 Albrecht Dohna-Schlobitten und Leistenau b: 23 SEP 1698 d: 13 MAY 1752
+ Sofie Henriette Princess of Holstein b: 18 DEC 1698 d: 19 JAN 1768
3 Friederike Charlotte Dohna-Schlobitten b: 3 JUL 1738 d: 21 APR 1786
+ Carl Anton August , Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck b: 10 AUG 1727 d: 12 SEP 1759
4 Friedrich Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck b: 20 AUG 1757 d: 24 APR 1816
+ Friederike Amalie Antonie , Gräfin von Schlieben b: 28 FEB 1757 d: 17 DEC 1827
5 Prinzessin Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck Friederike b: 13 DEC 1780 d: 19 JAN 1862
+ Gottlob Samuel , Freiherr von Richthofen b: 6 JAN 1769 d: 25 FEB 1808
6 Graf von Richthofen Friedrich b: 25 MAY 1805 d: 13 MAY 1872
+ Emma von Beeren b: 19 FEB 1810 d: 10 AUG 1894
7 Freiherr von Richthofen Oldwig b: 24 NOV 1832 d: 30 JUL 1918
+ Olga Zychlinska b: 21 JUN 1853 d: 12 JAN 1935
8 Freiherr von Richthofen Kurt b: 1 MAR 1874 d: 26 JUL 1937
+ Wally von Protzen b: 13 MAY 1879 d: 13 AUG 1957
9 Freiin von Richthofen Ursula b: 16 SEP 1907 d: 6 NOV 2002
+ Szápáry de Muraszombath Széchyziget et Szapár b: 19 AUG 1901 d: 26 APR 1993
10 Living Szápáry de Muraszombath Széchyziget et Szapár
+ Living Andreas
5 Wilhelm Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg b: 4 JAN 1785 d: 17 FEB 1831
+ Luise Caroline , Landgräfin von Hessen-Kassel b: 28 SEP 1789 d: 13 MAR 1867
6 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg b: 23 OCT 1814 d: 27 NOV 1885
+ Adelheid Christine Juliane Schaumburg-Lippe b: 9 MAR 1821 d: 30 JUL 1899
7 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg b: 12 OCT 1855 d: 21 JAN 1934
+ Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg b: 25 JAN 1860 d: 20 FEB 1932
8 Viktoria Adelheid Helene Schleswig-Holstein b: 31 DEC 1885 d: 28 NOV 1972
+ Karl Eduard (Leopold Saxe-Coburg und Gotha b: 19 JUL 1884 d: 6 MAR 1954
9 Sibylla Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha b: 18 JAN 1908 d: 28 NOV 1972
+ Gustav Adolf Oscar Frederick Arthur Sweden b: 22 APR 1906 d: 26 JAN 1947
10 Living Sweden
+ Living Sommerlath
9 Friedrich Josias , Prinz Saxe-Coburg und Gotha b: 29 NOV 1918 d: 23 JAN 1998
+ Viktoria-Luise Friederike Caroline Solms-Baruth b: 13 MAY 1921 d: 1 MAR 2003
10 Living Andreas
10 Living Charlotte
+ Living Bernhard
8 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg b: 11 MAY 1894 d: 28 JAN 1972
+ Hans Georg Eduard , Graf zu Solms-Baruth b: 3 APR 1893 d: 9 OCT 1971
9 Viktoria-Luise Friederike Caroline Solms-Baruth b: 13 MAY 1921 d: 1 MAR 2003
+ Friedrich Josias , Prinz Saxe-Coburg und Gotha b: 29 NOV 1918 d: 23 JAN 1998
10 Living Andreas
10 Living Charlotte
+ Living Bernhard
7 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg b: 15 MAR 1863 d: 23 APR 1948
+ Isenburg und Büdingen in Büdingen Herthe b: 27 DEC 1883 d: 30 MAY 1972
8 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Ortrud b: 19 DEC 1925 d: 6 FEB 1980
+ Ernst August Georg Wilhelm Christian Hannover b: 18 MAR 1915 d: 9 DEC 1987
9 Living Hannover
+ Living Hochuli
10 Living Hannover
10 Living Hannover
+ Living Marguerite
10 Living Alexandra
6 Christian IX King of Denmark b: 8 APR 1818 d: 29 JAN 1906
+ Luise Wilhelmina Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim b: 1817 d: 1898
7 Frederik VIII (Christian Frederik Denmark b: 3 JUN 1843 d: 14 MAY 1912
+ Louise Josephine Eugenie , Princess of Sweden b: 31 OCT 1851 d: 20 MAR 1926
8 Christian X , Carl Frederik Albert Denmark b: 26 SEP 1870 d: 20 APR 1947
+ Alexandrine Auguste , Mecklenburg-Schwerin b: 24 DEC 1879 d: 28 DEC 1952
9 Frederick IX (Christian Frederick Franz Denmark b: 11 MAR 1899 d: 14 JAN 1972
+ Ingrid Victoria Sofia Louise Margareta , Sweden b: 28 MAR 1910 d: 7 NOV 2000
10 Living Margarethe
+ Living de Laborde
10 Living Ingrid
+ Living Oldenburg
8 Haakon VII, King of Norway b: 3 AUG 1872 d: 21 SEP 1957
+ Maud Charlotte Mary Great Britain & Ireland b: 26 NOV 1869 d: 20 NOV 1938
9 Olav V (Alexander Edward Christian Norway b: 2 JUL 1903 d: 17 JAN 1991
+ Märtha Sofia Louisa Dagmar Thyra , Sweden b: 28 MAR 1901 d: 5 APR 1954
10 Living Harald
+ Living Haraldsen
8 Ingeborg Charlotta Caroline Frederikke Denmark b: 2 AUG 1878 d: 12 MAR 1958
+ Carl (Oscar Carl Vilhelm) , Prince of Sweden b: 27 FEB 1861 d: 25 OCT 1951
9 Märtha Sofia Louisa Dagmar Thyra , Sweden b: 28 MAR 1901 d: 5 APR 1954
+ Olav V (Alexander Edward Christian Norway b: 2 JUL 1903 d: 17 JAN 1991
10 Living Harald
+ Living Haraldsen
9 Astrid Sophie Louisa Thyra , Princess of Sweden b: 17 NOV 1905 d: 29 AUG 1935
+ Leopold III Philipp Karl Albert Meinrad Belgians b: 3 NOV 1901 d: 25 SEP 1983
10 Josephine Charlotte Ingeborg Elisabeth Belgium b: 11 OCT 1927 d: 10 JAN 2005
+ Living Luxembourg
10 Baudouin I, Albert Charles Leopold Axel Belgians b: 7 SEP 1930 d: 31 JUL 1993
+ Living Mora y Aragón
10 Living Belgians
+ Living Ruffo di Calabria
7 Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Denmark b: 1 DEC 1844 d: 20 NOV 1925
+ Albert Edward b: 9 NOV 1841 d: 6 MAY 1910
8 Albert Victor Great Britain & Ireland b: 8 JAN 1864 d: 14 JAN 1892
+ Hélène Louise Henriette , Princesse d' Orléans b: 13 JUN 1871 d: 21 JAN 1951
+ May (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga) von Teck b: 26 MAY 1867 d: 24 MAR 1953
8 George Frederick Ernest Albert b: 3 JUN 1865 d: 20 JAN 1936
+ May (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga) von Teck b: 26 MAY 1867 d: 24 MAR 1953
9 Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick Da b: 23 JUN 1894 d: 28 MAY 1972
+ Bessie Wallis Warfield b: 19 JUN 1896 d: 24 APR 1986
9 Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor b: 14 DEC 1895 d: 6 FEB 1952
+ Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon b: 8 APR 1900 d: 30 MAR 2002
10 Living Windsor
+ Living Mountbatten
9 Victoria Alexandra Great Britain & Ireland b: 25 APR 1897 d: 28 MAR 1965
+ Henry George Charles Lascelles b: 9 SEP 1882 d: 24 MAY 1947
10 Living Lascelles
+ Living Stein
9 Henry William Great Britain & Ireland b: 31 MAR 1900 d: 9 JUN 1974
+ Alice Christabel Montagu-Douglas-Scott b: 25 DEC 1901 d: 29 OCT 2004
10 William Henry Andrew Frederick of Gloucester b: 18 DEC 1941 d: 28 AUG 1972
10 Living Great Britain & Ireland
+ Living Deurs
9 George Edward Alexander Edmund , 1st Duke of Kent b: 20 DEC 1902 d: 25 AUG 1942
+ Princess of Greece And Denmark Marina b: 13 DEC 1906 d: 24 AUG 1968
10 Living Patrick
+ Living Worsley
10 Living Kent
+ Angus James Robert Bruce Ogilvy b: 28 SEP 1928 d: 26 FEB 2004
10 Living Kent
+ Living Ida
9 John Charles Francis , Great Britain & Ireland b: 12 JUL 1905 d: 18 JAN 1919
8 Louise Victoria Great Britain & Ireland b: 20 FEB 1867 d: 4 JAN 1931
+ Alexander Duff b: 10 NOV 1849 d: 29 JAN 1912
9 Alexandra Victoria Alberta Edwina Louise of Fife b: 17 MAY 1891 d: 26 FEB 1959
+ Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert of Connaught b: 13 JAN 1883 d: 12 SEP 1938
10 Alastair Arthur of Connaught b: 9 AUG 1914 d: 26 APR 1943
9 Maud Alexandra Victoria Georgina Bertha of Fife b: 3 APR 1893 d: 14 DEC 1945
+ Charles Alexander Carnegie b: 23 SEP 1893 d: 16 FEB 1992
10 Living Carnegie
+ Living Dewar
8 Maud Charlotte Mary Great Britain & Ireland b: 26 NOV 1869 d: 20 NOV 1938
+ Haakon VII, King of Norway b: 3 AUG 1872 d: 21 SEP 1957
9 Olav V (Alexander Edward Christian Norway b: 2 JUL 1903 d: 17 JAN 1991
+ Märtha Sofia Louisa Dagmar Thyra , Sweden b: 28 MAR 1901 d: 5 APR 1954
10 Living Harald
+ Living Haraldsen
8 Alexander John Charles Great Britain & Ireland b: 6 APR 1871 d: 7 APR 1871
8 Victoria Alexandra Great Britain & Ireland b: 6 JUL 1888 d: 3 DEC 1935
7 George I King of the Hellenes b: 24 DEC 1845 d: 18 MAR 1913
+ Olga Constantinovna , Grand Duchess of Russia b: 3 SEP 1851 d: 18 JUN 1926
8 Constantine I Oldenburg , King of the Hellenes b: 2 AUG 1868 d: 11 JAN 1923
+ Sofie Dorothea (Zoe) Princess of Prussia b: 14 JAN 1870 d: 13 JAN 1932
9 Alexander I Oldenburg of Greece b: 1 AUG 1893 d: 25 OCT 1920
+ Aspasia Manos b: 4 SEP 1896 d: 7 AUG 1972
10 Alexandra Oldenburg , Princess of Greece b: 25 MAR 1921 d: 30 JAN 1993
+ Peter II, King of Yugoslavia b: 6 SEP 1923 d: 3 NOV 1970
9 Princess of Greece Helene b: 3 MAY 1896 d: 28 NOV 1982
+ Karol II Hohenzollern , King of Romania b: 15 OCT 1893 d: 4 APR 1953
10 Living Hohenzollern
+ Living Bourbon Parma
9 Paul I Oldenburg of Greece b: 14 DEC 1901 d: 6 MAR 1964
+ Friederike Luise Thyra Viktoria Hannover b: 18 APR 1917 d: 6 FEB 1981
10 Living Greece
+ Living Spain
10 Living Oldenburg
+ Living Ingrid
9 Princess of Greece And Denmark Yreny b: 13 FEB 1904 d: 15 APR 1974
+ Aimone Roberto Marguerite Marie Joseph Savoie b: 9 MAR 1900 d: 29 JAN 1948
10 Living Savoie
+ Living Catherine
8 Prince of Greece And Denmark Nicholas b: 22 JAN 1872 d: 8 FEB 1938
+ Helena Vladimirovna , Grand Duchess of Russia b: 17 JAN 1882 d: 13 MAR 1957
9 Princess of Greece And Denmark Olga b: 11 JUN 1903 d: 16 OCT 1997
+ Prince And Regent of Yugoslavia Paul b: 27 APR 1893 d: 14 SEP 1976
10 Living Elisabeth
+ Howard Oxenberg b: 1919
9 Princess of Greece And Denmark Marina b: 13 DEC 1906 d: 24 AUG 1968
+ George Edward Alexander Edmund , 1st Duke of Kent b: 20 DEC 1902 d: 25 AUG 1942
10 Living Patrick
+ Living Worsley
10 Living Kent
+ Angus James Robert Bruce Ogilvy b: 28 SEP 1928 d: 26 FEB 2004
10 Living Kent
+ Living Ida
8 Andrew Prince of Greece And Denmark b: 20 JAN 1882 d: 3 DEC 1944
+ Alice Mountbatten b: 25 FEB 1885 d: 5 DEC 1969
9 Princess of Greece And Denmark Theodora b: 30 MAY 1906 d: 16 OCT 1969
+ Prinz und Markgraf von Baden Berthold b: 24 FEB 1906 d: 27 OCT 1963
10 Living Maximilian
+ Living Valerie
9 Princess of Greece And Denmark Sophie b: 26 JUN 1914 d: 24 NOV 2001
+ Living Hannover
+ Christoph Ernst August , Prinz von Hessen b: 14 MAY 1901 d: 7 OCT 1943
10 Living Andreas
+ Living Szápáry de Muraszombath Széchyziget et Szapár
9 Living Mountbatten
+ Living Windsor
10 Living Windsor
+ Living Spencer
+ Living Shand
8 Prince of Greece And Denmark Christoph b: 10 AUG 1888 d: 21 JAN 1940
+ Françoise Isabelle Louise Maire , d'Orleans b: 25 DEC 1902 d: 25 FEB 1953
9 Living Michael
+ Living Karella
10 Living Isabelle
+ Living Savoie
7 Maria Sophia Frederika Dagmar of Denmark b: 1847 d: 1928
+ Alexander III Tsar of Russia b: 26 FEB 1845 d: 20 OCT 1894
8 Mariya Alexandrovna , Grand Duchess of Russia b: 17 OCT 1853 d: 24 OCT 1920
+ Alfred Ernest Albert , Saxe-Coburg und Gotha b: 6 AUG 1844 d: 30 JUL 1900
9 Maria Alexandra Victoria , Saxe-Coburg-Gotha b: 29 OCT 1875 d: 10 JUL 1938
+ Boris Vladimirovitch , Grand Duke of Russia b: 12 NOV 1877 d: 9 NOV 1943
10 Marie (Mignon) Hohenzollern , Princess of Romania b: 9 JAN 1900 d: 2 JUL 1961
+ Aleksandr I, King of Yugoslavia b: 1888 d: 9 OCT 1934
+ Ferdinand I, King of Romania b: 24 AUG 1865 d: 20 JUL 1927
10 Karol II Hohenzollern , King of Romania b: 15 OCT 1893 d: 4 APR 1953
+ Princess of Greece Helene b: 3 MAY 1896 d: 28 NOV 1982
10 Marie (Mignon) Hohenzollern , Princess of Romania b: 9 JAN 1900 d: 2 JUL 1961
+ Aleksandr I, King of Yugoslavia b: 1888 d: 9 OCT 1934
9 Victoria Melita , Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha b: 25 NOV 1876 d: 2 MAR 1936
+ Kyrill Vladimirovich , Grand Duke of Russia b: 30 SEP 1876 d: 13 OCT 1938
10 Kira Kyrillovna , Grand Duchess of Russia b: 9 MAY 1909 d: 8 SEP 1967
+ Louis Ferdinand , Prince of Prussia b: 9 NOV 1907 d: 25 SEP 1994
10 Vladimir Kirillovitch , Grand Duke of Russia b: 17 AUG 1917 d: 8 APR 1992
+ Leonida Bagration-Moukhransky , Princess Georgia b: 1914
8 Nicholas II Tsar of Russia b: 6 MAY 1868 d: 16 JUL 1918
+ Alexandra Princess of Hessen-Darmstadt b: 6 JUN 1872 d: 16 JUL 1918
8 Xenia Alexandrovna , Grand Duchess of Russia b: 25 MAR 1875 d: 20 APR 1960
+ Alexander (Sandro) Mikhailovich , Grand Russia b: 1 APR 1866 d: 26 FEB 1933
9 Dmitri Alexandrovitch Romanov b: 2 AUG 1901 d: 1980
+ Sheila Margaret Chisholm b: 1898 d: 1969
7 Thyra Amelie Caroline Charlotte Anne Denmark b: 29 SEP 1853 d: 26 FEB 1933
+ Ernst August II Wilhelm Adolf Georg Hannover b: 21 SEP 1845 d: 14 NOV 1923
8 Marie Louise , Prinzessin von Hannover b: 11 OCT 1879 d: 31 JAN 1948
+ Maximilian Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm , Baden b: 10 JUL 1867 d: 6 NOV 1929
9 Prinz und Markgraf von Baden Berthold b: 24 FEB 1906 d: 27 OCT 1963
+ Princess of Greece And Denmark Theodora b: 30 MAY 1906 d: 16 OCT 1969
10 Living Maximilian
+ Living Valerie
8 Ernst August III Christian Georg , Prinz Hannover b: 17 NOV 1887 d: 30 JAN 1953
+ Victoria Luise Adelheid Mathilde Prussia b: 13 SEP 1892 d: 11 DEC 1980
9 Living Hannover
+ Princess of Greece And Denmark Sophie b: 26 JUN 1914 d: 24 NOV 2001
9 Ernst August Georg Wilhelm Christian Hannover b: 18 MAR 1915 d: 9 DEC 1987
+ Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Ortrud b: 19 DEC 1925 d: 6 FEB 1980
10 Living Hannover
+ Living Hochuli
+ Living Marguerite
9 Friederike Luise Thyra Viktoria Hannover b: 18 APR 1917 d: 6 FEB 1981
+ Paul I Oldenburg of Greece b: 14 DEC 1901 d: 6 MAR 1964
10 Living Greece
+ Living Spain
10 Living Oldenburg
+ Living Ingrid
7 Prince of Denmark Valdemar b: 27 OCT 1858 d: 14 JAN 1939
+ Marie Amélie Françoise Hélène , d'Orleans b: 13 JAN 1865 d: 4 DEC 1909
8 Margrethe Françoise Louise Marie Hélène , Denmark b: 17 SEP 1895 d: 18 SEP 1992
+ Rene Charles Maria Joseph , Prince Bourbon Parma b: 17 OCT 1894 d: 30 JUN 1962
9 Living Bourbon Parma
+ Living Hohenzollern
10 Living Margarita
+ Living Duda
2 Alexander Aemilius , Burggraf Dohna-Schlobitten b: 17 JUL 1704 d: 6 OCT 1745
+ Sophie Charlotte , Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck b: 31 DEC 1722 d: 7 AUG 1763
3 Sophie Charlotte , Burggräfin Dohna-Schlobitten b: 17 JAN 1739/40 d: 10 NOV 1798
+ 1º Fürst zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich Karl b: 16 APR 1725 d: 22 MAR 1803
4 2º Fürst zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich Karl b: 7 APR 1762 d: 10 JUN 1807
+ Henriette Sophie , Gräfin Bentheim und Steinfurt b: 10 JUN 1777 d: 8 DEC 1851
5 Prinz zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich Ferdinand b: 28 JUL 1806 d: 15 AUG 1876
+ Prinzessin Collato und San Salvatore Caroline b: 18 JAN 1818 d: 27 NOV 1855
6 Hermann Adolf , 5º Fürst zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich b: 15 APR 1838 d: 16 SEP 1899
+ Gräfin zu Stolberg-Wernigerode Agnes b: 21 MAY 1842 d: 12 MAY 1904
7 6º Fürst zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich Karl b: 27 JUN 1866 d: 26 JUL 1920
+ Prinzessin zu Stolberg-Wernigerode Emma b: 20 JUL 1875 d: 5 APR 1965
8 Prinzessin zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich Johanna b: 17 DEC 1905 d: 7 SEP 1982
+ Georg Friedrich , Graf zu Solms-Laubach b: 7 MAR 1899 d: 13 MAY 1969
9 Living Irene
+ Living Castell-Rüdenhausen
10 Living Emma
+ Louis Ferdinand Oskar Christian , Prince Prussia b: 25 AUG 1944 d: 11 JUL 1977
9 Graf zu Solms-Laubach Otto b: 26 AUG 1926 d: 1 MAR 1973
+ Living Madeleine
10 Living Maria
+ Living Leopold

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All information on the Brownlee branch is from "Torfoot Brownlees" by Martin Dale Armstrong and word of mouth by my grandparents. Many thanks to several cousins, inc. Debbie Robinson and to the many others who share their hard work with others! I have to rely on "cut & paste" for individual info due to carpal tunnel & spinal injuries. I'm still researching!! So any information found here should be used only as a guide to your research. Thanks!

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Dohna, Amalie Burggräfin und Gräfin zu (I072586)
Hector Sutherland MacDonald BSc, MA, CChem., FRSC, FRMS
Arms : Or, dexter a hand in armour couped fessways Proper holding a cross crosslet fitchée Gules, sinster an eagle displayed Gules surmounted of a lymphad, sails furled, oars in action Sable and in base a lotus flower Proper

Crest : the head of the Indian (Hindu) God Ganesha couped affrontée Proper.


Granted : The Court of the Lord Lyon, April 2004. Lyon Register, volume 85, folio 74.

My family arises from Allan MacDonald, 9th of Clanranald and Moidart whose son Ranald MacDonald, first of Benbecula, (“he of the five wives”), second marriage with Fionnsgoth Burke of Connaught [1] gave rise to my paternal five times Great Grandfather Alexander. My three times Great Grandfather John Roy MacDonald married Margaret MacEachen, daughter of Alexander MacEachen who at one time held the tack at Howbeg in South Uist, and was brother to Neil MacEachen MacDonald [2], father of Marshal Etienne MacDonald of France.

My Grandfather was a cousin of A.J.Cronin, and both A.J. and Grandfather were educated at the expense of my Great Grand Uncle, Canon William Chisholm MacDonald. Direct family members were on South Uist until 1873 and relatives are there today.

The connection with the Indian sub-continent started with my father Donald Francis MacDonald who served as a Japanese code-breaker in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and later at Bangalore in India where I am currently the Head Master of the International School.

Two Indian symbols are present. The Crest, Ganesha, is held to be ‘a mover of obstacles’ and is a redemptorist figure, and the lotus represents ‘wisdom, prosperity, and purity in the context of corruption’.

[1] Burke’s Landed Gentry of Great Britain Vol. 1, 19th Ed ‘The Scottish Book’ p 865 (2001)
[2] MacLean, A. ‘A MacDonald for the Prince’ pp 81-89 Acair Ltd (1982)

From The Heraldry Society Scotland 2004 at

Alasdair Maclean. A Macdonald for the Prince. Acair Limited, Stornoway, Lewis, Scotland, 1982. Story of Neil MacEachen, companion of Bonnie Prince Charlie in his travels after Culloden.

Alasdair MacLean, "Who Were the MacEachens?," Highland Family History Society, 1989, pp1-5. (Talk given to the society 26 Apr 1988) 
MacDonald, John Roy (Ruadh) (I059034)
Henry Clifford, 1st Earl of Cumberland
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Henry Clifford, 1st Earl of Cumberland (1493-22 April 1542) was a member of the Clifford family which held the seat of Skipton from 1310 to 1676. He was a close friend of Henry VIII and his son Henry married the King's niece Lady Eleanor Brandon.

He was a son of Henry Clifford, 10th Baron de Clifford and his wife Anne St. John. His maternal grandparents were Sir John Oliver St. John of Bletso and Sibyl ap Morgan.

Marriages and children
He married first Margaret Talbot, daughter of George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury and Anne Hastings. Her maternal grandparents were William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings and Katherine Neville. Katherine was a daughter of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury and Alice Neville, 5th Countess of Salisbury.

His first wife died before 1516. He married secondly Margaret Percy, daughter of Henry Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland and Catherine Spencer. Her maternal grandparents were Sir Robert Spencer of Spencer Court and Lady Eleanor Beaufort. Eleanor was a daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset and Eleanor Beauchamp.

They were parents to his heir:
Henry Clifford, 2nd Earl of Cumberland.

For the sources of information, see in this file under "INFORMATION, Sources of" and also "INFORMATION, General Clan Genealogy ". See also "History" for a range of historical information.

Which includes
Royal and Noble Genealogical Data on the Web
Index to royal Genealogical Data - ordered by lastname" at
Peerages in Order of Precedence at
Author: Brian Tompsett
This contains a huge amount of information including  
Clifford, Henry 1st Earl of Cumberland (I005932)
Hilda Elizabeth De Bunsen23,184,190,246 was born on 30 Nov 1848 and died on 17 Apr 1932.
Hilda married Hugo Von Krause23,190,246 on 17 Apr 1873 in The Chapel Royal, St. James', London. Hugo died on 26 Mar 1874 in London. The cause of
his death was Died in a hunting accident. They had one son: Wilhelm.
Basic notes:
He worked as a Fideicommis-Besitzer in Bendeleben, Sonderhausen, Germany. He lived at Bendeleben Castle, Bendeleben, Sonderhausen, Germany.
He worked as a Councillor to the German Embassy in London.
Wilhelm Von Krause23 was born on 10 Feb 1874 and died in 1949.
Basic notes:
He worked as a Fideicommis-Besitzer in Bendeleben, Sonderhausen, Germany. He worked as a Diplomat. Councillor at the Imperial German
Legation in Athens, Greece. He lived at Bendeleben Castle, Bendeleben, Sonderhausen, Germany.

Hilda next married Adolph Wilhelm Conrad Rudolph Deichmann Freiherr Von Deichmann190 on 20 Sep 1877. Adolph died on 12 Nov 1907. They
had three children: Hilda Eveline Marie, Elsa Olga and Marie Therese.
Baroness Hilda Eveline Marie Von Deichmann 23 was born on 14 Jul 1878 in London and died on 29 Oct 1958 in Bonn, Germany.
Hilda married Karl Bernhard Von Bismarck Graf Von Bismarck-Osten on 5 Apr 1905 in Bendeleben Castle, Bendeleben, Sonderhausen,
Germany. Karl was born on 21 Mar 1874 in Kniephof, Königsberg, Germany and died on 19 Jun 1952 in Bad Nauheim, Frankfurt, Germany. They
had four children: Karl Ulrich, Ferdinand Otto Bernhard Wilhelm, Hilda-Marie Elisabeth and Friedrich Wilhelm Herbert.
Noted events in their marriage were:
They lived at Schloss Pathe, Pomerania, Prussia.
Karl Ulrich Von Bismarck-Osten Graf Von Bismarck-Osten was born on 13 Jul 1908 in Rathe.
Ferdinand Otto Bernhard Wilhelm Von Bismarck-Osten Graf Von Bismarck-Osten was born on 20 Dec 1909 in Charlottenburg, Berlin,
Germany and died on 18 Jan 2004.
Ferdinand married Margarethe von Lüttichau Gräfin von Lüttichau . Margarethe was born on 20 Sep 1917. They had one son: Friedrich-Karl Alexander.
Friedrich-Karl Alexander Von Bismarck-Osten
Hilda-Marie Elisabeth Von Bismarck Gräfin Von Bismarck-Osten was born on 3 Aug 1911.
Hilda-Marie married Cornelius Wilhelm Bruno Von Heyl zu Herrnsheim Freiherr von Heyl zu Herrnsheim on 19 Dec 1930. Cornelius was
born on 13 Jan 1908. They had one daughter: Astrid.
Astrid Von Heyl zu Herrnsheim
Astrid married Christopher Forbes. They had one daughter: Charlotte Adelaide Mathilde.
Charlotte Adelaide Mathilde Forbes
Friedrich Wilhelm Herbert Von Bismarck-Osten was born on 18 Jan 1913 and died on 9 Feb 1941.
Baroness Elsa Olga Von Deichmann was born on 25 Mar 1883 and died on 1 Dec 1971.
Elsa married Baron Walter Von Rüxleben. They had one son: Otto.
Otto Von Rüxleben was born on 16 Mar 1911 and died on 7 Oct 1944.
Baroness Marie Therese Von Deichmann was born on 4 Oct 1890 and died on 23 Dec 1980.
Marie married Anton Von Krosigk. 
de Bunsen, Hilda Elizabeth (I033812)
History of the Western Isles
A Chapter from the book "The Western Isles" by Alasdair Alpin MacGregor

THE earliest known references to the Western Isles are those contained in the Sagas; and it is unfortunate that even these are both scanty and vague. It is just possible, however, that in the ancient Irish records there may be allusions one might justifiably regard as referring to them. No written records of pre-Norse times exist.
In the ancient stones of these islands there is much prehistory. The duns and brochs, the menhirs and stone circles, the chambered cairns—all these, though mute enough in one sense, are eloquent in another. It would appear from them as though the Western Isles had been peopled by an organised society long before the Norsemen sailed over to the Scottish Isles—to the Orkneys and the Shetlands, as well as to the Hebrides—to conquer, to take possession, to settle down in numerous communities. The Standing Stones of Callernish were old when Rome was yet unborn, as W. C. MacKenzie puts it in one of the works from which we have already quoted. Ancient structures, such as the broch known as Dun Carloway, were in use centuries, if not millenia, before our northern kingdom became known as Scotland. The subterranean dwellings and stone huts of the Isles must have been very old, indeed, by the time the Scots crossed over from Ireland to Dalriada, in Argyll.
From the eighth century onwards, the Norsemen of Viking times continued to come over the seas and settle in these parts. They came not just as plunderers, ready to depart whenever they had despoiled the countryside: on the contrary, they arrived with the intention of remaining. And they certainly remained some centuries. But for the defeat and destruction of King Haco’s fleet at Largs in 1263, there is no saying how long thereafter the Norse domination of the Western Isles might have continued.
The physical characteristics of the Norsemen are still obvious among the Islanders; and, curiously, although the former did not replace the ancient Gaelic language with their own, they did succeed in bequeathing to the toponomy of these islands several thousands of names which are purely Scandinavian in origin. There is scarcely a geo, or creek, in the Hebridean coast-line without its Norse name, hardly a promontory. In Lewis, however, there are more Gaelic place-names than Norse, though it must be added that, in the case of farm names, the preponderance is the other way.
The Norsemen, when at the height of their power, dominated Scotland’s islands as far south as Arran and Bute. The Kintyre peninsula also came under their sway. It was agreed between Magnus Barefoot and the King of Scotland that the former might claim for Norway any territory on the west coast of Scotland, round which his galley could be steered, and that, in order to embrace Kintyre, he sat at the helm while his warriors dragged his galley over the isthmus linking Kintyre with Knapdale—that is to say, between West and East Lochs Tarbert. If the etymologists be right, it would seem as though the Norsemen were in the habit of transporting their craft across similar isthmuses, such as that between East Loch Tarbert and West Loch Tarbert, in Harris, and possibly the isthmus between Loch Long and Loch Lomond. The Tarberts, or Tarbats (literally, "draw-boats ") were simply shortcuts to avoid the longer journeys by sea.
So thorough was the Norse domination of the Hebrides that they were known among the ancient Gaelic-speaking people of the Highlands as Innse-Gall, the Strangers’ Isles. By this name they are still referred to, collectively, in the Gaelic.
By the time the history of the Western Isles becomes less obscure, five main clans shared them, each having a region of its own. The Clan MacNeil possessed Barra and the isles pertaining thereto. The Uists and Benbecula were the patrimony of the MacDonalds—the brave and adventurous Clan Ranald of the Isles. Harris belonged to the MacLeods of Harris, a branch of the MacLeods of Skye, or of Dunvegan. Lewis was divided between three powerful clans. In Ness, the northern part, the Morisons were in control. In Uig, the western and remotest part, the MacAulays flourished. The rest of the island belonged to the redoubtable MacLeods of Lewis, who, in the early years of the seventeenth century, were displaced by the artful and ambitious MacKenzies, who were, perhaps, a little more civilised. Two other Lewis clans of minor importance ought to be mentioned in passing, namely, the MacIvers, and the MacNicols or Nicolsons. There is a tradition that the latter were in possession of Lewis prior to the MacLeods.
The Maclvers, like the MacRaes and others who are of no great numerical significance in Lewis, are regarded as a fairly recent importation - recent, at all events, in comparison with the MacLeods, the Morisons, and the MacAulays, whose roots were deeply embedded there some centuries earlier. The Maclvers, like the MacLeods and MacAulays, are of Scandinavian origin; and it would appear as though most of them arrived in the island with the MacKenzies, as the MacRaes, a Celtic clan, certainly did. ["The common inhabitants of Lewis," according to an account of Lewis in 1750, are the Morisons, McAulays, and MacKivers, but when they go from home, all who live under Seaforth call themselves MacKenzies."] At the present day, Maclvers are to be found all over Lewis. They used to be most numerous in the neighbourhood of Achmore and Loch Ganavich (Gainmheich) two townships situated about ten miles to the south-west of Stornoway, on the road to Uig. Some twenty years ago, relatives living in Lewis took me on a visit to an old crofter named Maclver, living in a tumbledown, thatched cottage not far from the roadside at Loch Ganavich. This old man was regarded in Lewis as the Chief of the Clan Maclver—a piece of harmless nonsense, I had better add, lest some reader should feel himself called upon to initiate a newspaper correspondence, as the Scots are so prone to do in matters of clan-ship and genealogy. The Maclvers, one may safely say, had no chief in the accepted sense.
To this day, these seven surnames—MacNeil, MacDonald, MacLeod, Morison, MacAulay, Maclver, and Nicolson—are by far the commonest in the Western Isles; and to a large extent they have retained their ancient geographical distribution. MacKenzies, of course, are to be found all over Lewis, and especially in and around the town of Stornoway, where the first contingents of them landed early in the seventeenth century.
There are other surnames well known in the Western Isles, of course, among which might be mentioned MacAskill, and MacSweyn or MacSween. The name, MacAskill, is indeed ancient. In the Annals of Ulster, in 1171, one reads of "Ascall, son of Torcall, King of Ath-Cliath". Then the name of one, Gilbert MacAskill, appears in 1311 in connection with lands included in the bishopric of Durham. Askill is a name of Norse origin.
Of an origin no less ancient are the MacSweyns, if we believe their progenitor to have been Sweyn Asleifsson, one of the last of the Vikings. Somewhere about the year 1160, this illustrious sea-rover and all his men were ambushed and killed at Dublin, which they had captured and sacked. Sweyn was quite a common Scandinavian name.
And one might just add a word or two about my own surname, proudest and most romantic of any, if I may be forgiven for reminding you of this. MacGregors are not numerous in the Western Isles. They are to be found almost exclusively in Lewis, where a fugitive from Perthshire—from Loch Katrine-side—sought refuge in the days when the Clan Gregor was persecuted, and the very name of MacGregor proscribed. This fugitive settled in the west of the island, at a place called Tolsta Chaolais, by the shores of Loch Roag. The small colony of MacGregors still residing there are descended from him; and so am I.
How far the island clans were of None or of Celtic origin or how far an admixture of both, it is impossible to say. Their descendants in the Isles at the present day exhibit marked characteristics of both. The Norse were like sandwiched between two layers of Celts. Then there were, at all times, the descendants of the prehistoric people, still much in evidence in some parts of Lewis, especially in the parish of Barvas, where one finds traces of the Iberians.
Besides the descendants of the Norse, whose Scandinavian characteristics are obvious, the main body of the Western Islesmen is composed of Celtic stock, Gaelic in speech. In certain parts of Lewis, too, descent is traceable from the short, however, a serious feud between the Morisons and the MacLeods took root. It began as a minor domestic dispute, but eventually involved both clans in their entirety. This feud, prosecuted by both sides with the utmost zeal and ferocity, led to the decline and ultimate ruin of the MacLeods.
In mediaeval times, and even subsequently, the Brieves were greatly respected in Lewis. Their verdicts were accepted as final: their knowledge of ancient law and usage was never questioned. Indeed, where matters juridical were concerned, they held a position almost identical with that of the Brehons in Ireland. The basis of their jurisprudence was the eric. That is to say, the compensations paid by offenders judged guilty. The eric corresponded with the Welsh galanas, and with the Teutonic weregild. To the Brieve went an eleventh part of the compensation claimed. To the relatives of the victim, as in the case of murder, went the remainder, after the chief had taken what he considered to be his share.
Of course, in this somewhat primitive and arbitrary administration of justice there must have been much that, to-day, we should regard as highly improper. Yet, the position of the hereditary brieve continued unchallenged in Lewis for many a generation. Eventually, it was displaced by the system of heritable jurisdiction. This increased enormously the power and authority of the chiefs, with their right of pit and gallows. Indeed, it is more than probable that justice, as administered in Lewis by the Brieves, was much closer to our modern concept of what constitutes justice than was that of many a chief exercising his authority as a hereditary judicator.
For all this, the Brieve-ship survived long after it had become an anachronism, as did also the principle of hereditary jurisdiction. The latter, long before its abolition, which followed the final defeat of the Jacobites at Culloden, had become intolerable, as had, in fact, many another remnant of feudalism, swept away about the same time. Such power in the hands of a cruel and unscrupulous chief, as so many of them were, must have resulted in untold misery and oppression. We like the romantic idea that the chiefs of old were all generous and magnanimous men. But this idea is soon demolished when one delves into the social and domestic history of the times. They were good and bad, just like the rest of us, though some of them were excessively bad.
The Brieve was to be found elsewhere than in Lewis. It would appear that, during the heyday of the Lords of the Isles, every island of any size and importance had its own Brieve, whose powers, however, may not have been quite so extensive as those exercised by the Morisons. Such judges acted in matters of local import. Where minor disputes were concerned, they probably had complete autonomy. In the days of the Lords of the Isles, the principle Brieve in the Hebrides resided in Islay, southernmost of the Inner Isles. As there seems to have been a right of appeal to him, he was, in effect, what W. C. MacKenzie suggests, namely, Lord Chief Justice of the Isles.’
Remnants of the species of justice obtaining in the Western Isles in the days of the Brieves survived there, at any rate in spirit, long after these hereditary judges had become but a historical memory. MacKenzie cites the case of a sheep-stealer who, in 1788, was placarded and led through the streets of Stornoway by the common executioner, to receive, upon his bare back, and at each of five appointed places, no fewer than ten lashes. What the culprit must have looked like, and felt like, at the last stance, if indeed he were capable of feeling anything at all, one must leave to the imagination. Of course, we do very much the same sort of thing in our prisons at the present day, with this difference, that the flogging now takes place in camera, a provision which, in my view, greatly hinders fundamental penal reform.
Banishment, either for life or for a long period of years, usually followed public whippings for such offences as sheep-stealing which, in olden times, was considered as heinous an offence as anyone could commit.
A woman convicted of theft in 1820 was sentenced to be led from prison by a rope tied round her neck, and to carry on her breast a placard proclaiming her, in large letters, to be a habitual and reputed thief. Thereafter she was put in the pillory for a couple of hours. Her sentence included seven years’ banishment.
Traditions concerning the Brieves persist in Lewis to this day, especially in Ness, where they lived and functioned. The folk-tales of this island are full of references to them, as also to the instances in which they and their Morison clansmen came to bloody blows, either with the MacLeods or with the MacAulays.
The Brieves are also remembered in Sutherland-shire, where Morison is by no means an uncommon surname. Indeed, one of the several islets situated off Eddrachillis, a coastal parish in the north-west of the county, is named Eilean a’ Bhreitheimh, the Brieve’s Island. Here, towards the close of the sixteenth century, were interred the bowels of John Morison, Brieve of Lewis at the time. Morison and a handful of his henchmen, while in Assynt, came to daggers with a party of MacLeods. All the Morisons were slain in this encounter, which appears to have been one in which the MacLeods were anxious to get even for some insult they had suffered. Now the galley, aboard which the Brieve’s body was placed, attempted to sail for Lewis; but contrary winds cast her ashore on this isle. There, according to tradition, the corpse was disembowelled, and the bowels buried.
The other great tribe of undoubted Lewis origin is the Clan MacAulay. It occupied the wild and remote west of the island—that part of it known as Uig. Aulay, of course,. is really the Norse, Olaf, or Olave; and there is reason for believing, therefore, that the MacAulays have a Norse ancestry similar to that of the MacLeods. It is the proud boast of the Lewis MacAulays that the forebears of one of the most distinguished of their name—Thomas Babington MacAulay—lived at Breidhnis, a crofting township by the Atlantic seaboard of Uig. The ruins of their humble home are still pointed out by the older inhabitants. At the present time, MacAulays are almost as numerous in Uig as are Morisons in Ness.
Of the internecine struggles in the Western Isles one might write much. They would appear to have been the principal concern of the inhabitants, continuously, throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It is doubtful whether anywhere else in Britain, in historic times, so much blood was spilt in proportion to the population. Warfare between the Miorisons and the MacLeods was no less ferocious than that between the Morisons and the MacAulays. Even more sanguinary however, was the protracted feud between the MacDonalds and the MacLeans, conducted in the more southerly of the Hebrides. In fact, the history both of the Inner and of the Outer Hebrides at this period is almost solely confined to clan rivalry and inter-family machinations, and to the appalling waste and misery they occasioned. These are too numerous and complicated to be of interest for our present purpose. They may be studied in appropriate detail in MacKenzie’s monumental work, The History of the Outer Hebrides, or in his Book of the Lews.
It should be added, nevertheless, that all this strife and bloodshed are the foundation of an enormous amount of island legendary, folk-tale, and tradition. Conspicuous among the recorders of these, and perhaps the most indefatigable prior to the present century, was John Morrison. (He spells his name with an extra r, although the Morisons of the islands usually have only one.) John Morrison was born in Harris in 1787. Most of his youth was spent in Uig, in which parish he was, for a time, a schoolmaster. Uig was then unbelievably remote. Immense moorland, diversified with lochs and swamps, isolated it from the rest of the Northern Hebrides. Among the valleys intervening between its lovely hills, or by such stretches of its Atlantic seaboard as allowed of a certain amount of fishing and crofting, its inhabitants lived very much inter se—very much as a people apart. Only when foraging on neighbours’ territories did its men-folk leave their own confines. This isolation meant that the ceilidh (the social gathering, usually held round the peat-fire in the evening, for the telling of folk-tales and the singing of folk-songs) remained the sole venue of social intercourse at a time when, perhaps, its importance was already diminishing elsewhere. At the Uig ceilidhs John Morrison, in early manhood, was afforded the unique opportunity of hearing many a story recounted in the ancient, traditional fashion of the Isles. These he diligently noted down.
Morrison eventually removed to the town of Stornoway, where he was employed none too felicitously as a shop-assistant. Later he earned a livelihood there as a cooper. He was the father of twelve children, and he died in 1834, at the age of forty-seven. He occupied his spare time in collecting, collating, and recording such traditions as were then to be found abundantly in the Western Isles. The result of his labours, as we can now appreciate, has been most gratifying, particularly when we consider the handicaps under which he must have worked. He possessed no desk of any kind. His MSS., now bound in seven volumes, and containing nearly a hundred stories of varying length, were written with "only a board across his knees". They represent a colossal amount of industry and applications of which those of us belonging to, or interested in, the Western Isles cannot be too appreciative, for he rescued from oblivion much to which we now have access. His MSS. were entitled:
The Conflicts of the Western Highlanders; or the
Various and Repeated Struggles of the Most
Illustrious Heroes of the Isles of Lewis, Harris,
Uist, Barra, as well as of the Mainland, Skye,
Eigg, Mull, etc.
The Various Forays committed by the Clans upon
each other, and how the same were resented,
bravely repulsed, or retaliated; during a period of
263 years.
On Morrison’s death, these MSS. passed into the possession of Captain Thomas, R.N., a careful and enthusiastic antiquary who, about 1880, contributed to the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland two lengthy papers based upon them. Later, they became the property of Sir Arthur Mitchell, another noted antiquary and archaeologist. On Mitchell’s death they were sold to the firm from whom W. C. MacKenzie, mentioned so often in these pages, bought them. MacKenzie appropriately presented them to the public library in his native town of Stornoway, where they are accessible to anyone who may care to consult them.
The impoverishment of the Western Isles by clan and tribal strife may well be imagined. Murder and rapine were the order of the day. Lawlessness and destitution stalked the land. This was as much the case in Barra and the Uists as it was in Lewis and Harris. Yet, the Islanders, on their limited and precarious resources, managed to conduct warfare abroad as well as at home. Fifteenth-century records are full of their exploits elsewhere than in and about their own particular isles. They raided the Scottish mainland frequently, and on more than one occasion visited the Orkneys with fire and sword. Under the banner of Donald, Lord of the Isles, who claimed the Earldom of Ross, the MacLeods of Lewis and of Harris fought at Harlaw in 1411.
Scarcely a home in the Western Isles was not affected by the feud between John, Lord of the Isles, and Angus, his bellicose son. This feud, one of the bitterest in the annals of the Western Highlands and Islands, came to issue in that sanguinary sea-fight, the Battle of Bloody Bay, where Angus defeated his father. In this contest, the heir to MacLeod of Lewis was mortally wounded, and MacLeod of Harris was killed. Both of them fought on the losing side.
During the sixteenth century, things went from bad to worse in the Long Island. Notorious among the leaders of disorder was Roderic, almost the last of the MacLeods of Lewis. It was he who, according to Donald Monro, High Dean of the Isles, was in the habit of retiring to Pabbay, an isle in Loch Roag, "quhen he wald be quyeit, or yet fearit ". [Description of the Western Isles of Scotland called Hybrides (circa 1549). Published from the manuscript in 1774 by William Auld, Edinburgh.]
Roderic lived to a great age, despite his arduous and adventurous life. In an official document dated 1593 (written about the time of his death) he is alluded to as an old man "famous for the massacring of his own kinsmen".
It is not surprising that Roderic should have been one of the chiefs whom James the Fifth was anxious to interview during the royal expedition to the Western Isles in 1540. This expedition, as an authority already quoted so often puts it, had a close analogy to the sporting adventure. "The King was like a Saxon sportsman in modern times, who stalks ensure that, hereafter, there should be some reasonable prospect of his being able to collect from the MacLeods certain dues, such as maill and greffum, to which the Crown was entitled, and of which, for many a year, it had been deprived. So the Fife Adventurers, or the Gentlemen Adventurers from Fife, as they are sometimes called, made their first expedition to Lewis late in 1598, in an endeavour to gain a permanent footing there. Though they took Stornoway Castle, they were unable to make much headway. The hostility of the Islanders, now banded together against them under the leadership of the intrepid Neil MacLeod, one of Roderic’s five bastard sons, soon proved to the would-be colonists that they would have to abandon their enterprise, at any rate for the time being.
In 1605 they made a second attempt; but again Neil was able to organise sufficient local opposition to render their permanent settlement impracticable, if indeed it did not entail their slow extermination. Four years later, the Fifers made their final bid to establish themselves in Lewis, and to bring the island and its none too lucrative resources under their control. Again they failed.
All this time, the wily Kenneth MacKenzie of Kintail had been waiting an opportunity of making good his own claim to Lewis. The opportunity came in 1610 when, with the collapse of the Fife Adventurers’ third attempt, they sold to him their charter rights in Lewis, and also such rights as they had in the Trotternish district of Skye. Just before their final debacle, Kenneth had been raised to the peerage, ostensibly for the assistance the Crown imagined he had given to the Fifers in their struggle against the lawless and dauntless MacLeods. As Lord Kintail, and with the support of his brother, Roderic, he landed in Lewis with a strong contingent of his clansmen. In a short time the island was under his control, though for a year or two Neil, the last of the MacLeods of Lewis, held out. Neil and a number of his confederates eventually took refuge on the islet known as Berisay, in Loch Roag, which they fortified, and from which they pursued a reckless career as pirates. The story of their ultimate dislodgement from Berisay, and of how Neil himself went to his execution "verie christianlie", is narrated in the chapter dealing more particularly with the several attempts that have been made to improve the island of Lewis economically, since the days of the Gentlemen Adventurers.
The MacLeods of Lewis, hapless as they were feckless, now disappear from the history of the Western Isles, although from time to time thereafter they engineered spasmodic insurrections, and gave trouble through their piratical behaviour. They had been in possession of Lewis for three-and-a-half centuries.
Lord Kintail soon proved himself to be a conqueror who was both competent and conscientious. In matters of administration, he was as efficient as his predecessors had been incapable. He took over the control of the whole of the island. This was an onerous undertaking, as one realises from contemporary documents. The chaos and conflict he found there can scarcely be imagined. All respect for authority had gone. Murder and robbery were the order of the day. With the help of clansmen from Wester Ross—from Kintail and the surrounding country—MacKenzie and his successor, Colin, first Earl of Seaforth, earnestly strove to introduce some measure of civilisation into an island that, hitherto, had known little, if indeed any. Yet it seemed impossible to do this without recourse to methods of extreme stringency. At the outset, therefore, he assigned to his brother, Roderic MacKenzie (known as the Tutor of Kintail, which was the title given to the heir’s guardian) the task of bringing the rebellious MacLeods completely under his control.
Roderic was as bold and resolute a fellow as was to have been found anywhere. By one means or another, he had already proved himself more than a match for those who had tried to circumvent his clansmen in attaining the ambition upon which their hearts had long been set, namely, the taking over of the island of Lewis for their own purposes. It was he who, by stratagem, dislodged from Berisay that desperado, Neil MacLeod, together with his sea-rieving band, and in so doing broke the back of all serious resistance to the Clan Kenneth - to the Clan MacKenzie.
It may be said of the MacKenzies that they applied themselves conscientiously to the bettering of the island. During the two-and-a-half centuries they remained its overlords, the condition of the inhabitants improved out of all recognition. "At the end of the seventeenth century," writes W. C. MacKenzie, "the picture we have of Lewis is that of a people pursuing their avocations in peace, but not in plenty. The Seaforths had been extravagant, and the people had to pay for their extravagance; they were politicians, and the people had to suffer for their politics. Yet it is clear that, besides establishing orderly government in the island, they had done a good deal to rescue the people from the slough of ignorance and incivility in which they found themselves immersed. But in the sphere of economics their policy apparently was of little service to the community."
Certainly, the closing years of the seventeenth century and the first few decades of the eighteenth saw considerable poverty and wretchedness among the inhabitants. To his report in 1721 that they were amenable to the government’s authority, Zachary MacAulay, Seaforth’s Chamberlain in Lewis, appends the following rider: "But I can assure yee, yee shall find one rugged hag that will resist both King and Government, vizt., Poverty."
It cannot be doubted that this poverty, by no means confined to the Outer Hebrides, was greatly accentuated by the wholesale spoliation of one clan by another. Where there was no security against rievings and raidings by neighbours, there could be little foundation upon which to build an economy calculated to improve the conditions of the people. The whole of Celtic Scotland (that is to say, the Highlands, as well as the Western Isles) remained impoverished by this kind of thing long after the Lowlands were settling down to civilised habits and peaceful pursuits. Theft from a member of one’s own clan was considered an offence of the utmost gravity, whereas theft from someone belonging to another clan was not merely excused, but extolled. It was regarded as right and proper. Indeed, the greater such theft, the more commendable. The larger the spreagh driven off in some murderous foray, the more did the chief and his clansmen approve this mode of acquisition. But the clan enriched to-day by such means might be the clan reduced to-morrow to direst straits. However, as long as the ordinary people were buoyed up with the notion that retaliation would more than recoup them for any loss they had sustained, this reckless attitude to life continued.
In Barra and in Uist there existed a similar state of affairs. The MacNeils and the Clan Ranald spent much of their time in despoiling one another, or, perhaps, in despoiling their neighbours on the Scottish mainland. Both of these clans had their pirates; and, indeed, it was doubtful at one time which of them was to gain the mastery of the island seas. The tide of fortune ebbed and flowed between them for many a day. In the end, the MacNeils won. There was a period during which the piratical enterprises of the Chiefs of Barra exercised not merely James the Sixth of Scotland and Queen Elizabeth of England, but also the courts of France, of Spain, of Portugal. With the NacNeils, piracy was a highly organised profession during the closing years of the sixteenth century, and the first decade or two of the seventeenth. Reprisals led to reprisals, as reprisals always do, until in the end there arises a state of utter desperation and callousness. We have only to look at our own twentieth century to realise the truth of this; and, having done so, we can scarcely feel ourselves justified in criticising the conduct of the clans in earlier and, presumably, less enlightened centuries.
From such records as are available, it would appear as though the condition of the inhabitants of the Western Isles at the end of the eighteenth century showed little improvement upon that obtaining at the end of the seventeenth. The Rev. John Lane Buchanan, who visited the Long Island at this time, paints in his Travels in the Hebrides a pathetic picture of circumstances there. The tacksmen, or tenant farmers, had reduced their sub-tenants to a state of abject misery. Especially was this so in Harris. Lane’s testimony is supported by others.
On the whole, it seems as though conditions in North Uist and in Barra were slightly better at this time. Lord Mac-Donald in the former, and MacNeil in the latter, were pursuing a policy designed to reduce the size of the tacksmen’s holdings, and to substitute for the somewhat arbitrary tenure then prevailing a system devised to give greater security to the ordinary inhabitants.
In Lewis the Seaforths had done little to rescue agriculture, if indeed it could ever be rescued in the true agricultural sense. They were too preoccupied with their richer possessions on the Highland mainland to be much bothered with an island, the climatic and natural conditions of which, in their view, offered little prospect of a return on capital they might have sunk in it. They, therefore, tended to regard Lewis as a sort of romantic adjunct; and, albeit they had done something to replace with a better conception of society the former lawlessness based on mutual pillage, their neglect had serious repercussions. True, they could not have been held responsible for the weather, nor for the failure of crops largely resulting therefrom, nor yet for an increase in the native population in excess of what the island, in its primitive condition, was able to support. On the other hand, there was much within their power which they might have done to ameliorate the poverty of the people.
The only member of the family to show any real concern for the welfare of the island was the last Lord Seaforth. He did much to improve the town of Stornoway by extensive building schemes. He encouraged fishing and agriculture, and did his best to wean the natives from many of their less economical methods of tillage. He developed the burning of kelp, built roads as well as houses, and took an interest in education. He even resided for some months of the year in Lewis, a matter which helped considerably, for it is difficult to estimate the harm which, throughout many generations, absentee landlordism has wrought in the Highlands and Hebrides. Indeed, it has been as great a curse as alcohol! Of the Islanders’ long-standing partiality to the bottle, you will hear something later.
It was during the Seaforths’ tenure of Lewis that there took place in Britain two events of major political and historical significance, which had far-reaching repercussions even in the Western Isles. The first of these occurred during the Cromwellian period. The other was the series of attempts, known as the Jacobite Risings, made during the earlier half of the eighteenth century to restore the Stewarts to the throne. Hitherto, the Isles had played little part in Scotland’s political intrigues. Trouble they certainly had given to the central authority, as we have seen; but at no time previously had the conduct of the island chiefs threatened the security of the established order by their taking sides with the not inconsiderable forces sworn to oppose and, if possible, overthrow it.
George, second Earl of Seaforth, had spent much of his active life in opportunist ways. His sympathies were divided. At one moment he showed himself a half-hearted Royalist: at another a half-hearted Covenanter. At Auldearn in 1645, however, he supported the Covenanters, when Montrose routed them, decimating the large contingent of Lewismen Seaforth had brought with him into the field. In the end, he joined Montrose; and he died a Royalist.
Five years after Auldearn, the national levy reached the Hebrides. There the historic cry, "For King and Covenant", found many a sympathiser, which explained, among other things, how Colonel Norman MacLeod of Bernera, in Harris, fought at the Battle of Worcester with a force of MacLeods believed to have been a thousand strong.
That year—1651—Earl George died. He was succeeded by his son, Kenneth Mor, third Earl of Seaforth. Kenneth, then a lad of sixteen, and full of the fervour of his years, was even more Royalist in his sympathies than his father had been. He was prominent among those who refused to submit to the dictates of General Monk, then commanding in Scotland on behalf of the Commonwealth. The young Earl was by no means in a negligible position, for by this time the Seaforths had waxed powerful—so much so that in a Commonwealth news-sheet it was said of them that in Lewis they "played Rex". It was known that, at a moment’s notice, Kenneth Mor could muster several hundred men. That, in itself, was regarded as some threat to the Commonwealth, and doubly so when, with the outbreak of hostilities between the Commonwealth and Holland, the young Earl disclosed his Royalist sympathies by openly supporting the latter. The danger that the Royalist clans might cooperate with the Dutch was one with which the Commonwealth dealt promptly. Thus the Western Isles were fortified by English garrisons against the possibility of a Dutch occupation. Attempts to dislodge the garrison in Lewis were unsuccessful. Cromwellian troops remained in Stornoway until all Highland and Island resistance to the Commonwealth had either been crushed, or had petered out. During their stay in the island, they built for themselves a fort, not a trace of which remains. Before finally quitting Lewis, they reduced to ruins old Stornoway Castle, once the stronghold of the MacLeods.
Peace between the Commonwealth and the Dutch came so unexpectedly that it "did strike all dead". It placed young Seaforth in a position so invidious that, before long, he was obliged to seek conciliation with the English.
Not in all Scotland was there a man more rigorously opposed to the accession of William and Mary than the Romanist, Kenneth Og, or Young Kenneth, fourth Earl of Seaforth. After the Revolution, he steadfastly espoused the cause of the exiled James, who in course of time created him Marquis of Seaforth in recognition of his services. In 1689 Kenneth Og landed with James in Ireland, where he took part in a number of Jacobite enterprises, including the siege of Londonderry. When he crossed over to Scotland, in order to assist in the Jacobite Rising there, ill-fortune attended him. Circumstances compelled him to surrender to the Government. He was afterwards granted his release on finding caution for himself and for some of those who had been associated with him in his rebellious behaviour. The year, 1691, saw him once more in conflict with the government; and a year later he was arraigned for treason "for his invasion with forces from Ireland, and his behaviour since". Until 1697 he was a prisoner in Inverness Castle. On his release, he went to France, where he died in 1701.
Kenneth Og’s misfortunes in no way cooled the Jacobite ardour of his son, Uilleam Dubh, or Black William, who, when still a lad, succeeded him as fifth Earl of Seaforth. William, like his father, was a Catholic, so that everything he stood for seemed bound up with the interests of the Old Chevalier. So whole-heartedly did he throw himself into the Jacobite cause that, in the summer of 1715, he was attainted for treason, and his estates were forfeited to the Crown. No one was more active in ‘The Fifteen’ than he. With a force of two thousand foot and five hundred hone, he joined the Earl of Mar, and fought at Sheriffmuir, where many a Jacobite Islander fell, prominent amongst them being young Clanranald, a chief of much promise, and dearly beloved by his clansmen. So indecisive was this battle that the Jacobites were hopeful of yet another opportunity of proving their loyalty to the Stewarts. That opportunity came soon afterwards, when the Old Chevalier himself landed in Scotland, and Seaforth and Sir Donald MacDonald of North Uist took a leading part in the abortive measures that followed the Battle of Sheriffmuir.
Seaforth’s participation in ‘The Fifteen’ had made things pretty unsafe for him, even in Lewis, which was now occupied by a Hanoverian garrison in order to restrain him and his partisans, just as the Cromwellian garrison had restrained his grandfather. So he betook himself to France, the country where so many of the more prominent Jacobites had found asylum. But he returned to Scotland to take a leading part in ‘The Nineteen’, the plans for which Rising were actually laid at Seaforth Lodge, on the site of which Lewis Castle now stands. At the Battle of Glen Shiel, where, yet again, the Jacobites were routed, Seaforth fought bravely, and was badly wounded. He left the field accompanied by Tullibardine and George Keith, and remained in hiding until he managed to escape to France once more. In 1726 he returned to Scotland, when he was granted a pardon. His adherence to the Jacobite cause had cost him dearly; and there is no saying what it must have cost his poor tenants in Lewis. His property was taken over by the Commissioners and Trustees of Forfeited Estates, to be administered with the object of reducing the enormous debts incurred in these Jacobite ventures of his.
In 1740 William, fifth Earl of Seaforth, died in Lewis, attainted; and it is believed that he was buried within the old Church of St. Columb, at Eye—at Aignish—near Stornoway, among the Chiefs of the old MacLeods of Lewis, whom his ancestors had so successfully dispossessed.
Little wonder that Earl William’s son, Kenneth, kept clear of Jacobite politics! Five years after his father’s death, ‘The Firty-five’ was upon Scotland. Kenneth was resolved not to be drawn into it, which meant that the island of Lewis was in no way involved in the last and greatest endeavour of the Jacobites to recover their throne. This gave the inhabitants some respite, which they greatly needed. It may be remembered that, when Prince Charlie and his faithful pilot, Donald MacLeod of Gualtergill, landed near Stornoway after Culloden, the townsfolk showed them open hostility, fearing, no doubt, lest they might again be embroiled in circumstances like those which, but thirty years earlier, had placed upon them and their resources so heavy a strain.
Although Lewis took no active part in ‘The Forty-five’, the more southerly of the Western Isles did. Barra, Benbecula, and South Uist were all Catholic in religion, and Jacobite in sympathy. Their people succoured the Prince during his wanderings; and from South Uist came the heroine who, more than anyone else, enabled him to reach the French privateer which bore him away to permanent exile.
The opening years of the nineteenth century found the Seaforths so much in debt, and their properties so heavily entailed, that in the spring of 1825 the Island of Lewis, excepting the parish of Stornoway, was exposed for judicial sale in Edinburgh. The sale realised £10o,000, more than £22,000 in excess of the upset price. The purchaser was Mr. Stewart-MacKenzie. He retained it for nineteen years. In 1844 it passed finally from the ownership of the Seaforths, whose connection with it had lasted two hundred and thirty-four years, during which period their influence on the tenantry of the island had been great, and, on the whole, beneficial. During their suzerainty, the name of Seaforth had become synonymous with Lewis, and Lewis had become synonymous with Seaforth. Memories of them persist in the island, where still reside many of the name of MacKenzie. They took their title from Loch Seaforth, that long, narrow sea-loch penetrating far inland between Harris and Park, or Pairc, the southernmost parish of Lewis. And we must not forget that they raised the Seaforth Highlanders, the county regiment of Ross and Cromarty.
It was in 1787 that, in an endeavour to attract recruits to the army, Lord Seaforth first offered to raise, for the King’s service, a regiment from his own estates. Not until 1793, however, on the outbreak of war with France, was he permitted to do so, with himself as Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant. At his bidding, notices of a recruiting campaign were posted throughout the county, and also in the Island of Lewis, encouraging "all lads of true Highland blood" to sign on for a period of service, such as would afford them an opportunity of dealing "a stroke at the Monsieurs". The response was immediate. Recruits came in so rapidly that within a few months Lieutenant-General Sir Hector Munro was able to inspect the first battalion of them at Fort George. Encouraged by this notable achievement, Seaforth sought permission the following year to raise a second battalion. After some vexatious delay, permission was granted; and the regiment became known as the Ross-shire Buffs. In 1796 the Seaforth Highlanders had their beginnings, when Seaforth’s two battalions were amalgamated to form the second battalion of the Seaforth Highlanders, a regiment largely recruited from Lewis, not only at that time, but also during the two major wars of the present century.
Though Seaforth did not actually accompany the regiment overseas, his services to king and country in connection with it were recognised in 1797, when he was raised to the peerage of the United Kingdom by the titles of Lord Seaforth and Baron MacKenzie of Kintail. He also became Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Ross; and for six years (1800-1806) he administered Barbadoes. In 1808 he was made a lieutenant-general.
Ever since those days, the martial tradition of Lewis has been associated with the exploits of the Seaforth Highlanders, just as the martial tradition of the remainder of the Outer Hebrides (Harris, North and South Uist, Benbecula, and Barra) has been associated with those of the Cameron Highlanders, the county regiment of Inverness. The proportion of Lewismen serving with the Seaforths during the two wars of the present century was indeed high. Such of the islanders as were not already serving in the Navy, primarily through their connection with the Naval Reserve, were to be found in one of the several battalions of the Seaforths.
The MacKenzie origin of the regiment is perpetuated in the tartan it still wears, which is the MacKenzie tartan, and in its crest and motto, which are those of the MacKenzies of Seaforth—the cabar feidh, or deer’s antlers, with the motto, Cuidich ‘n Righ! Help the King! Crest and motto are said to have had their origin in the tradition concerning Colin Fitzgerald, the legendary founder of the Clan MacKenzie. Colin, in answer to a summons for help, rushed forward and rescued the King of Scotland (according to legend, Alexander the Third) from an infuriated stag which had attacked him. This legend has been conveyed to canvas by Benjamin West, from whose oil painting the famous engraver, Bartolozzi, perpetuated the legend in his fine engraving of the supposed event.
In 1844 the Seaforths were succeeded in Lewis by the Mathesons. That year, Mr. (later Sir) James Sutherland Matheson, a native of Achany, in Sutherland, who had made a considerable fortune in the East (he was one of the founders of the house of Jardine, Matheson, & Co.) purchased the island from the trustees of the Seaforth Estates for the sum of £190,000. In May, 1844, Mrs. Stewart-MacKenzie, the previous proprietor, brought before Parliament a Bill for "investing in trustees certain parts of the entailed estates of Seaforth to be sold, and the price applied in payment of entailers’ debts, and the surplus laid out in the purchase of other lands; for enabling the heiress in possession to borrow a sum of money on the credit of the said entailed estates; and for other purposes connected therewith ". The Bill passed both Houses of Parliament, and two months later it received the Royal Assent. In this wise, Lewis, an island which had had so many ups and downs, passed from the gay and historic Seaforths to the Mathesons.
For many years, Sir James Matheson sat as Member of Parliament for Ross and Cromarty. With the handsome fortune he had behind him, he sought to improve Lewis in a variety of ways, and to an extent hitherto undreamed of. The financial outlay his schemes entailed was enormous. In 1878 he died without issue, leaving to his widow the life-rent of the heritable estate. Lady Matheson survived her husband by eighteen years, during which she endeared herself to the Islanders. She was not so popular, however, as was her mother, Mrs. Percival, of whose goodness the oldest inhabitants still speak as though she had just departed from their midst. In Stornoway, especially, Mrs. Percival is remembered for her munificence in large ways, and her generosity in small. Her name survives in Percival Square, where the island’s pipe band, in colourful regalia, disports itself in the summer evenings.
When Lady Matheson died in 1896, her estate, in virtue of the entail, passed to her husband’s nephew, Mr. Donald Matheson, who, three years later, and two years before his death in 1901, handed it over to his son, the late Lieutenant-Colonel Duncan Matheson, my father’s friend and contemporary.
The Mathesons’ connection with Lewis came to an end in 1918, the year in which Colonel Matheson was constrained to sell the island to Lord Leverhulme. They had been in possession for less than three-quarters of a century. Yet, they had built up between themselves and the Islanders a bond of affection and esteem so largely absent elsewhere in the Outer Hebrides, as between proprietor and people.
Lord Leverhulme’s advent looked promising at the outset. I well remember his discussing with my father in Edinburgh the projects he had in mind. The latter assured him that, whereas it was doubtful whether he would ever live to take a penny out of Lewis, he would find in its peat-mosses ample scope for sinking a million or two. However, Leverhulme was not to be discouraged by such frank talk, for he was a visionary as well as a man who had been highly successful in the world of business. For the failure of his gigantic schemes in the Long Island (in Harris as well as in Lewis) he was little to blame, as we shall see later. An unfortunate concatenation of circumstances obliged him to abandon Lewis and all his vast works then in progress there, and to devote himself to the development of Harris instead. In Harris he began to sink wealth as he had been doing in Lewis. Not until after his death in 1925 were his Harris projects brought to an end.
Leverhulme was not the last benefactor to arrive in Lewis with ideas as to how the island’s resources might be tapped, and the condition of the islanders materially improved in consequence. Scarcely had he shaken the dust of Stornoway from his brogues when there arrived on the scene from Canada the late Thomas Basset MacAulay, of Montreal, grandson of a Lewisman, and a descendant of the MacAulays of Uig, to whom we alluded earlier. MacAulay had the romantic notion that the island of his fathers possessed considerable agricultural possibilities, if only it could be reclaimed from peat. This idea was no new one, even where Lewis was concerned. Had not Sir James Matheson brought to Lewis Alexander Smith, that celebrated reclaimer of waste land? Smith, who hailed from the Perthshire village of Deanston, is said to have converted many of the bogs of Scotland into fertile farmlands. The Carse of Gowrie is given as an instance of his success in this field as a thoroughly competent agriculturist. But the moors of Lewis proved more intractable than the Carse, even though Sir James placed at Smith’s disposal so handsome a sum of money for their exploitation, if not actually for their reclamation.
There is reason for supposing that Lord Leverhulme (in addition to his believing, as did the Fife Adventurers and others before him, that the prosperity of the island depended on the proper organisation of the fishing industry) was not averse from considering what might have been done by way of land reclamation, and the utilisation of any mineral resources the island might possess. I think he was also interested even in the possibility of exploiting its peat deposits. According to the report on such matters, which was prepared for him by an expert, "Lewis has 710 million tons of peat, containing a valuable proportion of carbon and nitrogen, two of the most crying and essential needs of the day. Is it an asset? What can be the economic contribution of Lewis to the world? Can the peat, before and after use, be profitably cultivated at an expense not materially exceeding that of cultivation on an average soil?"
All these vicissitudes in Lewis throughout the centuries had their repercussions upon the other inhabitants of the Western Isles. The chiefs of the other isles viewed with growing concern, for instance, the fact that a band of Lowlanders had dared to make an attempt to dispossess their Lewis neighbours. Whatever feuds they had amongst themselves, they were united when it came to foreign intervention, such as they certainly regarded this to be. If the Fifers succeeded in gaining a foothold in Lewis, what next? How soon would it be ere they tried to establish similar settlements at Lochipaddy, at Lochboisdale, at Castlebay? If the lure of fish had taken them to Stornoway, how long would it be before the same lure brought them south to Barra, off which lay some lucrative fishing-grounds? They therefore decided that attack was the best defence against any such contingency. To begin with, they did all in their power to hamper the Adventurers from behind the scenes. However, when it looked as though the Adventurers meant to go on trying, they felt themselves called upon to render aid in a form more tangible. Thus, in course of time, contingents of MacNeils from Barra and of MacDonalds from Uist arrived in Stornoway, and attacked the Fifers’ encampment there, committing "barbarous and detestable murthouris and slauchteris upon thame ".
Apart altogether from the temporary fear that they, too, might be invaded by such speculators, matters were anything but agreeable in the more southerly of the Outer Isles. In Barra, the MacNeil chiefs were even more lawless than their subjects. Indeed, they greatly encouraged the latter to follow their example. In South Uist and Benbecula, rival claims by the two principal branches of the powerful Clan Donald kept the country in a constant state of tension. Things were no better in North Uist, where MacDonald of Sleat and MacLeod of Harris strove for the ascendancy. In all this the Crown, to some extent, was involved; but, as a rule, it acted in such matters in the interests of expediency. As it seemed incapable of taking over and pacifying the Isles, it pursued the only course open to it, namely, that of playing the chiefs off against one another as best it could.
Nevertheless, during the opening years of the seventeenth century, the Crown did make some attempt to bring the Western Isles into line. The Statutes of lona were designed solely with this object in view. Yet, the more recalcitrant of the chiefs, in their relations with the Crown, maintained an air of contempt and defiance. Among the worst offenders was Clanranald himself. No statutes were going to curtail him, if he could help it! He meant to continue as he and his proud forebears had always done. He well knew that the Crown’s invitation to a parley was but a prelude to the pruning of his autonomy; and he was resolved to combat remis atque velis---with oars and sails, tooth and nail—any encroachment upon his lawless existence. The mainlanders found him particularly trying. At the instance of the Scottish Burghs, he was summoned to compear before the Privy Council on a charge of interfering with fishermen peacefully pursuing their calling in Hebridean waters. He and his seamen, as is stated in the charge, had made a practice of boarding Lowlanders’ smacks, destroying their nets, and seizing their catches. There is actually recorded an instance in which Clanranald compelled the owner of a fishing-boat he had taken to buy it and its lastage back from him at an extortionate price! For the three lasts of herrings she had aboard her, he demanded one hundred and twenty pounds per last, and for each of the three nets forty pounds.
In order to protect against such unscrupulous conduct the fishermen frequenting the Hebrides, the Council compelled Ruairi (Roderic) MacLeod, Donald Gorm of Sleat, Clanranald of the Isles, Ranald MacAllan of Benbecula, and Sir Lachlan MacKinnon of Strath to enter into a bond that they would behave themselves, and at the same time see that others did so too. The first of them openly to break this bond was Clanranald. So in 1625 Ruairi MacLeod, "all excuissis sett asyde", was directed by the Council to assist in bringing him to account. Ruairi was none too willing to cooperate in such an undertaking, since Clanranald happened to be his son-in-law, and a good fellow-pirate to boot. But the Council, distrustful of Ruairi, and not without reason, made it plain to him that in no way could he "eshaip the weyght of his Majesteis arme". Under pain of heavy penalty, therefore, it was determined to enforce his compliance with this direction, for he had given a deal of trouble, and the Council’s patience was now exhausted. Only a month or two previously, he had been held responsible, along with Clanranald and MacLean of Coll, for fostering piracy in the Hebrides.
In face of Ruairi’s record, it is comical that, in August, 1622, a letter should have been addressed to the Privy Council, on behalf of himself and his son-in-law, complaining of the hardships it had imposed. Ruairi found it irksome that, in such a "dilectable tyme of peax", he should be obliged to enter an appearance annually before the Council for his good behaviour! He even went so far as to petition the Council to be permitted to stay at home, undisturbed and unmolested, for the next seven years, so that he might improve his property, and thus pay his clamouring creditors. As Clanranald’s financial position was even worse, Ruairi petitioned on his behalf that he might be immune for seven-and-a-half years from all civil actions brought against him in respect of the monies he owed. They were anything but blate, those unruly chiefs of the Western Isles!
It was at this time that the MacLeods, the MacNeils and the MacDonalds resorted to wholesale piracy, robbing ships of wines and spirits, and carousing and quarrelling for days thereafter. One of the Privy Council’s main indictments against the islanders in 1622 was that they seized any cargo of wine, and spent "bothe dayis and nightis in thair excesse of drinking ". The Council therefore enacted that masters of vessels should carry no more wines to the Isles. It has been suggested that, as a result of this and similar measures, which were calculated to reduce insobriety, the islanders may have first resorted to a practice for which they long remained notorious—the illicit distilling of whisky. When the wines of France and Spain were no longer procurable, either through peaceful trading or through piracy, they may have turned with determination to whisky, Scotland’s national beverage, and her greatest curse, even at the present day.
The first half of the nineteenth century saw great changes in the ownership of the various islands comprising the Outer Hebrides. With those affecting Lewis, we have already dealt in some detail. In 1834 MacLeod of Harris sold his patrimony to the Earl of Dunmore for roughly £60,000. In 1868 Dunmore sold North Harris to the Scotts. In 1858 General MacNeil, last of the MacNeils of Barra, sold his estate to Lleutenant-Colonel John Gordon of Cluny. Soon afterwards, both South Uist and Benbecula were in the market; and in 1856 North Uist, the last island of any size to remain in the hands of its old proprietors, was sold by Lord MacDonald to Sir John Orde. Long before the closing years of the nineteenth century, not one of the Western Isles was owned by any of the old, Hebridean families. The MacLeods and the MacKenzies had each lost Lewis in turn. The MacLeods had parted with Harris, the MacDonalds of Clan Ranald with Uist and Benbecula, and the MacNeils with Barra.
Lady Gordon Cathcart, who had inherited from her first husband, John Gordon of Cluny, aforementioned, the estates of Barra and South Uist, together with Eriskay and Benbecula (a total of roughly a hundred thousand acres) died in 1935. She had already sold the Barra estate (excluding Vatersay and the north end of Barra, which had been bought for land settlement purposes by what was then known as the Board of Agriculture for Scotland—now known as the Department of Agriculture) to Robert Lister MacNeil, XLVth Chief of the MacNeils of Barra, who lives in New York. MacNeil owns approximately 8,000 acres of the isle of his forebears.
At Whitsun, 1944, Lady Gordon Cathcart’s trustees sold the residue of her island estates (that is to say, some 92,000 acres) minus the north end of Benbecula (which the Air Ministry had purchased from them in 1942) to Herman Anton Andreae, a London banker, for a sum in the region of £75,000. South Uist, which represents roughly nine-tenths of the area, is essentially a sporting estate. From nothing else but its shootings and fishings could any revenue be derived under existing circumstances. The general poverty of these properties is shown in their comprising the lowest rented estate in the West Highlands and Islands. A total of about 1,200 small-holding tenants, representing a population of between six and seven thousand, on an area of approximately 92,000 acres, has an annual rental value of no more than £4,000, even when the landlord, or the factor acting on his behalf, is able to collect all the rents due. In South Uist, as elsewhere in these parts, many of the crofter-tenants are often years in arrears with their rents. If less were spent on alcohol, few would be in arrears. All of these tenants come under the Small Landholders’ (Scotland) Acts of 1886 and 1931, which give them complete security of tenure, provided they pay the very reasonable rents fixed by the Land Court, and comply with modest requirements as regards good husbandry. However, their husbandry is seldom good. The crofters who husband well are few.
As an example of how little they are asked to pay, a crofter with, let us say, eighty acres (twenty arable and sixty rough pasture) usually pays no more than six pounds annual rental. At the other extreme come the crofters in Eriskay. There the most highly rented holding is but thirty shillings a year. Most of the Eriskay holders, however, pay rents ranging from no more than five shillings to seven-and-six.
Apart from what is known as the South End Shoot (that is to say, the South Uist shootings to the south of Daliburgh, which are let to the proprietor of the Lochboisdale Hotel at the negligible rental of ten pounds a year) and the South Uist fishings situated to the south of the Bornish road (in which, meanwhile, the hotel proprietor, aforesaid, at an annual rental of £114, and Mr. Andreae have coequal rights) and excluding Loch Bharp, at Lochboisdale (the fishing rights of which the hotel proprietor purchased outright) the new owner of these estates does not let the shootings and fishings, but reserves them for his own private enjoyment. A good deal of poaching goes on in his absence, however, as I myself have seen. In the Western Isles, crofters and professional people, alike, have no qualms about other people’s game preserves and fishing rights. But they would very soon squeal if the landlord in any way encroached on their rights! The wholesale introduction into the Islands of the motor-car in recent years has made poaching much easier than it used to be. It enables the owner to reach, in ease and comfort, many a distant loch noted for its brown trout, or a remote spot where a bit of shooting can be done on the sly. He will often pack into his car such of his friends as know precisely where the best sport may be poached. Much of this poaching is done at night, of course, when conditions are favourable. The whisky bottle is usually an indispensable accessory on such unlawful occasions.
See also Behold the Hebrides
Isles, History of the Western (I070454)
BUSH JOHNSTON LINCOLN, Abraham Lincoln's stepmother, was born in Hardin County, Kentucky, on December 13, 1788. She was one of three daughters of Christopher and Hanna Bush. The Bush family consisted of nine children. The male children were William, Samuel, Isaac, Elijah, Christopher and John. The female children were Hannah, Rachel, and Sarah. By the time Sarah was two, the family had moved to the Elizabethtown area and Sarah grew up there. Sarah met young Thomas Lincoln in Elizabethtown, but she married a man named Daniel Johnston on March 13, 1806. The ceremony was performed by Rev. Benjamin Ogden, a Methodist preacher. Little is known about Daniel Johnston other than the fact that he was always in debt. On November 14, 1814, Johnston was appointed as jailer of Hardin County. Living quarters for the jailer and his family were provided in one corner of the stone jail. Sarah cooked for the inmates and kept the jail clean. Most likely this was an unhappy environment for Sarah and the 3 young children the Johnstons had (Elizabeth, Matilda, and John D.).

In the summer of 1816 Daniel Johnston died. Sarah then moved into a cabin owned by Samuel Haycraft. Later she purchased the cabin and was living there with her 3 children when, late in 1819, Thomas Lincoln appeared at her door announcing that he had been a widower for more than a year. Thomas learned that Sarah owed a few debts, and after Thomas paid these, the two were married. The wedding took place on December 2, 1819. This was the second marriage for both Thomas (age 41) and Sarah (age 31).

All of Sarah's belongings were piled into a wagon, and the group headed for Thomas' home in Indiana. Thomas rode on horseback, and Sarah and her 3 children rode in the crowded wagon. When they finally arrived, Abraham and Sarah Lincoln met their new mother and found they would have 3 new playmates.

It seems young Abraham took to his new mother right away. Among her belongings were several books including Webster's Speller and Robinson Crusoe. Sarah provided a refreshing new home life for both Lincoln children. Although Sarah was illiterate herself, she seems to have greatly encouraged Abraham's studious habits. She told William Herndon that "Abe was the best boy I ever saw" and that he "never gave me a cross word or look." Additionally she tried to persuade Thomas Lincoln to look more kindly on Abraham's reading habits. Her influence on Abraham was excellent, and the two grew to love each other.

In appearance Sarah stood straight and tall and had black, curly hair. She was a hard worker who was charitable and kind-hearted. Her strong moral character was noted by those who knew her. The Lincoln family remained in Indiana until 1830 when they moved on to Illinois, finally settling in present day Coles County, Illinois.

When Abraham went off on his own in 1831 he continued to visit his stepmother periodically. When Thomas Lincoln died in 1851, Abraham retained a 40 acre plot of land in his own name "for Mother while she lives." All of Sarah's children were married and each had at least 7 children. By the 1850's Sarah was a grandmother to over 20 children. She remained an energetic person, but she occasionally suffered from rheumatism.

After Abraham was elected President in 1860, he made one last visit to his stepmother before he left for Washington. During this visit Abraham and Sarah rode out to Shiloh Cemetery to visit the grave of Thomas Lincoln. It seems that Sarah had a premonition that this would be the last time she would see her beloved stepson.

Sarah continued to live at the Goosenest Prairie home for her remaining years. She passed away at the age of 80 on April 12, 1869. (Source: "Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln's Date of Death" by Wayne C. Temple in the Fall, 2000, edition of the Lincoln Herald). She is buried with her second husband, Thomas Lincoln, in Shiloh Cemetery located one mile west of the Lincoln Log Cabin State Historic Site between Charleston and Lerna, Illinois.

Some sources of information on Abraham Lincoln's parents include The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia by Mark E. Neely, Jr., In Lincoln's Footsteps by Don Davenport, The Lineage of Lincoln by William E. Barton, The Paternity of Abraham Lincoln by William E. Barton, The Women Lincoln Loved by William E. Barton, Herndon's Life of Lincoln by William H. Herndon and Jesse W. Weik, Lincoln's Boyhood Indiana Years 1816-1830 by Louis A. Warren, and Lincoln's Boyhood by Francis Marion Van Natter. For younger readers there are Nancy Hanks of Wilderness Road: A Story of Abraham Lincoln's Mother by Meridel Le Sueur and Abe Lincoln's Other Mother: The Story of Sarah Bush Lincoln by Bernadine Bailey. Additionally there is Lincoln's Mothers: A Story of Nancy and Sally Lincoln by Dorothy Clarke Wilso

The painting of Nancy Hanks Lincoln (drawn by Lloyd Ostendorf) came from the Summer, 1998, edition of the Lincoln Herald. The photograph of Thomas Lincoln is from the Lincoln Memorial University in Harrogate, Tennessee. The photograph of Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln is from the Illinois State Historical Library.
Johnston, Sarah Bush (I066099)

Empress Matilda
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167) is the title by which Matilda, daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England and his wife Matilda of Scotland (herself daughter of Malcolm III Canmore and St. Margaret of Scotland), is known, in order to differentiate her from the many other Matildas of the period. Matilda is a variant form of the French name "Maud" (or "Maude"); it was used commonly in Latin texts of the time.

When she was seven years old, Matilda was betrothed to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, and was sent to Germany in 1111 to begin her training as his consort. Matilda and Henry were married at Worms on January 7, 1114 in a splendid ceremony. In March 1116 Matilda and Henry visited Rome and Tuscany, and she acted as Regent in his absence. The Imperial couple had no surviving offspring; Hermann of Tournai states that Matilda bore a child that lived only a short while. When Henry died in 1125, he left Matilda a childless widow of twenty-three. Her brother William Adelin had perished several years before in the wreck of the White Ship, leaving Matilda the only legitimate heir to the English throne.

Matilda returned to England, where her father named her his heir, and arranged another marriage for her. In 1127, she was married again, at Le Mans in Anjou, to Geoffrey of Anjou, who was eleven years her junior. He was nicknamed "Plantagenet" from the broom flower (planta genista) which he took as his emblem, hence the name of the line of English kings descended from him. The marriage was not a happy one, and Matilda separated from him and returned to her father. She returned to Geoffrey in 1131, and they were reconciled. They produced three sons, the eldest of whom, Henry, was born on March 5, 1133. The birth of her second son, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes, in 1134 was difficult and Matilda nearly died in childbed. Her father King Henry came to visit and took "great delight" in his grandsons. King Henry and Geoffrey quarreled, and so when her father died on December 1, 1135 in Normandy, Matilda was with Geoffrey in Anjou.

On the death of her father in 1135, Matilda expected to succeed to the throne of England, but her cousin, Stephen of Blois usurped the throne, breaking an oath he had previously made to defend her rights. The civil war which followed was bitter and prolonged, with neither side gaining the ascendancy for long, but it was not until 1139 that Matilda could command the military strength necessary to challenge Stephen within his own realm. Stephen's wife was another Matilda: Matilda, countess of Boulogne. During the war, Matilda's most loyal and capable supporter was her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester.

Matilda's greatest triumph came in April 1141, when her forces defeated and captured King Stephen, who was made a prisoner and effectively deposed. Although she now controlled the kingdom, Matilda never styled herself queen but took the title "Lady of the English". Her advantage lasted only a few months. By November, Stephen was free, and a year later, the tables were turned when Matilda was besieged at Oxford but escaped, supposedly by fleeing across the snow-covered land in a white cape. In 1141 she had escaped Devizes in a similarly clever manner, by disgusing herself as a corpse and being carried out for burial. In 1147, Matilda was finally forced to return to France, following the death of Robert of Gloucester.

All hope was not lost. Matilda's son, Henry (later, Henry II of England), was showing signs of becoming a successful leader. Although the civil war had been decided in Stephen's favour, his reign was troubled. In 1153, the death of his son Eustace, combined with the arrival of a military expedition led by Henry, led him to acknowledge the latter as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford.

She retired to Rouen, in Normandy, during her last years, where she maintained her own court. She intervened in the quarrels between her eldest son Henry and her second son Geoffrey, but peace between the brothers was brief. Geoffrey rebelled against Henry twice before his sudden death in 1158. Relations between Henry and his youngest brother, William, were more cordial, and William was given vast estates in England. Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the Countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Matilda's court at Rouen. William, who was his mother's favorite child, died there in January 1164, reportedly of disappointment and sorrow. She attempted to mediate in the quarrel between her son Henry and Thomas Becket, but was unsuccessful.

Despite her tenure as "Lady of the English", Matilda was never loved by the people of her native land, who found her too foreign and haughty. She spoke three languages: French, German, and Latin. Even though she gave up hope of being crowned Queen in 1141, her name always preceded that of her son Henry, even after he became king. Matilda died at Rouen, and was buried in the cathedral there; her epitaph reads: "Great by birth, greater by marriage, greatest in her offspring. Here lies the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry."

Gervase of Canterbury
Robert of Torigny
Roger of Hoveden
Gesta Stephani
Walter Map
Parsons, John Carmi. Medieval Mothering (New Middle Ages), sub. Marjorie Chibnall, "Empress Matilda and Her Sons"

Historical fiction
The civil war between supporters of Stephen and the supporters of Matilda is the background for the popular "Brother Cadfael" books by Ellis Peters, and the films made from them starring Sir Derek Jacobi as that rare Benedictine.

Another popular series of light historical fiction is that of Jean Plaidy. The third book of her Norman Trilogy, Passionate Enemies tells the story of Stephan and Matilda.

The novel When Christ and His Saints Slept by Sharon Penman tells the story of the civil war.

It is also an important part in the storyline of Ken Follett's most popular novel The Pillars of the Earth.

Retrieved from ""
England, Matilda the Empress Queen of (I002394)
Leslie, John of Parkhill & Cleish (I016207)
Vance Chapman DEHART-199450 was born on 7 Feb 1876 in , Swain, North Carolina. He died on 14 Feb 1970 in Franklin, Macon, North Carolina. Vance married (MRIN:66414) Laura Martha RAMSEY-199451.

Laura Martha RAMSEY-199451 was born on 18 Nov 1883 in , Macon, North Carolina. She died on 16 Aug 1972 in Tellico, Macon, North Carolina. Laura married (MRIN:66414) Vance Chapman DEHART-199450.

They had the following children.
F i Grady May DEHART-199454 was born on 18 Apr 1905 in , Macon, North Carolina. She died on 15 Mar 2004 in , Buncombe, North Cazroli n

F ii Bonnie Emalyne DEHART-199453 was born on 26 Nov 1906 in , Macon, North Carolina. She died on 27 Oct 2002 in Aheville, Buncombe, North Carolina.

F iii Beulah Leona DEHART-199456 was born on 18 Sep 1908 in , Macon, North Carolina. She died on 21 Sep 1999 in Franklin, Macon, North Carolina.

F iv Nannie Pauline DEHART-199452 was born on 4 Jul 1911 in , Macon, North Carolina. She died on 10 Jul 1930 in Tellico, Macon, North Carolina.

M v Creed Forest DEHART-199455 was born on 22 Jan 1914 in , Macon, North Carolina. He died on 4 Oct 1989 in Arden, Buncombe, North Carolin

F vi Pearl Mayberyl DEHART-199449 was born on 20 Apr 1916. She died on 27 Oct 2002.
M vii Samuel William DEHART-199457 was born on 12 May 1918 in Tellico, Macon, North Carolina. He died on 23 Nov 1918 in Tellico, Macon, North Carolina.

F viii Bedell L. DEHART-199458 was born on 1 Apr 1920 in , Macon, North Carolina. She died in 28 Jazn 1979 in , Macon, North Carolin

F ix Laura Maude DEHART-199460 was born on 12 Jan 1922 in , Macon, North Carolina. She died on 30 Dec 2007 in Fletcher, Henderson, North Carolina.

F x Grace Christine DEHART-199461 was born on 23 Jun 1925 in , Macon, North Carolina. She died on 25 Sep 1982 in Ashville, Buncombe, North Carolina.  
Dehart, Vance Chapman (I099033)
IX. THOMAS METCALFE, M.A., Rector of Kirkby Overblow, d. 19 Feb. 1774, bur. at Stokesley ; mar. Anne, dau. of William Smelt, Esq., of Kirkby Fleetham, d. 10 Feb. 1804, æt. eighty-seven. They had issue--
William, of North Allerton, Esq., and Busby Hall, which he had from his cousin Jane, widow of Cholmley Turner, dau. of George Marwood, Esq.; took the name of Marwood, d. s.p. 3 Feb. 1809 ; mar. Mary, dau. of Christopher Goulton, Esq., of Beverley, d. 8, bur. 13 Apr. 1807 at York Minster (reg.).
George (X).
Cornelius, of Manchester and London.
Francis, Rector of Kirkbrid.
Other children.

X. GEORGE METCALFE, M.A., Canon of Chichester, succeeded his brother William in the Busby estates and also took the name of Marwood, d. 1 Dec. 1827, bur. at Stokesley ; mar. 1780 Mary, dau. of Francis Pearson, Esq., of Beverley. They had issue--
George (XI).
Other issue.

XI. GEORGE MARWOOD, M.A., Vicar of Amport, co. Southampton, b. 29 June 1781, d. 9 Jan. 1842, bur. at Stokesley ; mar. 1 Aug. 1804 Mary, dau. of John Quantock, Esq. They had issue--
George (XII).
Other issue.
XII. GEORGE MARWOOD, ESQ., of Busby Hall, b. 31 Dec. 1808 ; mar. Frances Anne, dau. of Rev. Frederick Peel, M.A. They had issue. 
Marwood, George of Busby Hall (I076137)
IV. Sir William St. Clair had a grant of a pension of £40 in anticipation of his services in the Holy Land 1329, being one of the knights chosen to accompany Sir James Douglas to Palestine with the heart of Bruce, but was murdered, as was his brother, by the Saracens in Andalusia, Spain on August 25, 1330. He left issue:
William, shown next.
Margaret, who married first to Thomas Stewart, Earl of Angus who died in 1361 and secondly to Sir John Sinclair of Hermandston.
Thomas (perhaps) who was Bailie of Orkney for the King of Norway and left a son:
John (perhaps) who was a witness in 1367.
Note: According to Florence Van Rensselaer: The Livingston Family in America and Its Scottish Origins: New York, 1949, page 26; Sir William St. Clair was "a Baron of Normandy" who "married a daughter of Richard, Duke of Normandy."
V. William Sinclair of Roslin was a minor when his father died, and succeeded to the pensions of his father and his Uncle John. He had a Charter from King David II of the lands of Morton and Merchamyston in Midlothian, on the resignation of William Bisset on February 10, 1357/58. He had a safe conduct to go to England on May 6, 1358 on his way abroad to Prussia to fight in foreign wars. On September 17, 1358 King David II confirmed to him an annuity granted to his grandfather Sir Henry S. Clai
William married Isabella, second daughter of Malise, 8th Earl of Strathearn, Earl of Orkney and Caithness and his wife Marjorie, a daughter of Hugh, 4th Earl of Ross and Lady Maud Bruce, a sister of Scotland's national hero, King Robert the Bruce. Marjorie was a sister of William, 5th Earl of Ross. William Sinclair left issue:
Henry, shown next.
David, who had a charter under the Great Seal of the lands of Newburgh and Auchdale in Aberdeenshire in exchange for any rights which he had in Orkney and Shetland, derived from his mother, dated April 23, 1391.
Sinclair, William (Sir) (I013683)
'Bellingham1'Index links to: Lead / Letter
Families covered: Bellingham of Bellingham, Bellingham of Bromby, Bellingham of Burnishead (Burneside), Bellingham of Erringham, Bellingham of Lymister (Lynester), Bellingham of Manton, Bellingham of New Timb

BEB1841 (Bellingham of Hilsington) starts with the Sir Robert Bellingham who married Elizabeth Tunstall, identifying him as 10th in descent from ...
Alan de Bellingham (a 'tempore Conquestoris' ie temp William I who r. 1066-1087)
1. ?? de Bellingham
Visitation (Sussex) starts with the following Richard. The dates make it appear that there should be another generation between him and the above Alan but the generations given set the Sir Robert Bellingham who married Elizabeth Tunstall as 10th in descent from Alan.
A. Richard Bellingham (a 1189)
i. Endo Bellingham
a. Roger Bellingham
(1) John Bellingham
(A) Robert 'de Bello Campo' of Bellingham
(i) Robert Bellingham
(a) Richard Bellingham
((1)) Robert Bellingham
((A)) Sir Robert Bellingham (d 12.03.1476) - continued below
In due course we hope to find a reliable source against which to compare the above-shown ancestry for Sir Robert. The Tripod web site referred to below provides 4 genrations before him, showing him as son of Sir Robert son (by Anne Barburne) of Robert son (by Margaret de Burnsheads) of Richard son of William, but that site appears to have been based largely on the IGI which is not known for its reliability regarding early generations.
m. Elizabeth Tunstall (dau of Sir Richard Tunstall of Thurland Castl

Sir Robert Bellingham of Burnishead (d 12.03.1476) - continued above
m. Elizabeth Tunstall (dau of Sir Richard Tunstall of Thurland Castle)  
Bellingham, Robert (Sir) of Burnishead (I086325)
Colepepper, John (Sir) of Wigsell (I036612)

Edmund Dawtrey of Petworth, Sheriff of Sussex (a 1492) - continued abo
m. Isabel Wood (dau of Sir Thomas Wood or Awood, niece of Sir John, Treasurer of England)
1. Sir John Dawtrey of Moor House in Petworth, Sheriff of Sussex (a 1527)
This generation given in Commoners but omitted by the Visitations. His wife's mother is identified as Elizabeth Blount but, as noted on the Shirley page, that is thought to be confusion with her grandmother.
m. Jane Shirley (dau of Sir Ralph Shirley of Wiston)
A. Sir John Dawtrey of Moor House in Petworth, Sheriff of Sussex (a 1547)
m. Christian Moore (dau of Nicholas Moore of Wichford)
i. William Dawtrey of Moor House (in Petworth), Sheriff of Sussex (a 1566)
m. Margaret Roper (dau of William Roper (not Roger or Rogers) of Eltham)
a. William Dawtrey of Moor House (d 16.10.1589)
m. Dorothy Stonely (dau of Richard Stonely or Stanley (of family of Ingerston?) by Anne, dau of John Braunche by Ellen, dau of Francis Hampde
(1) Sir Henry Dawtrey of Moor House, Petworth  
Dawtrey, Edmund of Petworth, Sheriff of Sussex (I086214)
Family Members
Spouses and Children
Jesse T. Adamson 1758–1825 • LDVH-3ZF??
Marriage: 1777 Orange, North Carolina, United States
Mary Wells 1757–1825 • LD3C-F6P??

Childrenof Mary Wells and Jesse T. Adamson (11)
Charity Adamson 1778–1828 • MMS7-P47??
John Adamson 1780–1806 • LR7P-SHN??
Margaret Adamson 1782–1840 • 2WD8-ZVC??
Joseph Adamson 1785–1854 • KL2Q-J5P??
Simon Adamson 1786–1870 • LXQ9-TV6??
William Adamson 1787–1811 • LHSC-S5Q??
Jesse Adamson 1788–Deceased • LYBS-1BC??
Mary Adamson 1791–1840 • KVV9-2FY??
Wells Adamson 1793–1838 • L87C-LZ6??
Elizabeth Adamson 1797–Deceased • LHSH-15M??
Elijah Adamson 1799–1826 • KLF8-BND?? 
Adamson, Jessie T (I548796)
Family Members
Spouses and Children
Zophar Mack 1743–1824 • LR4V-YB7??
Marriage: from 1765 to 1768 East Lyme, New London, Connecticut, British Colonial America
Phebe Miller 1748–1777 • LHKX-TGH??
Chiildren of Phebe Miller and Zophar Mack (3)
Phebe Mack 1766–1847 • LHXJ-VSW??
Clarissa Mack 1767–1847 • LHKX-TPT??
Abijah Mack 1769–1841 • LHKX-TVB??

Parents and Siblings
Captain Nicodemus Miller 1715–1781 • L6JP-LT1??
Marriage: 13 March 1741 Lyme, New London, Connecticut, British Colonial America
Phebe Huntley 1721–1797 • LH6K-LJV??
Children of Phebe Huntley and Captain Nicodemus Miller (9)
Lemuel Miller 1742–1822 • LZPH-MK4??
Samuel Miller 1742–1829 • GWTM-L3C??
Esther Miller 1744–1830 • LH74-Y36??
Pathania (Bethena) Miller 1746–Deceased • GM4X-GT2??
Patience Miller 1746–1829 • G4BM-9K4??
Phebe Miller 1748–1777 • LHKX-TGH??
Bethuel Miller 1751–1821 • LH74-B91??
Eunice Miller 1753–1821 • LH74-BQK??
Ama (Amy) Miller 1755–1829 • KHNP-LP5??

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Miller, Phebe (I713314)
Life Sketch
VIEW BIOGRAPHICAL ITEMS IN A STORY (MEMORIES) FOR THIS RECORD, LLZYQ-6ZG?. ***PLEASE DO NOT DELETE OR MERGE THIS RECORD, it may delete or relocate Memories items or Sources (UNLESS this record is the surviving record - on left during merger). It is hoped that this will be the final surviving record once all mergers have been completed. THANK YOU

Family Members
Spouse and children
Lewis Jones 1635–1696 • LJ2F-CVD??
Marriage: 4 Dec 1660 Wethersfield, Hartford, Connecticut, British Colonial America
Deborah Palmer 1642–1727 • LZYQ-6ZG??

Childrenof Deborah Palmer and Lewis Jones (7)
Hannah Jones 1662–Deceased • MGKZ-V9W??
Margaret Jones 1667–1738 • LHPQ-FQB??
Mary Jones 1670–1739 • LZKL-67N??
Katherine Jones 1671–1738 • LJ2J-SJ5??
Jonathan Jones 1673–1738 • L71C-TGB??
Samuel Jones 1676–1738 • L788-211??
Ephrane Jones 1685–1734 • LB2Y-G7X?? 
Palmer, Deborah (I712708)

Birth • • 1662 Wethersfield, Hartford, Connecticut Colony, British Colonial America
Death • • Deceased Connecticut Colony, British Colonial America

Family Members
Spouse and children
Stephen DeWolf 1650–1702 • LZBG-KXB??
Marriage: about 1689 Lyme, New London, Connecticut, United States
Hannah Jones 1662–Deceased • MGKZ-V9W??

Childrenof Hannah Jones and Stephen DeWolf (7)
Deborah Dewolf 1690–1748 • KN65-2K4??
Hannah DeWolfe 1693–1744 • 2FRL-QL2??
Steven DeWolfe 1694–1723 • LTXF-B2Z??
Benjamin De Wolf 1695–1742 • L87B-NRF??
Lewis DeWolfe 1698–1742 • LTXN-C6N??
Phebe DeWolf 1701–Deceased • LY3R-S79??
Josiah DeWolfe 1702–1802 • L4PF-FYG??

Parents and Siblings
Lewis Jones 1635–1696 • LJ2F-CVD??
Marriage: 4 Dec 1660 Wethersfield, Hartford, Connecticut, British Colonial America
Deborah Palmer 1642–1727 • LZYQ-6ZG??

Childrenof Deborah Palmer and Lewis Jones (7)
Hannah Jones 1662–Deceased • MGKZ-V9W??
Margaret Jones 1667–1738 • LHPQ-FQB??
Mary Jones 1670–1739 • LZKL-67N??
Katherine Jones 1671–1738 • LJ2J-SJ5??
Jonathan Jones 1673–1738 • L71C-TGB??
Samuel Jones 1676–1738 • L788-211??
Ephrane Jones 1685–1734 • LB2Y-G7X?? 
Jones, Hannah (I712696)
Birth: unknown
Death: Oct. 3, 1648

Arrived Springfield 1643, resided there 5 years until he drowned in the Great River in 1648.

Died 1648 Oct 3

Marriage 1644 Oct 3
Abigail Burt
Father Henry Burt

His home-lot was than on which the Chicopee Bank building now stands. This lot was first granted to John Woodcock, and when he left town the improvements were purchased by Ball, as testified to by his widow, who at that time, February 12, 1690, was the widow of Thomas STEBBINS. The title being in dispute between the children of her second marriage and her own the court record states: "Widow Abigail Stebbins, aged about 67 years, testified that her first husband, Francis Ball, bought of John Woodcocke alotments in Springfield and paid 5 pounds for his labor and what he had done."

Francis Ball was drowned in the Connecticut River October 3, 1648, and his widow married Benjamin MUNN, April 12, 1649.

Francis Ball's children were:

c1 Jonathan
b. October, midnight, 6-7, 1645
m. Sarah MILLER
daughter of Thomas Miller

c2 Samuel
b. March 16, 1648
m. Mary GRAVES
daughter of John Graves of Hadley.

Family links:
William Ball (1573 - 1647)
Alice Waltham (1573 - 1622)

Abigail Burt Stebbins (1623 - 1707)*

Jonathan Ball (1645 - 1741)*
Samuel Ball (1648 - 1689)*

Francis Ball (____ - 1648)
William Ball (1615 - 1680)*

*Calculated relationship

Note: Drowned great river

Springfield Cemetery
Hampden County
Massachusetts, USA
Plot: Willow Avenue 2-97

Created by: M Cooley
Record added: Jun 12, 2013
Find A Grave Memorial# 112227666

Francis Ball
Added by: Honoring Our Angels

To my 9th-great-grandfather: Thank you for helping to establish the Ball Family in America.
- Andy Simon
Added: Oct. 3, 2016

- Nancy
Added: Jul. 5, 2016

- Carolee McGill-Barker
Added: Jun. 19, 2016

There are 2 more notes not showing...
Click here to view all notes...

Ball, Francis (I107482)
11. Emme de Brionne b. Brionne, Eure, Normandy, France; d. August 24, 1142, Oakhampton, Devonshire, England
12. Baldwin de Meules, Viscount of Brionne b. circa 1022, Meules, Normandy, France; d. February 1090, Saint-Nicaise, Yvelines, Île-de-France, France
13. Gilbert de Brionne comte d'Eu b. between circa 979 and circa 1000, Kerlouan, Finistere, Bretagne, France; d. July 2, 1040, Anjou, Isere, Rhone-Alpes, France
14. Geoffrey de Brionne, Count of Eu & Brionne b. between 953 and 962, Brionne, Haute-Normandie, France; d. between July 21, 1015 and August 28, 1015, Plouigneau, Bretagne, France
15. Richard I, 'the Fearless', Duke of Normandy b. August 28, 933, Upper Normandy, Fécamp, Seine-Maritime, Normandy, France; d. November 20, 996, Upper Normandy, Fécamp, Seine-Maritime, Normandy, France
16. William "Longsword" b. circa 891, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France; d. circa December 17, 942, Island Picquigny, Somme River, Normandy, France
16. Sprota "de Bretagne," mother of Richard the Fearless b. 911, perhaps, Rennes, Bretagne, now France; d. between May 27, 940 and November 27, 940, Fécamp, Seine-Maritime, Normandy, France
15. Concubine of Normandie d. circa 1033, Fécamp, Seine-Maritime, Upper Normandy, France
14. N.N. b. 958, Capelle-les-Grands, Eure, Upper Normandy, France; d. 1015
13. N.N. 
Dolton, Emma of (I023978)
4. Benedicta Sunesdotter (Folkungaätten) b. circa 1220; d. circa 1261, Östergötland, Sweden
5. Earl Sune Folkesson Folkunga b. 1195, Uppsala, Uppsala County, Uppland, Sweden; d. circa 1247, Sunesborg, Älgaros, Töreboda, Västra Götaland County, Sweden
6. Earl Folke Birgersson (Folkunga) b. 1164, Kimstad, Norrköping, Östergötland County, Sweden; d. July 17, 1210, Gestrilen, Sweden
7. Jarl Birger Bengtsson Brosa Skänkare b. circa 1160, Bjälbo, Östergötland, Sverige (Sweden); d. January 9, 1202, Visingsö, Jönköping County, Småland, Sweden
8. Earl Bengt Folkesson Folkesson Snivel b. 1110, Varnhem, Västra Götaland County, Sweden; d. 1175, Varnhem Monastry, Varnhem, Västra Götaland County, Sweden
9. Folke The Thick, Earl of Östergötland (Folkunga) b. circa 1078, Bjälbo, Östergötland County, Sweden; d. 1140, Mjölby, Bjälbo, Östergötlands län, Sverige (Sweden)
10. Ingevald Folkesson b. circa 1038, Sverige (Sweden); d. after 1078, Sverige (Sweden)

10. Wife of Ingevald Folkesson b. 1035, Sverige (Sweden); d. 1135

9. Princess Ingegerd of Denmark b. circa 1086, Roskilde, Region Zealand, Denmark; d. circa 1150
10. Knud IV "the Holy" Svendson, King of Danmark b. after 1050, Roskilde, Danmark (Denmark); d. July 10, 1086, Skt. Albani Church, Odense, Denmark

10. Adela of Flanders b. circa 1065, Comté de Flandre, France; d. April 1115, Duchi di Puglia e Calabria, Italia (Italy)

8. Sigrid Björnsdotter Lakman b. circa 1132, Bjälbo, Östergötland, Sverige (Sweden); d. 1177, Bjälbo, Östergötland, Sverige (Sweden)
9. Björn Haraldsen Ironside b. 1105, Frederiksberg, Frederiksberg kommune, Region Hovedstaden, Denmark; d. 1134, Denmark
10. Harald Kejsa Eriksen b. circa 1083, Jelling, Vejle Municipality, Region Syddanmark, Denmark; d. 1132, Vejle, Denmark

9. Katarina Ingesdotter b. circa 1100, Götaland, Sverige (Sweden); d. after circa 1135, Danmark (Denmark)
10. Inge the Elder, king of Sweden b. before circa 1060, Götaland, Sweden; d. circa 1110, Ingatorps kungsgård, Ingatorp, Västergötland, Sweden

10. Dronning Helena Torildsdotter av Skövde b. circa 1065, Sweden; d. 1140, Vreta kloster, Berg, Östergötland, Sweden

7. Queen of Sweden Brigida Haraldsdotter Gille of Norway b. Bergen, Hordaland, Norway; d. October 22, 1202, Riseberga kloster, Lekeberg, Närke, Sweden
8. Harald IV Magnusson Gille, king of Norway b. circa 1103, Ireland eler Sudrøyene; d. December 14, 1136, Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
9. Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway b. circa 1073, Østfold, Norway; d. August 24, 1103, near River Quoile, Connaugt, Ulster, Ireland
10. King Olav Haraldsson, III b. circa 1050, Norway; d. September 22, 1093, Håkeby, Tanum, Båhus, Norway (now Sweden)

10. Thora Arnesdotter Låge b. 1055, Gudøy or Blindheim, Sunnmøre, Norway

9. Bethoc Gillesdotter
10. Gille Adominans

8. Tora Guttormsdatter Sudreim b. circa 1100, Opplandene, Norway; d. circa 1165, Folkinsberg, Eidsberg, Ostfold, Norway
9. Guthorm "Greybeard" Graabard Gråskjegg b. circa 1070, Opplandene, Norway

9. NN b. circa 1068, Vestfold, Norway; d. 1120, Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway

6. Ulfhild Sunesdotter b. Uppsala, Sweden
7. Sune Sverkersson Sik b. 1132, Alvastra, Östergötland, Sweden; d. circa 1220, Sweden
8. King of Sweden Sverker the Elder av Sverige b. 1100, Kaga, Östergötland, Sverige (Sweden); d. December 25, 1156, Alvastra, Alebäcks bro, Västra Tollstad, Östergötland
9. King Cornube Kolsson, Östergötland b. circa 1070, Östergötland, Sweden; d. Östergötland, Sweden
10. Kol Kettilsson, King of Östergötland b. circa 1040, Östergötland, Sweden; d. Östergötland, Sweden 
Sunesdotter, Benedicta (Folkungaätten) (I000333)
Nachum ben Achaya, 2nd Exilarch Nachum II
Hebrew: ???? ?? ???? ben Achaya, 2nd Exilarch Nachum II, Arabic: ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????, 2nd Exilarch Nachum II
Also Known As:
"Nachum II", "Nahman", "Nachum", "Nahum", "Nakhum"
Birthdate: circa 120 (50)
Birthplace: Babylon, Persian Empire
Death: circa 170 (42-58) Babylon, Persian Empire

Immediate Family:
Son of Achaya bar Akkub bar Akkub, 1st Exilarch 2nd Dynasty and ???? bat Abba "Abbahu" bar Acha
Husband of Hobah bat Rab
Father of Da'ud ben Nachum; Nathan ben Nachum, 7th Exilarch 'Mar Ukba I'; Ya'akob ben Nachum, 6th Exilarch; Khamma ben Nachum II, 5th Exilarch Huna I and ???? ?? ????
Brother of Yohanan bar Achaya, 3rd Exilarch Yohanan II and Natan bar Achaya, Nasi & rival to Simon bar Gamaliel
Exilarch (Rosh Golah of Judah), ???? ???? ????

Managed by:
Private User
Last Updated:
March 31, 2017  
Babylon, Nakhum II 2nd Exilarch of (I112358)
Hugh Aghton did not die seised of any manors, lands, &c., in demesne or in service in the said county, because they say that the said Hugh by charter dated December 30th, 8 Henry VIII., granted to Hugh, bishop of Sodor, and Hugh Mathew, clerk, all his manors, messuages, lands, &c., &c., in Northmeles, Barton near Halsall, Thistilton, Whiston, and Much Hoole, for certain sums of money in hand paid to the said Hugh Aghton by Thomas Heskethe, esquire : to hold to them and their heirs for ever, to the intent that they should be thereof seised to the use of the said Thomas Hesketh during the life of the said Thomas ; after his decease to the use of the said Hugh Aghton for his life; after his decease to the use of Richard Aghton, son of said Hugh and next of kin of the said Thomas Hesketh, and of the heirs of the said Richard ; for default, to the use of William Aghton, brother of the said Richard and his heirs, for the fulfilment of certain articles contained in certain indentures made between the said Hugh Aghton and Thomas Hesketh, and dated December 30th, 8 Henry VIII. The manor of Northmeles is held of the King as of his Duchy of Lancaster by knight's service, to wit, by the twelfth part of a knight's fee, and is worth per annum, clear, 20/i. The premises in Barton are held of the King as of his said Duchy, to wit, by the service of the twelfth part of a knight's fee, and are worth per annum, clear, eight marks. The lands, &c., in Thistilton are held of the Abbot of Cokersand by fealty and the service of two shillings yearly, and are worth per annum, clear, 4li. The premises in Whiston are held of Richard Bolde, knight, in socage, and are worth per annum, clear, seventeen shillings. The premises in Great Hole are held of Peter Legh, knight, and Andrew Barton in socage, and are worth per annum, clear, ten shillings. Hugh Aghton died on Tuesday next before the feast of St. Lucy the Virgin last past (December 11th, 1520); Richard Aghton is his son and next heir, and is now aged twenty-eight years and more.

Soon after succeeding to the family estates Richard, by the description of “Richard de Aghton, esquire, son and heir of Hugh de Aghton of Northmeles,” and his trustees, viz. his uncle Hugh Hesketh, bishop of Sodor and Man, and Hugh Mathew, archdeacon of the same, by deeds dated September 12th, 14 Henry VIII. (1522) reconveyed to Edward Molyneux, clerk, and Thomas Aghton, son of the said Richard Aghton, all his lands in Northmeles and elsewhere to hold to the use of Richard, the father, for life and after his decease to remain to John Aghton, his son and heir, and to the heirs of his body lawfully begotten.” Three years later a second deed was executed to which Richard Aghton's cousins, being heirs of Bishop Hesketh, were parties, which conveyed the Aghton estates to Richard in fee simple.” 
Aughton, Richard (Sir) (I105658)
Humphrey Sturt1

M, #4449, b. before 1703
Last Edited=5 Jul 2003

Humphrey Sturt was born before 1703. He married Diana Napier, daughter of Sir Nathaniel Napier, 3rd Bt. and Hon. Catherine Alington, in 1717/18.1,2
He lived at Horton, Wimbourne, Dorset, England.1

Child of Humphrey Sturt and Diana Napier
1.unknown Sturt+1

1.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 109. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
2.[S21] L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 3. Hereinafter cited as The New Extinct Peerage.

unknown Sturt1 
Sturt, Humphrey of Horton (I085576)
Icelandic Sagas Vol. 3
Includes the Orkneyinger Saga, otherwise known as the Jarla Saga, which also includes some of the history of the Scottish isles. Also included is a fragment from the lost Inga Saga.
© 2004-2005 Northvegr Foundation.
Transcribed by Aaron Myer

Northvegr Foundation
Northern European Studies Texts

Title Page

And other historical documents relating to the
settlements and descents of the Northmen on


With appendices, and etc.

Translated by
Sir G. W. Dasent, D.C.L.
Published by authority of the lords commissioners of her majesty's
treasury, under the direction of the master of the rolls.
Printed for her Majesty's stationery office.
by eyre and spottiswoode, printers to the queen's most excellent majesty.
and to be purchased, either directly or through any bookseller, from
Eyre and Spottiswoode, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, E.C; or
John Menzies, & Co., 12, Hanover Street, Edinburgh, and
90, West Nile Street, Glasgow; or
Hodges, Figgis, & Co., Limited, 104 Grafton Street, Dublin.

101. It happened on the tenth day of Yule that Sweyn sat in Gairsay and drank with his house-carles; he began to speak and rubbed his nose: “It is my meaning that now earl Harold is on his voyage to the isles.” His house-carles say that that were unlikely for the storms' sake that then lay over them. He said he knew that they would think so. “And now,” says he, “I will not send the earl news of this for my foreboding all alone, but I doubt though that there is worse counsel in that.” So that talk fell to the ground, and they drank on as before. Earl Harold began his voyage out to the Orkneys at Yule. He had four ships and one hundred men; he lay two nights off Grimsay. They landed at Hamnavoe in Hrossey; thence they went the thirteenth day of Yule to Firth. They were in Orkahow while a snow-storm drove over them, and there two men of their band lost their wits and that was a great hindrance to their journey. It was in the night that they came to Firth; it happened then that earl Erlend had gone on board his ship, but he had drunk that day up at the house. Earl Harold and his men slew two men there, and the name of one of them was Kettle; (1) but they took prisoners four men: Arnfinn Anakol's brother, Ljot was the name of the second, and two others. Earl Harold fared back to Thurso, and Thorbjorn clerk and his men. But those brothers Benedict and Eric fared to Lambaburg, and had Arnfinn along with them. At once that very night, as soon as earl Erlend was ware of the strife, then he sent men to Gairsay to tell Sweyn, and he [Sweyn] made them run down to his ships to the sea the day after, and fared to find earl Erlend, as he had sent word, and they were then on shipboard most of the winter. Benedict and his brother sent that message, that Arnfinn would only be set loose on those terms, if earl Erlend and his men would let them have that ship which they had taken off Kjarrekstead. The earl was rather eager that the ship should be given up; but Anakol set his face against it, and said that Arnfinn should get away not a whit the less that winter, though that were not granted. It was on the midweekday (Wednesday) next before the Fast that they Anakol and Thorstein Ragna's son, fared over to the Ness with twenty men in a cutter, and came off the coast in the night. They drew the cutter into a hidden cove under a certain burg. (2) They go up on shore, and hide themselves in thickets a short way from the house in Thraswick, but they dressed up the ship so, that it looked just as if men lay in every seat. Men had come to the ship in the morning, and had no doubt as to what she was. Anakol and his men saw men row in a ship away from the burg and land at the oyce. (3) Then they saw a man too ride out from the burg, and another walking, and knew it was Eric. Then Anakol and his men parted their force, and ten of them went to the sea, down the river, and watched that no one should come to the ship, but the other ten went to the house. Eric came to the homestead a little before them, and went up to the hall, there he heard the sound of armed men, and then ran into the hall, and out at the other door, and wanted to go to the ship, but there the men were in his way, and he got taken captive there, and was carried out into the isles to earl Erlend. Then men were sent to earl Harold, and it was told him that Eric would not be set free till Arnfinn and his companions came safe and sound to earl Erlend, and that was done as he was told. Next spring earl Harold busked him from Caithness, and fared north to Shetland; he meant to take the life of Erlend the young, for he had asked the hand of Margaret the earl's mother, but she had refused. After that he got himself a train of followers, and took her away from the Orkneys, and bore her north to Shetland, and sat himself down in Moussaburg; there he had laid in great stores. But when earl Harold came to Shetland, he sat down round the burg and forbade all supplies, but it is an unhandy place to get at by storm. Then men came up and tried to bring about an atonement between them. Erlend asked that the earl should give him the woman in marriage, but offered himself to strengthen the earl's hands, and said that it was worth more to him to get back his realm, but said too that the likeliest way to do that was to make himself as many friends as he could. That prayer many backed with Erlend, and this was the end of the matter, that they were set at one, and Erlend got Margaret, and after that made ready to follow the earl, and they fared that summer east to Norway. And when that was heard in the Orkneys, then earl Erlend and his men laid their plans, and Sweyn was eager that they should fare a sea-roving, and so get money. And so they did, and fared south to Broadfirth, and harried off the east of Scotland. They fared south to Berwick. (4)

Canute the wealthy was the name of a man, he was a chapman, and sat very often in Berwick. Sweyn and his companions took a ship large and good, which Canute owned, and much goods aboard her; there too his wife was on board. After that they fared south under Blyholm. Canute was then in Berwick when he heard of the robbery; he made a bargain with the men of Berwick for a hundred marks of silver, that they go out to get back the goods. They were most of them chapmen who went out to look for the goods. They fared in fourteen ships to look for them. Now when Erlend and Sweyn lay under Blyholm, Sweyn spoke to them, and told them that men should lie with no awning over their ships; said he had got it into his head that the men of Berwick would come in a great company to look them up at night. But there was a sharp wind on, and men gave no heed to what he said, and all men lay under their awnings, save that on Sweyn's ship there was no awning aft of the mast. Sweyn sat up on the poop in a hairy cloak on a chest and said he was so boun to spend the night. Einar skew was the name of a man on board Sweyn's ship; he spoke and said that far too many stories had been told of Sweyn's bravery; “he is called a better man than other men, but now he dares not throw an awning over his ship.” Sweyn made as though he heard not. There were watchmen upon the holm; Sweyn heard how they could not agree as to what they saw. He went up to them and asked about what they strove. They said they could not tell what they saw. Sweyn was the sharpest-sighted of all men, and when he looked steadfastly at the spot, he saw that there were fourteen ships coming on them from the north all together. He went on board his ship and bade the watchmen go on board the ships and tell what had happened. Sweyn bade his men wake up and throw off their awnings. After that a great cry arose, and most men shouted out to Sweyn, and asked what counsel should be taken; he bade men be still, but said his counsel was to lay their ships between the holm and the land, “and try if they will so sail round away from us; but if that may not be, then let us row against them as hard as we can.” But other counsellors spoke against that, and said the only plan was to sail away, and so it was done. Then Sweyn spoke: “If ye will sail away, then beat out to sea.” Sweyn was last boun. Anakol waited for him. But when Sweyn's ship went faster, then he made them slacken sail, and waited for Anakol, and would not that he should be left behind with a single ship. Then Einar skew said, as Sweyn and his men sailed with all sail: “Sweyn,” says he, “is it not so that our ship stands still?” Sweyn says: “I do not think that,” says he, “but I counsel thee that thou speakest no more against my bravery, if thou canst not tell for fear's sake whether the ship walks under thee or not, for this is the fastest of all ships under sail.” The men of Berwick sailed south away from them, but Sweyn and his fleet then turned in under the mainland. And when they came under the Isle of May, then Sweyn sent men to Edinburgh to tell the Scot-king of the spoil they had taken, but ere they came to the burg, twelve men rode to meet them, and they had bags full of silver at their cruppers. And when they met, the Scottish men asked after Sweyn Asleif's son; they said where he was, and asked what they wanted of him. The Scots said that they had been told that Sweyn was taken prisoner, and the Scot-king had sent them to set him free with that money which they carried with them. Sweyn's men told them the news in return, and fared to find the Scot-king, and told him their errand. The king spoke lightly of the loss of Canute's money, and sent Sweyn a costly shield and other good gifts more. Earl Erlend and Sweyn fared that autumn to the Orkneys and came back rather late.
That summer earl Harold fared to Norway, as was before told. Then too earl Rognvald came back from abroad from Micklegarth into Norway, and Erling wry-neck with him, as was before written. And earl Rognvald came into the Orkneys a little before Yule.

102. Then men at once came between earl Rognvald and earl Erlend, and tried to set them at one. Then men brought forward that understanding which had passed between freemen and earl Erlend, that he should not withhold his share of the isles from earl Rognvald. Then things came to a fixed meeting between those earls in Kirkwall, and at that meeting they made matters up and bound that by oaths. That was two nights before Yule, and the terms of the settlement were that each of them should have half of the isles, and both should guard them against earl Harold or any others if they laid claim to them. Earl Rognvald had then no force of ships before the summer after, when his ships came from the east out of Norway. That winter all stood quiet, but in the spring after the earls laid their plans against earl Harold if he should come from the east, and earl Erlend and Sweyn Asleif's son fared to Shetland, and were to lie in wait for him there if he showed himself. Earl Rognvald fared over to Thurso, for they thought that Harold might make thither when he came from the east, for he had many kinsfolk and friends there. Earl Erlend and Sweyn were in Shetland that summer, and stopped all ships so that no one might go to Norway. Earl Harold fared that summer from the east out of Norway, and had seven ships; he made the Orkneys, but three of his ships were driven into Shetland by stress of weather, and Erlend and Sweyn took them. When earl Harold came into the Orkneys, there he heard those tidings, that earl Rognvald and earl Erlend were atoned, and that each of them was to have half the isles. Then earl Harold thought he saw that as for his choice, nothing was meant for him. Then he took that counsel to fare over to the Ness at once to find earl Rognvald ere earl Erlend and Sweyn came back from Shetland. Earl Erlend and Sweyn were then in Shetland, when they heard that earl Harold was come into the Orkneys with five ships; they held on south at once into the isles with five ships, and got caught in Dynrace, (5) in dangerous tides and a storm of wind, and there they parted company. Then Sweyn bore up for the Fair isle in two ships, and they thought the earl lost. Thence they held on their course south under Sanday, and there earl Erlend lay before them with three ships, and that was a very joyful meeting. Thence they fared to Hrossey, and heard there that earl Harold had fared over to the Ness. But that is to be said of earl Harold's doings, that he came to Thurso and had six ships. Earl Rognvald was then up the country in Sutherland, and sat there at a wedding, at which he gave away his daughter Ingirid to Eric staybrails. News came to him at once that earl Harold was come into Thurso. Earl Rognvald rode down with a great company from the bridal to Thurso. Eric staybrails was Harold's kinsman, and he did all he could to set them at one again, and many others backed that with him, and said that it was as clear as day to them that they ought not to let themselves be parted for the sake of that kinship and those foster-ties and that fellowship which had been between them. So it came about that a meeting was brought to pass between them and peace given, and they were to meet in a castle at Thurso, and they two talk alone, but each of them was to have as many men as the other hard by the castle. They talked long, and things went well with them. They had not met before since earl Rognvald came into the land. And when the day was far spent, earl Rognvald was told that earl Harold's people were flocking thither with arms. Earl Harold said that no harm would come of that. Next after that they heard great blows struck outside, and then they ran out. There was come Thorbjorn clerk with a great train of men, and he began straightway to wound and maimearl Rognvald's men when they met. The earls called out that they should not fight. Then men ran up out of the town and parted them. There fell thirteen of earl Rognvald's house-carles, but he himself was wounded in the face. After that their friends did their best to set them at one again, and so it came about that they were atoned and bound anew their friendship with oaths. This was four nights before Michaelmas. Then too that counsel was taken that they should fare at once that night out into the Orkneys against earl Erlend and Sweyn. They held on with thirteen ships west on the Pentland firth, and ran across to Rognvaldsey, (6) and made the land in Vidvoe, and there went on shore. Earl Erlend and his men lay on shipboard in Bardswick, and thence they saw a great company in Rognvaldsey, and sent out spies thither, and then they had sure news that the earls had been set at one. It was also told them that they would not let them have the power either of strand-slaughter or any other stores of food, and must so mean then and there to cut off their food in the isles. Then earl Erlend and his men went to talk, and he sought counsel of his men. But they all agreed with one voice that Sweyn should see to it what counsel should be taken. But Sweyn gave utterance to this decision, that they should at once that very night sail over to the Ness, and said that they had no strength to strive with both of them there in the isles. He made that show before the people at large, that they would fare to the Southern isles, and be there that winter. That was Michaelmas eve when they sailed on the firth, but as soon as ever they came to Caithness, they hastened up into the country, and drove down to the shore great droves of cattle to slaughter and slaughtered them, and put them on board their ships. Great storms were on and foul weather, and the firth was always impassable. But as soon as ever there was a fair wind, Sweyn sent men in a boat to the other side from the Ness to say that earl Erland had slaughtered cattle on the shore in Caithness, and that they lay boun to sail to the Southern isles as soon as ever they got a breeze. And when these tidings came to earl Rognvald's ears, he brought them before a meeting of householders, and spoke to his people. He bade his men be wary and keep good watch, and lie every night on board their ships, "for there is not an hour of the day or night that I do not look for Sweyn here in the Orkneys, and so much the rather that he made so many words about how he would fare out of the land."

At the beginning of winter Sweyn and his companions fared out of Thurso, and turned west round the coast of Scotland. They had seven ships, and all well manned and trimmed and big. They began their passage by the help of oars alone. But when they were come on their course away from the Ness, earl Rognvald's spies fared out into the isles, and told him these tidings. The earls then rowed their ships to Scapaneck, and earl Rognvald would that they should lie on board their ships a while. Now when Sweyn and his companions had got about as far west as Staur, Sweyn spoke and said that they would not plague themselves any longer by rowing, and bade them put their ships about and hoist their sails. This plan the men thought rather foolish, but still it was done as Sweyn would. But when they had sailed about, the war-snakes ran swiftly before the wind. (7) And nothing is told of their voyage before they come to Vogland (8) in the Orkneys. There they heard that the earls lay at Scapa-neck with fourteen ships off Knarstead. There was then Erlend the young and Eric staybrails, and many other noble men.

103. Thorbjorn clerk had gone east to Paplay at Firth to the house of Hacon churl, his father-in-law. Thorbjorn then had his daughter Ingigerd to wife. It was four nights before Simon's mass that Sweyn uttered that decision, that he would row up and make an onslaught on the earls at night. But that seemed rather foolhardy considering the difference of force which there was. Still Sweyn would have his way, and so it was, for the earl too was rather eager for it.

At even a storm of soft melting sleet set in; then earl Rognvald went away from his ship and meant to go to Ofir to his house; he knew no cause for fear; he was with six men. They came to Knarstead in the sleet storm. There dwelt Botolf bungle, a man from Iceland and a good skald. He asked earl Rognvald to be there with him the night over, and tried to talk him over with many words. They went in, and their clothes were pulled off them; they lay down to sleep, but Botolf was to keep watch. That self same night earl Erlend and his men pulled up against earl Harold and his men, and came upon them unawares, so that they knew nothing of their coming before they heard the warcry. Then they ran to their arms, and defended themselves like men. There was great slaughter, and the onslaught ended so that earl Harold fled away up on shore, when only five men were left upstanding on board the ship. There fell Bjarni Erlend the young's brother, a man of rank and worth, and a hundred men with him, but a whole crowd were wounded. All men ran from their ships and fled up on the land. Few fell of earl Erlend's men, but the earl took there fourteen ships that the earls owned, and all the goods that were on board them. When the most of the work was done, they heard that earl Rognvald had gone away from his ship that evening, and first up to Knarstead, and thither they fared. Botolf the master was outside before the door when they came there, and he gave them a hearty greeting. They asked whether earl Rognvald were there by chance. Botolf said he had been there that night. But they behaved wildly, and asked where he then was, and said he must know. Botolf stretched out his hand up and round about the yard, and sang a song:

"After fowls the chieftain fares;
Soldiers shoot their weapons well;
Yonder heath-hen 'neath the hill
May have hope of blow on neck;
There the cross-bow crushes heath-poults
Wondrously when warriors meet,
Warrior stems that wound the snake; (9)
The king defends his land with sword."

The earl's men ran headlong out of the "town," (10) and he thought he had the best of it who ran fastest and first got power over the earl. But Botolf went indoors and woke up the earl, and tells him those tidings that had happened in the night, and also what the earl's men were after. Then they jumped up and clothed themselves, and fared away at once, and to Orfir to the earl's house, and when they came there, earl Harold was there before them in hiding. Then they fared at once over to the Ness each in his boat, the one with three men and the other with four men. All their men fared over to the Ness as they got passages. Earl Erlend and Sweyn took all the earl's ships and very much goods. Sweyn Asleif's son made them hand over to him as his share all earl Rognvald's treasures that were taken on board his ship, and he sent them to earl Rognvald over to the Ness. Sweyn was very eager that earl Erlend and his men should station their ships out in Vogaland, and that they should lie in that part of the Firth (11) where they could see any sailing of ships as soon as ever they put out from the Ness. He thought it good thence to lie in wait for attacks, if there were any chance of a passage. But earl Erlend made up his mind, for the sake of the egging on of his levies, that they should fare north to Damsay, and there they drank by day in a great hall, but lashed their ships together every evening, and slept in them by night. And so it went up to the Yule fast. It was five nights before Yule, that Sweyn Asleif son fared east to Sandwick to Sigrid his kinswoman; he was to make up a quarrel between her and her neighbour, whose name was Bjorn. But ere he fared away, he spoke to earl Erlend that he should sleep on shipboard by night, and be then not less wary though he [Sweyn] were not with him. Sweyn was one night at the house of his kinswoman Sigrid.

1. Fl. adds, “but the other is not named.” [Back]
2. Fl. reads, “some rocks.” [Back]
3. i.e., River's mouth. Oyce is the modern Orkney word for this. [Back]
4. This Berwick appears from the context not to be Berwick-upon-Tweed, but North Berwick, at the mouth of the Firth of Forth. [Back]
5. Dynrace] Sumburg Roost. [Back]
6. South Ronaldshay. [Back]
7. Fl. reads, "the war-snakes began to walk swiftly for there was a good breeze." [Back]
8. Vogland] Walls in Hoy in the Orkneys. [Back]
9. A periphrase for "men." [Back]
10. i.e. "homefield." [Back]
11. i.e. the Pentland Firth. [Back]

104. Gisl was the name of a man; he was Sweyn's tenant and dear friend. He made a prayer to Sweyn that he should come as a guest to his house, and see how matters stood with him. He had made them brew liquor, and wated to tap it for Sweyn and his men. When they came at even to Gil's (12) house, it was told them that earl Erlend had not gone to the ships the evening before. As soon as ever Sweyn heard this, he sent Margad Grim's son and two other men to the earl, and bade him take heed to his counsel, though he had not done so the night before; "but," says he, "methinks it is to be dreaded that I shall need to take counsel for this earl but a short while longer." Margad and his companions fared to find earl Erlend, and told him Sweyn's words. The earl's men said he [Sweyn] had wondrous ways; they said that one while he thought nothing too dangerous, but sometimes he was so afraid that he scarce knew how to keep himself or others safe. They said that they would sleep in peace on land, and not fare to the ships. The earl said it should be so as Sweyn had laid it down; and the end of it was, that the earl went on board his own ship with four-and-twenty men, but all the others lay up at the house. Margad and those who were on board Sweyn's ship lay in another bay a short way off thence.

This very same night earl Rognvald and earl Harold came unawares upon earl Erlend, so that those watchmen who watched on the isle and on the ship were none of them aware of it before they boarded the ship. Orm was the name of a man, and Ufi was another; they were in the forehold on board earl Erlend's ship. Ufi jumped up, and would wake the earl, and could not get him awakened, so dead drunk was he. Ufi caught up the earl in his arms, and leapt overboard with him, and into the after boat which floated by the ship's side; but Orm leapt over on the other side, and he got safe to land. But the earl lost his life, and most of the other men who were in the ships. (13) The men on board Sweyn's ship wakened at the war cry, and cut the cable asunder, and pulled out off the ness, but the full moon gave a strong light, and then they saw that the earls were pulling away. Then they thought they could tell that they must have settled their business with earl Erlend. Sweyn's house carles then rowed away, and fared first to Rendale, but sent a man to Sweyn to tell him such things as they had then seen and heard. Earl Harold was for giving peace to earl Erlend's men, but earl Rognvald would wait first to see whether his body were found, or whether he had got away. Earl Erlend's body was found two nights before Yule; the shaft of a spear was seen standing up out of the seaweed, and when they got to it, that spear stood right through him. His body was borne to the church, but then peace was given to the earl's men, and so too to four of Sweyn's house carles who were taken. John was the name of a man who was called wing; he was a sister's son of John wing, of whom it was spoken before, he had been with Hacon churl, and had got his sister with child, and then ran away a sea roving with Anakol, but now he was with earl Erlend, and yet he had not been at the battle. Earl Erlend's men made their way to Kirkwall, and took shelter in Magnus' church. The earls also fared thither, and then a meeting for a settlement was fixed in the church. Then John could not get an atonement with the earls before he had given his word to keep his wedding with the woman. There all men took oaths to the earls, and they settled that matter rather easily. John wing bound himself over into earl Harold's hand, and became his steward.

105. When Sweyn Asleif's son heard of the fall of earl Erlend, he fared to Rendale, and met his house carles there. (14) They were able to tell him plainly of the tidings that had happened in Damsay. After that Sweyn and his men fared to Rowsay, and came there at the flood-tide; they took all the tackling out of the ship, and laid her up; they shared the men about among the houses, and kept spies out between them and the earls and others of the great men to know what each were doing. Sweyn Asleif's son went there up on the fell, and five men with him, and so down the other side to the sea shore, and stole right up to a homestead thereabouts in the darkness. They heard a great chattering inside. There were that father and son, Thorfinn and Ogmund, and Erlend their brother in law. Erlend, he was boasting about that to that father and son, that he had given earl Erlend his death blow, but they all thought they had fought very well. And when Sweyn heard that, he springs inside into the house at them, and his companions after him. Sweyn was quickest, and he smote Erlend at once his death blow; but they took Thorfinn prisoner, and had him off along with them, but Ogmund was slightly wounded. Sweyn and his men fared to Thingwall; there dwelt then Helgi Sweyn's father's brother, and they were there at the beginning of Yule in hiding. Earl Rognvald fared to Damsay at Yule, but earl Harold stayed behind at Kirkwall. Earl Rognvald sent men to Thingwall to Helgi, and bade him tell his kinsman Sweyn if he knew anything as to where he was, that the earl wanted to bid him to stay with him at Yule, and said he was willing to have a hand in setting him and earl Harold at one again. And when these words came to Sweyn, he fared to meet earl Rognvald with five men, and was with him the latter part of Yule. (15) But after Yule a meeting to make friends was fixed between Sweyn and the earls; there all those quarrels were to be put an end to which had not been already made up. And when they met, earl Rognvald did his best to make Sweyn and earl Harold friends, but most men there were very hard in their counsel against him, who were not already either kinsfolk or friends of Sweyn; but those men said that trouble would always arise from Sweyn if he were not made away with out of the isles. But that settlement was made, that Sweyn should pay a mark of gold to each of the earls, and lose half his lands and his good longship. Sweyn answers when he hears the award: "This atonement will be best kept if I am not treated with dishonour." Earl Rognvald would not take the fine from Sweyn. He says he will in no wise disgrace him, he says, too, he thinks there is much more gain to be got from his friendship than from his goods. Earl Harold fared after the atonement to Gairsay to Sweyn's house, and dealt there rather wastefully with his corn and other gear that he had. But when Sweyn heard that he brought it before earl Rognvald, and called it a breach of the atonement, and said he would fare home and see after his stores. Earl Rognvald said; "Be with me, Sweyn and I will send word to the earl, and again bring him to speak about your affairs; but I will not that thou shouldst think to strive against earl Harold, for he will be too much of a man for thee in strife, though thou art a mighty man in thyself, and a bold brisk man." But Sweyn would not let himself be hindered, and fared with nine men in a cutter to Gairsay, and came there late at even. They saw fire in the bake house; (16) Sweyn fared thither to it. He wished that they should take the fire and lay it to the hall, and burn the homestead and the earl inside it. Sweyn Blakari's son was the name of a man; he was the man of most weight of all those that were there with Sweyn; he set his face most against this, and said might be the earl were not in the house. But even though he were there, he says that they would not let his wife or his daughters come out; but says that it would never do to burn them inside the house. Then Sweyn and his men went to the doorway, and so in towards the hall door; then those men sprang up who were in the hall, and shut to the door. Then Sweyn and his men became aware that the earl was not in the homestead. But those who were inside gave up their defence, and handed over their weapons to Sweyn and his men, and came out all unarmed, and Sweyn gave peace to all the earl's house carles. Sweyn broached all his drink, and had away with him his wife and daughters. He asked Ingirid his wife where Harold was, but she would not tell him: "Hold thy peace then and point it out to us." She would not do that either. She was the earl's kinswoman. Sweyn gave up some of their arms when they came on shipboard. There was an end of the atonement between Sweyn and the earl when this news was heard. Earl Harold had gone to a little isle to hunt hares. Sweyn held on his course to Hellis isle, (17) that is a craggy isle towards the sea, and there is a great cave in the rock, and the sea came right up into the mouth of the cave at flood-tide. When earl Harold's house carles got their weapons from Sweyn and his men, they fared straightway to find earl Harold, and told him of their dealings with Sweyn. The earl made them launch his ship at once, and egged on his men to row after them, "and let us now bring matters to the sword's point." Then they fell to rowing after them, and each saw the other and knew one another. And when Sweyn sees that the earl and his men were drawing up to them, Sweyn spoke and said: "We must try and seek some plan, for I have no mind to meet him when matters are so hot between us, with the difference in force which there will be; we will take that counsel," says he, "to fare to the cave, and see what turn our matters then take." So Sweyn and his men did. They came to the cave at the flood, laid the ship up there, for the cave sloped up into the rock; then the sea rose and flowed into the mouth of the cave. Earl Harold and his men fared all day about the isle looking for them and found them not; they saw too no sailing of ships from the isle. They wondered much at that; they thought it unlikely that Sweyn should have foundered and sunk. They rowed round and round the isle to look for Sweyn and could not find him, as was likly. Then the most they could make of it was that Sweyn and his men must have borne up for other islands; then they rowed thither to seek them where they thought likeliest. Almost as soon as ever the earl and his men rowed away, the sea fell from the cave's mouth. Sweyn and his men had heard the talk of the earl and his men. Sweyn left his ship behind in the cave, (18) but they took an old ship of burden on the isle, which the monks owned, and held on in her to Sanday. There they went on land, but shoved off the ship of burden and she drove about from strand to strand until she broke up. But Sweyn and his men went up into the isle, and came to that homestead which is called Valaness, there that man dwelt whose name was Bard, Sweyn's kinsman. They called him out by stealth, and Sweyn said that he wished to stay there. Bard said he should do so if he pleased "but I dare not that ye be here save in hiding." They went in and were alone in [a room in] the house, so that only a wall of wattle was between them and other men. There was a secret doorway in the house in which Sweyn was, and stones were loosely piled up in it. That afternoon came John wing earl Harold's steward and seven of them together. Bard gave them a hearty welcome, and fires were made for them, and they roasted themselves at them. John was very wild in his words, and talked about the tidings that had happened in those dealings which the earls had had with Sweyn; he blamed Sweyn much, and said he was a dastardly trucebreaker and true to no man; he had but just now made peace with earl Harold, and yet he would fare forthwith and burn the house over his head: he said too there would never be peace in the land before Sweyn were driven out of the land. The master Bard and John's companions rather spoke up for Sweyn. After that John took to speaking ill of earl Erlend, and said that was no scathe though he had lost his life; he called him such an overbearing man, that no one dared to call his head his own for him. And when Sweyn heard that, then he could not stand it, and snatched up his weapons and ran at the secret doorway, and hurled down the stones out of it. Then there was a great clatter. Sweyn meant to run round to the hall door. John sat in his shirt and linen breeks. And when he heard the noise that Sweyn made he lost no time in lacing up his shoon, but jumped up from the fire, and set off at once away from the house. But it was moonless and pitch dark, and a sharp frost. He came that night to another homestead, and was much frostbitten on his feet, so that some of his toes dropped off. Sweyn gave peace to John's companions for master Bard's words' sake. Sweyn was there that night, but afterwards next morning they fared away thence with a cutter which Bard owned and gave to Sweyn. Then they fared south to Bardswick, and were there at a cave. Sweyn was sometimes during the day at the house and drank there, but slept by his ship at night, and so guarded himself against his foes.

106. It happened one morning early that Sweyn and his men saw a great longship fare from Hrossey to Rognvaldsey, and Sweyn knew at once that it was earl Rognvald's ship, that he was wont to steer himself, and they ran into Rognvaldsey, and thither where Sweyn's cutter lay, and five men went on shore from the earl's ship, but Sweyn and his men were on a height, and pelted the earl's men with stones thence. And when they saw that from the ship, men got out their arms. But when Sweyn and his men saw that they ran down from the height and to the beach, and shoved off the cutter and jumped into her. The longship had run up on shore, so that she was fast. Sweyn stood up in his cutter as they rowed out by the longship, and had a spear in his hand. But when earl Rognvald saw that, then he took a shield and held it before him, but Sweyn did not throw the spear. But when the earl saw that they were about to part, he made them hold up a truce shield, (19) and begged that Sweyn and his men would come to land. But when Sweyn saw that, he bade his men pull to land, and says he would still be best pleased if he could be made friends with earl Rognvald.

12. Thus, by transposition, for "Gisl's." [Back]
13. Fl. "ship." [Back]
14. Fl. reads, "After the fall of earl Erlend, Sweyn Asleif's son fared to Rendale and found there Margad, and his house-carles." [Back]
15. Fl. adds, "in good cheer." [Back]
16. Fl. reads, "they fared to the back of the house, Sweyn wished that they should light a fire." [Back]
17. Hellis isle ] Ellarholm, near Shapinsay. [Back]
18. Because they could not launch her as she was high and dry. [Back]
19. i.e. a white shield as opposed to the red war shield. [Back]

ack to Icelandic Sagas Vol. 3 Index Page

107. After that earl Rognvald and Sweyn went on shore, and they two talked long together, and things went smoothly with them. And as they sat a talking then they saw earl Harold's sailing, as he fared from Caithness and to Vogaland. (20) And when the ship bore away under the island, then Sweyn asked the earl what counsel should be taken now. The earl says that Sweyn should fare over to the Ness then and there. This was in Lent. They fared both at the same time out of Rognvaldsey, the earl he fared to Hrossey, but Sweyn fared west to Stroms, and earl Harold and his men saw the ship, and thought they knew that Sweyn owned her. They put out at once into the firth after them. And when Sweyn and his men saw that the earl and his men held on after them; then they left their ship and hid themselves away. But when earl Harold came to Stroms, they saw Sweyn's ship, and doubted then that the abodes of men must be too near, and for that they would not land from their ship. Amundi was a man's name the son of Hnefi; he was a friend of earl Harold, but a father's brother of Sweyn Asleif's son's step-children; he came between them then, and got it brought about that the same atonement should be held which had been made the winter before. Then a storm of wind sprung up; and each side had to stay there that night; and Amundi stowed away earl Harold and Sweyn both in one bed. In that house many men of each of them took their rest. After this atonement Sweyn fared over to the Ness, but earl Harold over to the Orkneys. Sweyn heard that the earl had said that he called their peace making rather loosely made. Little heed paid Sweyn to that. He fared south into the Dales, and was that Easter with Summerled his friend; but earl Harold fared north to Shetland, and was there very long that spring. Sweyn fared from the south after Easter, and met on the way John wing's two brothers, the name of the one was Peter down-at-heel, (21) but the other's Blane. Sweyn and his men took them captive and stripped them of all their goods, but brought them to land; then a gallows tree was hewn for them. And when all was ready, Sweyn said that they should run away up the country; he said it would be more shame to their brother John that they should live. They were long out in the cold and much frozen when they got to a homestead. Sweyn fared thence to the Southern isles to the Lewes, and stayed there a while. But when John wing heard that Sweyn had taken his brothers captive, but knew not what he had done with them, then he fared to Enhallow, (22) and there seized Olaf Sweyn's son, Kolbein the burly's fosterchild, and fared with him to Westray. Then earl Rognvald and he met at Rapness, and when the earl saw Olaf there, he said: "Why art thou here, Olaf?" He answers: "It is John wing's doing." The earl looked to John, and said: "Why broughtest thou Olaf hither?" He answered: "Sweyn seized my brothers, and I know not that he has not slain them." The earl said: "Carry thou him back as fast as thou canst, and do not dare to do him any harm, whatever has become of thy bretheren; for thou wilt have no peace in the isles, either at Sweyn's or Kolbein's hands, if thou doest aught to him."

108. After Easter in the spring Sweyn began his voyage from the Southern isles, and had sixty men. He held on his course to the Orkneys, and first to Rowsay. There he seized that man whose name was Hacon churl; he had been with earl Harold when earl Erlend fell. Hacon bought himself off with three marks of gold, and so freed himself from Sweyn. There in Rowsay Sweyn and his men found that ship which the earls had awarded that Sweyn should give up, and the bulwarks on both sides had been hewn out of her. That earl Rognvald had made them do, for no one had been willing either to buy or beg the ship from the earls. Sweyn held on then to Hrossey, and found earl Rognvald in Birsay. The earl gave him a hearty welcome, and Sweyn was with him that spring. Earl Rognvald says that was why he had hewn the bulwarks out of the ship, because he did not wish him to do any hasty deed there in the isles when he came back from the Southern isles. Sweyn was there with earl Rognvald and fourteen men besides himself. Earl Harold came from Shetland that spring at Whitsuntide, and as soon as ever he came into the Orkneys, earl Rognvald sent men to him to say that his will was that he and Sweyn should make friends anew. And then the meeting for an atonement was fixed for the Friday in the Holy Week in Magnus' church, and earl Rognvald went with a broad axe to the meeting and Sweyn with him. Then the self same atonement was agreed upon which had been brought about the winter before.

109. Then earl Rognvald gave to earl Harold that ship which Sweyn had owned, but he gave to Sweyn all else that had been awarded from him and came to his share. Earl Rognvald and Sweyn stood by the church door while the sail was being borne out; for it had been laid up in Magnus' church; and Sweyn looked rather cross when they bore out the sail. The Saturday after, when nones were over, earl Harold's men came to see Sweyn Asleif's son, and said that he would that Sweyn should come and talk with him. Sweyn brought that message before earl Rognvald, and he was not very eager that Sweyn should go on this quest; he says he does not know whether he might trust them. But Sweyn went nevertheless, and six of them together. The earl sat in a little room on a cross bench, and Thorbjorn clerk by him. There were few other men with the earl. They greeted the earl worthily; and he took their greeting well. They made room for Sweyn to sit; so they sat a while and drank. After that Thorbjorn went away, and Sweyn and his men said that they then doubted much as to what the earl was about to take in hand. Thorbjorn came back a little after and gave Sweyn a scarlet kirtle and cloak and sword; he said he did not know whether he would call them a gift, for those precious things had been taken from Sweyn the winter before. Sweyn accepted these gifts. Earl Harold gave Sweyn the longship which he had owned, and half his lands and estates. He asked Sweyn to come and be with him, and said their friendship should never fail. Sweyn took this well, and went at once that night, and told earl Rognvald how things had gone with earl Harold and himself. Earl Rognvald showed that he was glad at that, and bade Sweyn take heed that they did not fall out again.

110. Sometime after these three chiefs made up their minds to go a sea roving, Sweyn, Thorbjorn, and Eric. They fared first to the Southern isles. They fared as far west as the Scilly isles, and won there a great victory in Mary Haven (23) on Columba's mass, and got very much war spoil. After that they fared to the Orkneys, and were well agreed.

After the atonement of earl Rognvald and earl Harold and Sweyn Asleif's son, the earls were always both together, and earl Rognvald had the leadership, but they were very good friends. When they came home from Scilly, Thorbjorn clerk fared to earl Harold, and became his chief councillor. Sweyn fared home to Gairsay, and sat there with a great band of men in the winters, and had his war spoil to keep up his household expenses, along with his other stores, which he had there in the isles. He had most leaning to earl Rognvald. Every summer he was out roving. It was said that Thorbjorn clerk made things no better between earl Rognvald and earl Harold. Thorarin cod-nose was the name of one of earl Rognvald's body guard and his friend too; he was always with the earl. Thorkell was the name of one of Thorbjorn clerk's followers and friends. Those Thorarin and Thorkell, quarrelled over their drink in Kirkwall, and Thorkell gave Thorarin a wound, and got away afterwards to Thorbjorn. Thorarin's messmates followed Thorkell up, but he and Thorbjorn defended themselves out of a loft. Then that was told to the earls, and they came to the spot to part them. Thorbjorn would not let earl Rognvald utter an award in this quarrel, and found fault with the hue and cry that had been made to his house. But when Thorarin was whole of his wounds, then he slew Thorkell as he went to church. Thorarin ran into the church, but Thorbjorn and his men ran after him and his followers. Then that was told to earl Rognvald, and he went thither with a great company, and asked whether Thorbjorn meant to break open the church. Thorbjorn said that the church had no right to hold those who were inside it. Earl Rognvald said once for all the church must not be broken into, and Thorbjorn was hustled away from the church by the throng of men. No atonement was made for this. Thorbjorn fared over to the Ness, and was there a while. Then there was much heard of their doings, for Thorbjorn did much mischief both in the ravishing of women and in slaughter of men. Thorbjorn fared by stealth into the Orkneys, in a cutter, with thirty men with him. He rushed in by himself alone in the evening into the tavern where Thorarin was a drinking. Thorbjorn smote him at once his death blow; after that he ran off in the dark far away. For this sake earl Rognvald made Thorbjorn clerk an outlaw over all his realm. Thorbjorn fared over to the Ness, and was with his brother in law Hosvir in hiding; he was called "the strong"; he had to wife Ragnhilda, Thorbjorn's sister; their son was Stephen councillor, Thorbjorn's follower. A little while after Thorbjorn fared to see Malcolm the Scot-king, and was with him in good cheer. With the Scot-king was the man whose name was Gilli-Odran; he was of great kindred and a very unfair man; he fell under the wrath of the Scot-king for the mischief and manslaying which he wrought in his realm. Gilli-Odran ran away into the Orkneys, and the earls took him into their service. Gilli-Odran was in Caithness, and had the earl's stewardship there. Helgi was the name of a man of rank and a householder in Caithness, he was earl Rognvald's friend. He and Gilli-Odran quarrelled about the stewardship, and Gilli-Odran fell upon him and slew him. But after the manslaughter he fared away west to Scotland's firths, and that chief took him in whose name was Summerled the freeman, he had rule in the Dales, in Scotland's firths. Summerled had to wife Ragnhilda daughter of Olaf bitling, (24) the Southern isle king. The mother of Ragnhilda was Ingibjorg, the daughter of earl Hacon Paul's son. These were the children of Summerled and Ragnhilda: Dougal the king, Rognvald, and Angus, that is called the Dale-dwellers' kin. Earl Rognvald summoned to him Sweyn Asleif's son ere he went on his roving cruise. And when they met, earl Rognvald begged him to keep a look out for Gilli-Odran if he had a chance. Sweyn said he could not tell what might be fated to come of it.

20. Vogaland ] Walls in Hoy. [Back]
21. The Translation reads "whining-Peter." [Back]
22. Eyin Helga, i.e., the Holy Island, now Enhallow, between Rowsay and the Mainland. [Back]
23. Port St. Mary. [Back]
24. i.e., the tiny, an allusion probably to his stature. [Back]

111. After that Sweyn fared off on his viking cruise, and had five longships. And when he came west off Scotland's firths, Sweyn heard that Summerled the freeman was gone on board ship, and meant to go a roving; he had seven ships. There Gilli-Odran steered one ship, and he was gone higher up the firths after that force which had not yet come. As soon as ever Sweyn heard of Summerled, he ran in to battle against him, and there was a hard battle. And in that fight fell Summerled the freeman, and much folk with him. There Sweyn became sure that Gilli-Odran had not been there. Then Sweyn fared to look him up, and found him in Murkfirth, and there he slew Gilli-Odran and fifty men with him. After that Sweyn fared a sea roving, and back at autumn, as he was wont. And when he came home he was not long in meeting earl Rognvald, and he showed himself well pleased at those deeds.

112. It was the earl's custom nearly every summer to fare over to Caithness, and there to go up into the woods and wastes to hunt red deer or reindeer. (1) Thorbjorn clerk was with Malcolm the Scot-king, but sometimes he fared down to the Ness, and was with his friends by stealth. He had three friends in Caithness, in whom he placed most trust. One was Hosvir his brother in law; the second Lifolf, who dwelt in Thorsdale; the third was Halvard Dufa's son, who dwelt at Force in Calfdale which goes off from Thorsdale. These were his bosom friends.

113. When earl Rognvald had been earl two and twenty winters since earl Paul was made captive, then the earls fared over to Caithness, when the summer was far spent, after their wont. And when they came to Thurso, then they heard some rumour that Thorbjorn clerk must be up Thorsdale in hiding, and not at all short-handed, and how he must mean an onslaught thence if he got a chance. Then the earls got men together to them, and fared with a band of one hundred, and twenty of them ride, but the others were on foot. They fared in the evening up the dale and turned in as guests somewhere where there was (what the Celts call) "erg," but we call "setr" (a shieling on the hill). That evening, as men sat by the fires, earl Rognvald sneezed very often. Earl Harold spoke and said: "Shrill sneezing kinsman." They fared on up the dale the next morning, and earl Rognvald rode always on in front that day, and that man with him whose name was Asolf; another man who was with him was Jomar his kinsman. Five of them together so ride a head up along Calfdale. (2) And as they fared to the homestead which is called Force, master Halvard was up on a corn-rick, and piled it up, but his house carles bore the sheaves up to him. Earl Harold and his men rode somewhat behind. But when Halvardk knew earl Rognvald, he hailed him by name, and bawled out very loud, and asked him after news, and his voice might have been heard just as well though he were farther off. This was a little way from the sitting room, and the house stood on a high brink; but there was a narrow fenced path to ride along up to the house, and it was very steep. In this homestead was Thorbjorn clerk inside, and sat at drink. The fenced path led up to the house end at the gable, and there was a doorway in the house and another doorway in the gable, and stones heaped up loosely in it. When Thorbjorn and his men heard the words that passed, and how Halvard hailed earl Rognvald and his men, they ran at once to their arms, and broke down the stones out of the secret door, and sprang out at it. Thorbjorn runs round the gable, and to the fence of the path. Just then the earl and his men had come to the door. Then Thorbjorn smote at once at the earl, but Asolf threw his arms in the way, and the stroke toomk off his hand. Afterwards the sword came on the earl's chin, and that was a great wound. Asolf said, when he got the stroke: "Let those follow the earl better who have more gifts to pay him for." He was then eighteen winters old, and was newcome to the earl. Earl Rognvald wanted to jump off his horse's back when he saw Thorbjorn, but his foot got fast in the stirrup. At that moment up came Stephen and thrust at the earl with a spear. Then Thorbjorn gave the earl another wound. But Jomar just then thrust a spear into Thorbjorn's thigh, and the blow passed on into his small entrails. Then Thorbjorn and his men turned to the back of the house, and there they had to run down a great steep brink, and on to a soft moor. Just then up came earl Harold and his men, and their course was so shaped that they came right in the way of Thorbjorn and his men, and then each knew the others. Then the earl's men said, those who knew what was in the wind, that they should turn after Thorbjorn and his men; but earl Harold set his face against it, and says he will wait and hear what earl Rognvald says about this matter: "For Thorbjorn is a very great friend of mine as ye know, for kinship's sake, and many other ties which are between us." But those men who were with earl Rognvald thronged about him dead, (3) and rather a long time passed ere earl Harold and his men heard the tidings. Then they [Thorbjorn and his men] were come on to the moor, and across the quagmire which ran along through the moor. But for the egging on of the earls' companions, earl Harold and his men ran down on the moor, and the two bands met at the quagmire, so that each band was on its own side, and Thorbjorn and his men held the bank of the dike against them. Then those men flocked to him from the homestead who had followed him thither, and all together they made up fifty men. Then they defended themselves manfully, and had a good stronghold to fight from, for the quagmire was both broad and deep, and the moor was soft up to it in front, and the only way they could make an onslaught on them was, that they shot at them with spears. Thorbjorn told his men that they should not shoot any of them back. And when the shots died away, then they began to speak to one another, and Thorbjorn called out to earl Harold and spoke thus: "This I will pray of you, kinsman, that ye give me peace; but I will offer to give over this matter into your power, that ye alone may doom it; and I will then shrink from no one thing that is in my power, that your honour may be then more than it was before. I hope also, kinsman, that thou wilt bear in mind that those strifes have been, in which thou wouldst not have made such a difference between us two, earl Rognvald and me, that thou wouldst have slain me though I had done this deed, I mean when he kept thee most under his elbow, and let thee have no voice in anything any more than his knave; but I gave thee the best gifts, and looked to do thee honour in all that I could. But this deed that I have done in great wickedness, and that lies on me, but the whole realm is fallen into your power. You may also know this, that earl Rognvald meant the same lot for me which I have now given to him; and it is my foreboding, kinsman, though things had turned out so that I were dead, but earl Rognvald were alive, that you would treat him as a man who had done a deed which you must put up with, but me ye now wish to make a dead man." Thorbjorn went on so that many and fair spoken words, and many men backed that with him, and begged for peace for him. So it came that the earl began to listen to what he said when many backed it. Then Magnus the son of Havard Gunni's son, a chieftain of the earls' and their kinsman. He was the man of most birth and worth in the band with earl Harold. He spoke thus: "It is no business of ours to teach you what to do, earl, after these great deeds which we see before us. But I must say how the common fame will run about them, if peace be given to Thorbjorn after this work; and this besides I will say, that when he dares to say to your face nearly at every word that he hath done this his ill deed for thee, or wrought it for thy honour, it will be an everlasting shame and dishonour to thee, and to all the earl's kinsfolk, if he be not avenged. I think that earl Rognvald's friends will hold it for sooth that thou must for a long while have been plotting the earl's death; but now hast brought it about. Or thinkest thou that he will clear thy conscience when he has to throw off the blame from himself, but when no one makes an answer for you, when he now tells you to your face that he has wrought this misdeed for your sake; or how couldest thou better prove the truth of that but by now giving him peace. As for me, my mind is made up, that he shall never have peace from me, if any good men and true will follow me, whether it believe or loath to you." Just in the same way spoke his brothers, Thorstein and Hacon, and Sweyn Hroald's son. Then they turned away from the earl, and went up along the bank of the dike, and tried where they might get across. And when Thorbjorn and his men saw that Magnus and his followers turn away along the dike, then Thorbjorn began to speak and said: "Now they must have split about the counsel to take, the earl will wish to give me peace, but Magnus will speak against it." But while they were speaking about that, Thorbjorn and his men fell away from the dike. Earl Harold and his men stood on the dike bank. And when he saw that nothing would come of the peace giving, he leapt over the quagmire with all his weapons, and it was nine ells across the dike. His companions leapt after him, and no one got to leap clear over, but most of them got hold of the bank and so floundered to land. Thorbjorn's men egged him on that they should turn either against the earl and his men or against Magnus and his men, and let their quarrel be settled, there and then. Then Thorbjorn said: "Methinks the best plan is that each man should choose what he thinks likeliest to stand him in stead, but as for me, I will still look to meeting with earl Harold." Most men set their faces against this, and begged him rather to take to the woods and save himself. Thorbjorn would not take that counsel. So those men his companions dropped off from him, and looked for help for themselves in divers ways. But Thorbjorn and eight men together with him were left behind. And when he sees that earl Harold is come over the dike, he goes to meet him, and fell on his knees before him, and says he brings him his head. Many of the earl's men still begged for peace for Thorbjorn. Then the earl began to speak, and said: "Away and save thyself, Thorbjorn, I have no heart to slay thee, but I will not see thee henceforth." Then they were faring down along Calfdale's river, when these words passed between them. Magnus and his men pressed on hard after them, and when the earl saw that, he spoke: "Save thyself, Thorbjorn; I cannot fight for thee against my men." Then Thorbjorn and his men parted from the earl's company, and went to some empty shielings, which are called Asgrim's "erg"; Magnus and his men followed Thorbjorn and his men up, and forthwith set fire to the house. Thorbjorn and his men defended themselves manfully. And when the house began to fall down over their heads from the fire, Thorbjorn and his men came out, and every weapon was at once brought to bear upon them that could reach them; they were already much worn out by the force of the flames. There all those nine brothers in arms lost their lives. And when they came to look what wounds Thorbjorn had, his entrails had slipt out into that wound which Jomar had given him. Earl Harold went his way down along the dale, but Magnus and his men turned back to Force, and laid out earl Rognvald's body and brought it down to Thurso.

Earl (4) Harold and his men fared with the body away thence out into the Orkneys with a goodly company, and bestowed burial on it in St. Magnus' church in the choir; and there he rested until Bishop Bjarni caused his halidom (relics) to be taken up by the Pope's leave. (5) There on the stone on which earl Rognvald's blood had come when he died, it may still be seen at this very day as fair as though it were new shed blood. Earl Rognvald's death was a great grief, for he was very much beloved there in the isles, and far and wide elsewhere. He had been a very great helper to many men, bountiful of money, gentle, and a steadfast friend; a great man for feats of strength and a good skald. He had a daughter his only child alive, Ingigerd, whom Eric staybrails had to wife. Their children were these: Harald the young, and Magnus mannikin, Rognvald, and Ingibjorg, Elin, and Ragnhilda.

114. After the fall of earl Rognvald, earl Harold took all the isles under his rule, and became the sole chief over them. Earl Harold was a mighty chief, one of the tallest and strongest of men, "dour" and hard-hearted; he had to wife Afreka; (6) their children were these: Henry and Hacon, Helena and Margaret. When Hacon was but a few winters old, Sweyn Asleif's son offered to take him as his foster child, and he was bred up there, and as soon as ever he was so far fit, that he could go about with other men, then Sweyn had him away with him a sea roving every summer, and led him on to the worthiness in everything. It was Sweyn's wont at that time, that he sat through the winter at home in Gairsay, and there he kept always about him eighty men at his beck. He had so great a drinking hall, that there was not another as great in all the Orkneys. Sweyn had in the spring hard work, and made them lay down very much seed, and looked much after it himself. But when that toil was ended, he fared away every spring on a viking voyage, and harried about among the Southern isles and Ireland, and came home after midsummer. That he called spring-viking. Then he was at home until the corn fields were reaped down, and the grain seen to and stored. Then he fared away on a viking voyage, and then he did not come home till the winter was one month spent and that he called his autumn viking.

115. These tidings happened once on a time, that Sweyn Asleif's son fared away on his spring cruise, then Hacon earl Harold's son fared with him; and they had five ships with oars, and all of them large. They harried about among the Southern isles. Then the folk was so scared at him in the Southern isles, that men hid all their goods and chattels in the earth or in piles of rocks. Sweyn sailed as far south as Man, and got ill off for spoil. Thence they sailed out under Ireland and harried there.But when they came about south under Dublin, then two keels sailed there from off the main, which had come from England, and meant to steer for Dublin; they were laden with English cloths, and great store of goods was aboard them. Sweyn and his men pulled up to the keels, and offered them battle. Little came of the defence of the Englishmen before Sweyn gave the word to board. Then the Englishmen were made prisoners. And there they robbed them of every penny which was aboard the keels, save that the Englishmen kept the clothes they stood in and some food, and went on their way afterwards with the keels, but Sweyn and his men fared to the Southern isles, and shared their war spoil. They sailed from the west with great pomp. They did this as a glory for themselves when they lay in harbours, that they threw awnings of English cloth over their ships. But when they sailed into the Orkneys, they sewed the cloth on the fore part of the sails, so that it looked in that wise as though the sails were made altogether of broadcloth. This they called the broadcloth cruise. Sweyn fared home to his house in Gairsay. He had taken from the keels much wine and English mead. Now when Sweyn had been at home a short while, he bade to him earl Harold, and made a worthy feast against his coming. When earl Harold was at the feast, there was much talk amongst them of Sweyn's good cheer. The earl spoke and said: "This I would now, Sweyn, that thou wouldest lay aside thy sea rovings; 'tis good now to drive home with a whole wain. But thou knowest this, that thou hast long maintained thyself and thy men by sea roving, but so it fares with most men who live by unfair means, that they lose their lives in strife, if they do not break themselves from it." Then Sweyn answered, and looked to the earl, and spoke with a smile, and said thus: "Well spoken is this, lord, and friendly spoken, and it will be good to take a bit of good counsel from you; but some men lay that to your door, that ye too are men of little fairness." The earl answered: "I shall have to answer for my share, but a gossiping tongue drives me to say what I do." Sweyn said: "Good, no doubt, drives you to it, lord. And so it shall be, that I will leave off sea roving, for I find that I am growing old, and strength lessens much in hardships and warfare. Now I will go out on my autumn cruise, and I would that it might be with no less glory than the spring cruise was; but after that my warfaring shall be over." The earl answers: "'Tis hard to see, messmate, whether death or lasting luck will come first." After that they dropped talk 
Saga, Chapters 101-117 Orkneyinger's (I070305)
II JOHN Tyndall, son and heir of William and Elizabeth, married Catherine, the widow of Henry de Dene, who held in jointure for her the manor of Deene, Deenethorpe, and Stanion, in Northamptonshire. Clement de Dene, the son and heir of her first marriage, sold in 1375 his reversion of these manors to his stepfather John de(???) (14) who, after the fashion of those days, assumed the armorial bearings of his predecessors in estate; and the Tyndalls of Deene bore for many generations simply the arms of Dene: ‘Argent, a fess dancetté, three crescents gules in chief.’

The acquisition of the states materially increased the consequence of the family, for John Tyndall was Escheator of Northamptonshire in 1377 (15) and High Sheriff of that county in 1391. He was also one of the Knights of the Shire in six Parliaments of Richard II, of which the first met in 1380 and the last in 1393. He probably did not live to be reelected to the next Parliament, for he was dead, and his som John was in full possession of his estates in 1397. (14)

III John TYNDALL, son and heir of John and Catherine, succeeded to Deene on his father’s death by virtue of a fine levied by his father and mother in 1384, whereby they entailed their estates on their son John, probably on the occasion of his marriage. (14) He is said by the Heralds to have married Catherine the daughter of Sir Humphrey Zouche Kt, (11) but neither Catherine nor her father is mentioned in the received pedigrees of Zouche. John Tyndall was elected to Parliament in 1407 as one of the Knights of the Shire of Northamptonshire and died 21st July 1413, leaving two sons, Richard and Tyndall, who were both under age. (16)

Page 251
From Genealogical Memoirs of the Extinct Family of Chester of Chicheley: Their Ancestors and Descendants, Volume 1 . By Robert Edmond Chester Waters (Google eBook)
Title: Genealogical Memoirs of the Extinct Family of Chester of Chicheley: Their Ancestors and Descendants, Volume 1
Author: Robert Edmond Chester Waters
Publisher: Robson & Sons, 1878
Original from: Princeton University
Digitized: May 1, 2009 
Tyndall, John (I081874)
Edward Marwood who is mentioned in the [very RC] In Memoriam Card as dying on 10 May 1914, of Mossley Hill, Liverpool, has SDB 1852 and had no apparent link with the exciseman family. His will 1914: Edward Marwood of 28 Paradise Street and Beech Cottage, Mossley Hill, Liverpool, dd 1914 May 10 [62yrs] at 43 Southside, Clapham, Surrey, to Katherine Maud Marwood widow and Constance Mary Marwood and Dorothy Mary Marwood spinsters.
From research by Alex Marwood
Sent: 21 October 2007 16:12
Subject: Lancashire Marwoods

Looks like this below might be his marriage record, because of this I have named his wife as Anne Walker. His brother, and witness, Frederick Thomas Marwood, marries a Walker five years later, but I can find no Anne, Thomas, nor Frances in the names that we have of that family. (note: Catholics seem to have recorded everything in Latin, even names). The fact that above it refers to "Katherine Maud Marwood widow" is worrying.
Marriage: 10 Jun 1880 Brownedge St Mary, Bamber Bridge, Lancs.
Edwardum Marwood - Blackburn
Annam Walker - Brownedge
Groom's Father: Edwardi Marwood
Bride's Father: Thomae Walker
Witness: Frederico Marwood, of Blackburn; Francesca Walker, of Egremont
Married by: Thomas Walker Miss. Apos.
Register: Marriages 1869 - 1939, Page 38, Entry 150
Source: Original register held at Lancashire Archives
The Roman Catholic Church of Brownedge Saint Mary, Bamber Bridge
in the County of -- Lancashire --
Marriages at Brownedge Saint Mary
in the Parish of Bamber Bridge
Marriages recorded in the Register for 1869 - 1939
Marriages for 1869 - 1904

The family has an ornate silver medal with the inscription:
Notre Dame
Edouard Marwood

Par sa grandeur
Mgr JJ Faiet
Evêque de Bruge (Bishop)
Le 7 Auot 1866

Catholic Encyclopedia > X > Xaverian Brothers
Xaverian Brothers
An institute of laymen, founded under episcopal approbation by Theodore James Ryken, in Belgium, in the year 1839. To obtain the views of American prelates as to the merits of his project to establish a teaching congregation, he came to America (1837), and received approval from seven bishops, who gave him testimonial letters. Returning to Europe, he laid his plan before Mgr Boussens, Bishop of Bruges, who granted his sanction on condition that Ryken should first make a year's novitiate under the Redemptorists at St-Trond. After completing the novitiate Ryken established his congregation at Bruges. From the beginning trials and difficulties threatened the existence of the new institute. Subjects did not come or failed to persevere, and the means of subsistence were to be had only by painful effort. In June 1840, the brotherhood consisted of three members. In the following year the generosity of a banker of Bruges, Dujardin, enabled the community to purchase the property known as "Het Walletje", from the moat that surrounded it, and here the brothers established their mother-house. An unknown benefactor also left a considerable sum of money with the request that it be devoted to helping missionary work. The words of Sallust, "Concordia res parvae crescunt", were adopted by the brothers as their motto. A boys' sodality was opened at Het Walletje, followed shortly by a primary school in the same place; the work of catechizing was taken up at the Church of Notre-Dame, and some attention was given to the training of deaf-mutes. The brothers' first grammar school was opened at Bruges (1844) and in the following year a second school of the same rank was established there. Already the progressive character of the youthful institute was shown by its sending several members to St-Trond Normal School for higher professional training. In 1846 the brothers were called to England, and a school was begun at Bury, Lancashire, but in 1856 the community removed to Manchester. It was at Manchester that the brothers popularized the May devotions, and promoted the wearing of the scapular of Mount Carmel. 
Marwood, Edward (I000360)
Information from Jeanne Hull (E Mail:
14th August 2000
I have found a Catherine Plunkett, d/o Lucas Plunkett and Susannah Brabazon (sic) ?? b. ca 1590 in Dublin, Dublin, Ire. Wife of John Talbot, b. 1622, Malahide, Dublin, Ire. Married 29 Mar 1637. She is mother of my Catherine Talbot, wife of Simon Hadley I.
I have found children of Lucas Plunkett and Susannah:
Christopher Plunkett, b. c 1612, Fingall, Dublin Ire
George Plunkett, b c. 1614
James Plunkett, b. c 1616
Edward Plunkett, b. c 1618
Jane (Joan) Plunkett, b. c. 1620
Elizabeth Plunkett, b. c. 1622
Susanna Plunkett, b. c. 1624
Catherine Plunkett, b. c. 1626--this is my line.

From Jeanne Hull (E Mail:
16th August 2000
I have an ancestor Catherine Talbot, b. 1640, in Westmeath, Ire., m. Simon Hadley, b. 1640, in King's County, Ireland.
I hired a genealogist to find her parents for me and she found in LDS (The Ancient and Medieval Council of the Family History Dept. of the LDS)
"Irish Records" that Catherine's Talbot's parents were Lucas Plunkett s/o Christopher Plunkett and Jenet Dillon, m. Susannah Brabazon d/o Edward Brabazon and Mary Smith.

From Jeanne Hull (E Mail:
31 August 2000
The Plunkett information came from a genealogist that I hired to find the parents of Catherine Talbot, wife of Simon Hadley.
She found Catherine Plunkett (b. ca. 1626, Fingall, Dublin, Ire) m. to John Talbot (b. ca 1622 at Malahide, Dublin, Ire;
Lucas Plunkett, b ca 1580, Fingall, Dublin, Ire;
Christopher, b 1564, Killeen, Meath, Ire;
James, b ca 1539 Fyanstown, Meath, Ire;
John, Lord of Killeen;
Edmund, Lord of Killeen;
Christopher (Sir), Lord of Killeen;
John, b ca 1400, Killeen, Meath, Ire;
Christopher (Sir), b ca 1370, of Rathregan, Meath, Ire;
Richard, b ca 1339, of Rathregan, Meath, Ire;
Richard, b ca 1308, of Rathregan, Meath, Ire;
and lastly, John, b ca 1270, of Bewley, Louth, Ire.
The Irish Talbots split from the English family with Richard, b. ca 1120. His son Richard goes to Malahide, Dublin, Ire. and they live there for the next 15 or so generations including John who m. Catherine Plunkett.
The genealogist found these records on the "Irish Records" and "English Records" at LDS (The Ancient and Medieval Council of the Family History Dept. of the LDS)

Also from Jeanne Hull (E Mail:
31st August 2000
Irish Pedigrees by John O'Hart, v. 1 lists several Plunkett lines. v.2 lists both Talbots and Plunketts holding office, p. 611. The Plunkett descent from Wm. the Conq. is listed on p. 27. P. 834 states that Henry II gave the Kingdom of Meath to De Lacy and his Barons and lists Talbot and Plunkett among them. P. 835 lists that both Talbots and Plunketts were in Meath, Dublin with the Talbots in Malahide and the Plunkets in Louth. Both families received titles over several generations. A census of Ireland, 1659 lists both Plunketts and Talbots."  
Plunkett, Catherine (I010851)
James Lorimer of Kellyfield, factor on the Kinnoull estates, resided at Aberdalgie House, Perthshire, ami was in the Commission of the Peace for that county. In 1801 he was appointed Rothesay Herald by the late Earl of Kinnoull, Lord Lyon King of Arms, and it is worthy of remark that through 'his mother he could count as kinsmen Sir Alexander Durham of Largo, who was appointed Lord Lyon at the Restoration, and William Patullo, a Herald in the reign of David II. Mr. Lorimer married in 1815 his cousin-german, Janet Webster, daughter of Robert Webster, an eminent agriculturist of his day, who rented many farms in the Carse of Gowrie, and Margaret Hunter, of the family of the Hunters of Glencarse and Seaside, co. Perth, and 'sister of James Webster of Balruddery, co. Forfar, and of Major-General Thomas Webster of Balgarvie, co. Fife. She died in 18G6, in her 91st year, and he in his 90th year, 20 Dec. 1808.
Webster, Janet (I119466)
Jan Polyander van der Kerchhove, Heer van Henvliet1,2
M, #129524, b. 24 August 1594, d. 7 March 1660
Last Edited=4 Mar 2013
Jan Polyander van der Kerchhove, Heer van Henvliet was born on 24 August 1594 at Dordrecht, The Netherlands.2 He married Anna van Wesick in 1620 at Amsterdam, The Netherlands.2 He married Catherine Wotton, Countess of Chesterfield, daughter of Thomas Wotton, 2nd Baron Wotton of Marley and Mary Throckmorton, in 1641.1,2 He died on 7 March 1660 at age 65 at Sassenheim.3
He gained the title of Heer van Henvliet, in Zuid-Holland in 1627.1 He held the office of Dutch Ambassador to England, to the court of King Charles I.2

Children of Jan Polyander van der Kerchhove, Heer van Henvliet and Catherine Wotton, Countess of Chesterfield
1.Dorothea Helena van den Kerchhove+4 d. 6 Apr 1673
2.Charles Henry Kirkhoven, 1st and last Earl of Bellomont1 b. 1635, d. 5 Jan 1682/83

1.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 106. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
2.[S6580] R.P.F. Knoop, "re: van der Kerchhove Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger LUNDY (101053), 2 March 2013. Hereinafter cited as "re: van der Kerchhove Family."
3.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 180.
4.[S37] BP2003 volume 1, page 1102. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37] 
den Kerckhove, Jan van Lord of Hernvliet (I016136)
Jennie Gay Dempsey 1879–1926
BIRTH 12 DEC 1879 • Arkansas, USA
DEATH 19 SEP 1926 • Van Buren County, Arkansas, USA
Powell Family Tree -Charles Powell 
Dempsey, Jennie Gay (I027820)
Jim Kinsella ( Ancient Kinsella Lineage
"Information taken from O'Hart's "Irish Pedigrees" and Rev. P.L.O'Toole's "History of the Clan O'Toole" "
The Kinsella Homepage
Jim Kinsella, the son of John Kinsella (who collected the information), son of Daniel Kinsella.

"1. Lughaidh, who is described below. He was the ancestor of the Kings, nobility, and gentry of Leinster. He inherited all the territories on the north side of the river Barrow, from Wicklow to Drogheda."  
Lughaidh (I028083)
Johann Munster
Birthdate: 1594 (66)
Birthplace: Ellerhoop, Germany
Death: July 1660 (66)
Ellerhoop, Germany

Immediate Family:
Son of Johann Munster and Gretge Munster
Husband of Catharina Munster and Catharina Münster
Father of Hinrich Munster; Johann Munster; Marten Munster; Harm Munster; Peter Munster; and Otto Munster « less

Managed by: Diane McKay (Jago)
Last Updated: May 3, 2015  
Münster, Johann (I115613)
Joseph Gurney1,2,3,5,12,14,31,104,113,204,209,249,265 was born on 1 Jun 1757 in Keswick Hall, Keswick, Norfolk, died on 25 Dec 1830 in Lakenham Grove, Norwich,
Norfolk, and was buried in FBG Norwich.
Basic notes:
He worked as a Banker in Norwich, Norfolk. He was Quaker. He lived at Lakenham Grove, Norwich, Norfolk. Joseph was the progenitor of the Lakenham Grove
Gurneys, usually shortened to The Grove, ie: the Gurneys of The Grove. The 1847-1848 Annual Monitor, in its testimony to Joseph John Gurney, says, [His] "....
uncle, the late Joseph Gurney, who was a truly conscientious Friend, was much concerned for [his] religious welfare." He lived at The Grove, Cromer, Norfolk.
Joseph Gurney named this property The Grove, in deference to his Norwich home, Lakenham Grove. It was used as a family holiday retreat but passed into the
hand of the Birkbeck family. His daughter Jane, was married to Henry Birkbeck, whose mother was Martha Gurney.
Joseph married Jane Chapman,5,12,14,31,104,195,204,249 daughter of Abel Chapman and Hannah Gaskin, on 6 Oct 1784 in FMH Scarborough.
Jane was born on 19 Dec 1757 in Whitby, Yorkshire, died on 27 Feb 1841 in Lakenham Grove, Norwich, Norfolk, and was buried page 603 
Gurney, Joseph of Lakenham Grove (I033967)
Lancashire Birth indexes for the years: 1872
Surname Forename(s) Mother's Maiden Name Year Sub-District Registers At Reference Add to Summary
BIRTWISTLE Elizabeth BIRTWISTLE 1872 Preston Preston PRES/201/86
Birtwistle, Elizabeth Alice (I3299980)
Lethuc, re dei Longobardi
Also Known As: "Lathu", "Lehuz", "Lethu", "Lethuk", "Labe", "Leth", "Lethe", "Lethin", "Lethuc"
Birthdate: circa 370 (70)
Birthplace: (Noricum), Austria
Death: circa 440 (62-78)
(Noricum), Austria

Immediate Family:
Son of Lamicho, King of the Lombards and N.N.
Husband of N.N.
Father of Hildeoc, King of the Lombards

Occupation: Roy des Lombards, 3rd King of the Lombards, Roi des Lombards (3e, vers 420-vers 460), Lethuc, King of the Lombards, koning der Longobarden

Managed by: Lorna (Lund) Collins
Last Updated: September 9, 2017

About Lethuc, King of the Lombards
he Lethings (Italian: Letingi) were a dynasty of Lombard kings ruling in the fifth and sixth centuries until 546. They were the first Lombard royal dynasty and the represent the emergence of the Lombard rulership out of obscurity and into history.

The Lethings were elected by an assembly of warriors.
They took their dynastic name from Lethuc, the first known Lombard king. When Lethuc died and was replaced by Aldihoc, the Lombards took a step towards institutional stability. Under the Lethings, too, the Lombards, who had thitherto wandered around northern Europe, migrated south to the Danube and Pannonia. In 510, the reigning Lething, Tato, was displaced by his nephew, Wacho, and thereafter until 546 a cadet branch of the original house ruled. Under the last dynasts, the Lombards became a power in terms of their threat to the Byzantine Empire on par with the Ostrogoths and Franks.

The Lething were displaced when the child ruler Walthari was killed by his regent, Audoin, who then assumed the throne, inaugurating the Gausi dynasty. The Lething lineage did no die out, however, as Waldrada, a daughter of Wacho, had married Garibald I of Bavaria, and fostered a daughter, Theodelinda, who married Authari and became Queen of the Lombards. Her descendents were the Bavarian dynasty, a cadet branch of the Agilolfings, themselves Frankish.

Om Lethuc, King of the Lombards (Norsk)
Lethu, konge av Langobardene, Grunnlegger av det letingiske dynasti.

Lethu (Leti) var konge' over langobardene i første halvdel av det femte århundre. Han etterfulgte kong Lamissio og regnes som grunnlegger av det letingiske dynasti hos langobardene.

Langobardene var et germansk folkeslag som var på vandring sørover og østover i Europa tidlig i folkevandringstiden. De nevnes allerede hos den romerske historikeren Tacitus i hans bok Germania fra 98 e. Kr. og de ble av ham betegnet som dyktige krigere

Kong Lamissio hadde slått hunerne i et slag ved den romerske provinsen Noricum og hadde etablert et langobardisk samfunn i dette området ved dagens Østerrike. Hovedkilden til langobardenes historie, Historia Langobardum av Paulus Diaconus (fra ca 790), er svært sparsom på opplysninger om Lethu. Han skal ha regjert i førti år som langobardenes tredje konge uten store stridigheter Etter hans død ble kongemakten overlatt til hans sønn Hildeoc og han har med dette sannsynligvis innført arverett til kronen. 
Lombards, Lethuc King of the (I113473)
List of emperors of Tibet
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The traditional list of the ancient Tibetan rulers consists of 42 names.[1] The first 26 rulers are considered to belong to the realm of legend, as there is no sufficient evidence of their existence, but modern scholars believe that the kings from no. 27 to no. 32 were historical.[2] The rulers from no. 33 to no. 42 are well-documented in many reliable Tibetan and foreign sources.

A unified Tibetan state did not exist before the times of the kings no. 31, 32, and 33. The earlier rulers, known as the Yarlung dynasty, were probably just local chiefs in the Yarlung valley area, certainly not emperors of Tibet.[3]

In the list the common transliteration is given first, the academic one in brackets.

1^ Haarh, Erik: Extract from "The Yar Lun Dynasty", in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 144.
^2 Haarh, Erik: Extract from "The Yar Lun Dynasty", in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 147; Richardson, Hugh: The Origin of the Tibetan Kingdom, in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 159 (and list of kings p. 166-167).
3^ Kirkland, Russell: The Spirit of the Mountain, in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 183.

Number Name Reign
1 Nyatri Tsenpo (gNya'-khri bTsan-po)
2 Mutri Tsenpo (Mu-khri bTsan-po)
3 Dingtri Tsenpo (Ding-khri bTsan-po)
4 Sotri Tsenpo (So-khri bTsan-po)
5 Mertri Tsenpo (Mer-khri bTsan-po)
6 Dakrri Tsenpo (gDags-khri bTsan-po)
7 Siptri Tsenpo (Sribs-khri bTsan-po)
8 Drigum Tsenpo (Gri-gum bTsan-po)
9 Chatri Tsenpo
10 Esho Lek (E-sho-legs)
11 Desho Lek (De-sho-legs)
12 Tisho Lek (Thi-sho-legs)
13 Guru Lek (Gu-ru-legs)
14 Trongzhi Lek ('Brong-zhi-legs)
15 Isho Lek (I-sho-legs)
16 Zanam Zindé (Za-nam Zin-lde)
17 Detrul Namshungtsen (lDe-'phrul gnam-gzhung-btsan)
18 Senöl Namdé (Se-snol gNam-lde)
19 Senöl Podé (Se-snol Po-lde)
20 Senöl Nam (lDe-snol-nam)
21 Senöl Po (lDe-snol-po)
22 Degyel Po (lDe-rgyal-po)
23 Detrin Tsen (lDe-sprin-btsan)
24 Tori Longtsen (rGyal-to-ri Long-btsan)
25 Tritsen Nam (Su-khri bTsan-nam)
26 Tridra Pungtsen
27 Tritog Jetsen (Khri-rje Thog-btsan)
28 Lha Thothori Nyantsen (lHa-tho-tho-ri gNyan-btsan)
29 Trinyen Zungtsen (Khri-gnyan gZung-btsan)
30 Drongnyen Deu ('Bro-gnyan lDe'u)
31 Tagbu Nyasig (sTag-ri gNyan-gzigs) 579-619
32 Namri Songtsen (gNam-ri Srong-btsan) 601-629
33 Songtsen Gampo (Srong-btsan sGam-po) 617-650
34 Gungri Gungtsen 638-655
35 Mangsong Mangtsen 653-679
36 Düsong Mangpojé 679-704
37 Tridé Tsuktsen 680-743
38 Trisong Detsen 730-785
39 Muné Tsenpo 762-786
40 Mutik Tsenpo 764-817
41 Relpachen 817-838
42 Glang Darma 838-841

From History of Tibet at

1 Prehistory
2 Mythological origins
3 The Tibetan empire
3.1 First appearance in history
3.2 Founding of the dynasty
3.3 The reign of Songtsän Gampo
3.4 The reign of Trimang Löntsän (650-677)
3.5 The reign of Tridu Songtsän (677-704)
3.6 The reign of Tride Tsuktsän (704-754)
3.7 The reign of Trisong Detsän (756-797)
3.8 The reign of Mune Tsänpo (797-799)
3.9 The reign of Tride Songtsän (799-815)
3.10 The reign of Ralpacan (815-838)
3.11 The reign of Langdarma (838-842)

4 Tibet divided
5 The Mongols and the Sakya school (1236-1354)
6 Rise of the Phagmodru (1354-1434)
7 Rise of the Geluk school
8 18th and 19th centuries
9 British intervention and occupation
10 Chinese military expelled
11 In the People's Republic of China
12 Notes
13 Bibliography
14 See also
15 External links

The reign of Trisong Detsän (756-797)
In 756, Prince Song Detsän was crowned Emperor with the name "Trisong Detsen ("Wylie Khri sron lde brtsan) and took control of the government after a one-year interregnum during which there was no emperor. In 755 China had been greatly weakened by internal rebellion, which would last until 763. In contrast, Trisong Detsän's reign was characterized by the reassertion of Tibetan influence in Central Asia and against China. Early in his reign regions to the West of Tibet paid homage to the Tibetan court. From that time onward the Tibetans pressed into the territory of the "Tang Dynasty emperors, reaching the Chinese capital Chang'an (modern "Xian) by 763/764. Tibetan troops occupied Chang'an for fifteen days and installed a puppet emperor while "Emperor Daizong of Tang was in "Luoyang. In the meantime, the "Kyrgyz negotiated an agreement of friendship with Tibet and other powers to allow free trade in the region. An attempt at a peace treaty between Tibet and China was made in 787, but hostilities were to last until the Sino-Tibetan treaty of 821 was inscribed in Lhasa in 823 (see below). At the same time, the "Uyghur people, nominal allies of the Tang emperors, continued to make difficulties along Tibet's Northern border. Toward the end of this king's reign, in fact, Uyghur victories in the North caused the Tibetans to lose a number of their allies in the Southeast.[19]

Recent historical retitle indicates the presence of "Christianity in Tibet in as early as the sixth and seventh centuries, a period when the White Huns had extensive links with the Tibetans.[20] A strong presence existed by the eighth century when Patriarch Timothy I (727-823) in 782 calls the Tibetans one of the more significant communities of the eastern church and wrote of the need to appoint another bishop in ca. 794."

The reign of Mune Tsänpo (797-799) The reign of Mune Tsänpo (797-799)
The reign of "Mune Tsenpo ("Wylie Mu ne btsanpo) is scantily recorded.

The reign of Tride Songtsän (799-815) The reign of Tride Songtsän (799-815)
Under Tride Songtsän (Khri lde srong brtsan) there was a protracted war with Arab powers to the West. Early on it appears that Tibetans captured a number of Arab troops and pressed them into service on the Eastern frontier in 801. Tibetans were active as far West as "Samarkand and "Kabul. Arab forces began to gain the upper hand, and indeed, the Tibetan governor of Kabul submitted to the Arabs and became a "Muslim about 812 or 815. The Arabs then struck East from "Kashmir, but were held off by the Tibetans. In the meantime, the Uyghurs attacked Tibet from the Northeast. Strife between the Uyghurs and Tibetans continued for some time.[22]

The reign of Ralpacan (815-838) The reign of Ralpacan (815-838)
The reign of Ralpacan ("Wylie Khri gtsug lde brtsan) was characterized by conflicts with the Uyghur state to the North. Tibetans attacked Uyghur territory in 816 and were in turn attacked in 821. After a small Tibetan raid into Chinese territory, the Chinese promised to give princesses to both the Uyghur and Tibetan rulers as their consorts. These marriages, plus the Sino-Tibetan treaty completed in 821 (recorded on stone in Lhasa and described below), insured peace for almost two decades.[23]

The reign of Langdarma (838-842) The reign of Langdarma (838-842)
The reign of Langdarma ("Wylie Glang dar ma, whose regal title was in fact Tri Uidumtsaen Khri 'U'i dum brtsan was plagued by external troubles. The "Uyghur state to the North collapsed under pressure from the "Kyrgyz in 840, and many displaced persons fled to Tibet. Langdarma himself was assassinated, apparently by a Buddhist hermit, in 842.[24]"

Tibet divided Tibet divided
Upon the death of Langdarma, there was a controversy over whether he would be succeeded by his alleged postumous heir Yumtän (Wylie: Yum brtan), or by another postumous son (or nephew) Ösung (Wylie: 'Od-srung) (either 843-905 or 847-885). A civil war ensued which effectively ended centralized Tibetan administration until the Sa-skya period. Ösung's allies managed to keep control of Lhasa, but Yumtän was forced to go to Yalung where he established a separate line of kings. [26] In 910 the tombs of the emperors were defiled.

The son of Ösung was Pälkhortsän (Wylie: Dpal 'khor brtsan) (either 893-923 or 865-895). The latter apparently maintained control over much of central Tibet for a time and sired two sons Trashi Tsentsän (Wylie: Bkra shis brtsen brtsan) and Thrikhyiding (Wylie: Khri khyi lding, also called Kyide Nyigön [Wylie: Skyid lde nyi ma mgon] in some sources). Thrikhyiding emigrated to the western Tibetan region of upper Ngari (Wylie: Stod Mnga ris) and married a woman of high central Tibetan nobility, with whom he founded a local dynasty. [27]

After the break-up of the Tibetan empire in 842, Nyima-Gon, a representative of the ancient Tibetan royal house founded the first Ladakh dynasty. Nyima-Gon's kingdom had its centre well to the east of present-day Ladakh. Kyide Nyigön's eldest son became ruler of the Mar-yul ("Ladakh) region, and his two younger sons ruled western Tibet, founding the Kingdom of "Guge and Pu-hrang. At a later period the king of Guge's eldest son Kor-re, also called Jangchub Yeshe Ö (Byang Chub Ye shes' Od), became a Buddhist monk. He sent young scholars to Kashmir for training and was responsible for inviting "Atisha to Tibet in 1040, and thus ushering in the so called Chidar (Phyi dar) phase of Buddhism in Tibet. The younger son, Srong-nge, administered day-to-day governmental affairs; it was his sons who carried on the royal line. [28]

Central rule was largely nonexistent over the Tibetan region from 842 to 1247, yet Buddhism survived surreptitiously in the region of "Kham. Durhing the reign of Langdarma three monks had escaped from the troubled region of Lhasa to the region of Mt. Dantig in "Amdo. Their disciple Muzu Saelbar (Mu-zu gSal-'bar), later known as the scholar Gongpa Rabsal (Dgongs-pa rab-gsal) (832-915), was responsible for the renewal of Buddhism in Northeastern Tibet and is counted as the progenitor of the Nyingma (Rnying ma pa) school of Tibetan Buddhism. Meanwhile, according to tradition, one of Ösung's descendants, who had an estate near Samye sent ten young men to be trained by Gongpa Rabsal. Among the ten was Lume Sherab Tshulthrim (Klu-mes Shes-rab Tshul-khrims) (950-1015). Once trained, the young men were ordained to go back into the central Tibetan regions of U and Tsang. The young scholars were able to link up with Atisha shortly after 1042 and advance the spread and organization of Buddhism in "Lhokha. In that region the faith eventually coalesced again with the foundation of the "Sakya Monastery in 1073.[29] Over the next two centuries Sakya monastery grew to a position of prominence in Tibetan life and culture. The Tsurpu monastery, home of the Karmapa sect of Buddhism, was founded in 1155. 
Tibet, Muri Tsenpo (Mutig Tseypo) 40th King of (I071105)

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